Hawkeye Point is the highest natural point in Iowa at 1,670 feet. It is 4.5 miles north of Sibley on the eastern side of SR 60 and 3.5 miles south of the Iowa-Minnesota state border. The high ground lies 100 feet due south of an old silo; the land that includes the highpoint was donated by the Sterler family, who worked this land for many decades, to Osceola County with the stipulation that the land be turned into a park. Osceola County, through its Economic Development Commission and Hawkeye Point Committee, has removed a few structures that were deemed to be hazardous to public safety including the old hog feed bunker at the highpoint site and a few small barns, they have erected an informational kiosk which highlights the family and the county and features a display of license plates from the 50 states sent in over the years to the Sterlers. The county purchased 6 acres of surrounding land including the old family farm house, being used as office space for the county. There are a flagpole, picnic bench, tile mosaic, several granite markers, five tall posts with signs pointing to the other 49 state highpoints, each with the correct distance noted.
The local 4-H group and high school youths contributed a great deal to this effort. The Hawkeye Point Commission recently purchased a wooded plot of land of about 7 acres on the north side of the county road abutting the property with the intent to turn it into a campground; the Highpointers Foundation, a non-profit charity set up to benefit owned state highpoints, has provided much of the funding for the renovations at Hawkeye Point. Outline of Iowa Index of Iowa-related articles List of U. S. states by elevation "Hawkeye Point". SummitPost.org. Highpointers Foundation
U.S. National Geodetic Survey
"United States Coast Survey" and "United States Coast and Geodetic Survey" redirect here. They are former scientific agencies of the United States government which should not be confused with the United States Coast Guard, a seagoing U. S. government law enforcement and safety agency, the modern Coast Survey, a U. S. government agency that makes nautical charts, or the United States Geological Survey, a U. S. government agency that studies earth science and makes topographical maps. The National Geodetic Survey the United States Survey of the Coast, United States Coast Survey, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication. Since its foundation in its present form in 1970, it has been part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, of the United States Department of Commerce; the National Geodetic Survey's history and heritage are intertwined with those of other NOAA offices.
As the U. S. Coast Survey and U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, the agency operated a fleet of survey ships, from 1917 the Coast and Geodetic Survey was one of the uniformed services of the United States with its own corps of commissioned officers. Upon the creation of the Environmental Science Services Administration in 1965, the commissioned corps was separated from the Survey to become the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps. Upon the creation of NOAA in 1970, the ESSA Corps became the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps. Thus, the National Geodetic Survey's ancestor organizations are the ancestors of today's NOAA Corps and Office of Coast Survey and are among the ancestors of today's NOAA fleet. In addition, today's National Institute of Standards and Technology, although long since separated from the Survey, got its start as the Survey's Office of Weights and Measures; the National Geodetic Survey is an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service.
Its core function is to maintain the National Spatial Reference System, "a consistent coordinate system that defines latitude, height, scale and orientation throughout the United States." NGS is responsible for defining the NSRS and its relationship with the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The NSRS enables precise and accessible knowledge of where things are in the United States and its territories; the NSRS may be divided into its geometric and physical components. The official geodetic datum of the United States, NAD83 defines the geometric relationship between points within the United States in three-dimensional space; the datum may be accessed via NGS's network of survey marks or through the Continuously Operating Reference Station network of GPS reference antennas. NGS is responsible for computing the relationship between NAD83 and the ITRF; the physical components of the NSRS are reflected in its height system, defined by the vertical datum NAVD88. This datum is a network of orthometric heights obtained through spirit leveling.
Because of the close relationship between height and Earth's gravity field, NGS collects and curates terrestrial gravity measurements and develops regional models of the geoid and its slope, the deflection of the vertical. NGS is responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the NSRS over time as the North American plate rotates and deforms over time due to crustal strain, post-glacial rebound, elastic deformation of the crust, other geophysical phenomena. NGS will release new datums in 2022; the North American Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2022 will supersede NAD83 in defining the geometric relationship between the North American plate and the ITRF. United States territories on the Pacific and Mariana plates will have their own respective geodetic datums; the North American-Pacific Geopotential Datum of 2022 will separately define the height system of the United States and its territories, replacing NAVD88. It will use a geoid model accurate to 1 centimeter to relate orthometric height to ellipsoidal height measured by GPS, eliminating the need for future leveling projects.
This geoid model will be based on airborne and terrestrial gravity measurements collected by NGS's GRAV-D program as well as satellite-based gravity models derived from observations collected by GRACE, GOCE, satellite altimetry missions. NGS provides a number of other public services, it maps changing shorelines in the United States and provides aerial imagery of regions affected by natural disasters, enabling rapid damage assessment by emergency managers and members of the public. The Online Positioning and User Service processes user-input GPS data and outputs position solutions within the NSRS; the agency offers other tools for conversion between datums. The original predecessor agency of the National Geodetic Survey was the United States Survey of the Coast, created within the United States Department of the Treasury by an Act of Congress on February 10, 1807, to conduct a "Survey of the Coast." The Survey of the Coast, the United States government's first scientific agency, represented the interest of the administration of President Thomas Jefferson in science and the stimulation of international trade by using scientific surveying methods to chart t
Britton Hill is the highest natural point in the state of Florida, United States, with a summit elevation of 345 feet above mean sea level. Britton Hill is the lowest state highpoint in the United States, 103 feet lower than the next lowest highpoint, Ebright Azimuth in Delaware; the hill is located in northern Walton County near the town of Lakewood, just off County Road 285 about 2 miles southeast of Florala, Alabama. A small park called Lakewood Park marks the high point and features a monument, an information board. Geography portal Florida portal Mountains portal List of Florida's highest points List of U. S. states by elevation Media related to Britton Hill at Wikimedia Commons "Britton Hill". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2012-11-07
The Housatonic River is a river 149 miles long, in western Massachusetts and western Connecticut in the United States. It flows south to southeast, drains about 1,950 square miles of southwestern Connecticut into Long Island Sound, its watershed is just to the west of the watershed of the lower Connecticut River. Birds and fish who live in and around the river contain significant levels of PCBs and present health risks. Indigenous people began hunting at least 6,000 years ago. By 1600, the inhabitants were Mohicans and may have numbered 30,000; the river's name is derived from the Mohican phrase "usi-a-di-en-uk", translated as "beyond the mountain place" or "river of the mountain place". It is referred to in the deed by which a group of twelve colonists called "The Proprietors" captured the land now called Sherman and New Fairfield as "Ousetonack". Samuel Orcutt, a 19th-century historian, explained the term's pronunciation as "more properly... Howsatunnuck" and noted an early spelling in the form of "Oweantinock".
Prior to the 18th century, the river was alternatively known as the Pootatuck River. Accounts differ on the origin of this name, with some claiming that Pootatuck is an Algonquian term translating to "river of the falls" while others relate the term was eponymous, reflecting the name of the tribe that had their principal village along the river in the area of Newtown, Connecticut. "Pootatuck River" came to refer a lesser tributary in the Housatonic watershed which empties into the Housatonic River at Sandy Hook, Connecticut. The river passes through land, occupied by native people of Algonquian lineage living in villages of two to three hundred families housed in hide wigwams; these native inhabitants burned the forests along the Housatonic Valley in the autumn to keep the underbrush down, a practice, customary throughout Connecticut prior to European settlement. One notable native was Chief Squantz of the Schaghticoke tribe, who still hold a portion of the former reservation on the west side of the Housatonic River, in what is now called the town of Kent.
English settlement of the northern Housatonic Valley began in 1725 in Massachusetts. By 1734, Mohicans established the Indian Town of Stockbridge, which grew over 15 years but failed, with land pressures increasing; the river has been a source of power for paper, iron and electricity industries. At Great Barrington, a grist mill built by David Ingersoll in 1739 used the river for power; the paper industry grew using the river's power from circa 1800. The river was dammed with the advent of industry. In 1900, there were 30 dams on the river in Pittsfield. Many have been removed, but many remain, such as the Woods Pond dam in Lenox, Columbia Mill dam in Lee, Willow Mill dam in South Lee, Glendale dam in Stockbridge, Rising Pond dam in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Inspired by the river during his honeymoon, the American classical music composer Charles Ives wrote "The Housatonic at Stockbridge" as part of his composition Three Places in New England during the 1910s, drawing his text from a poem of the same name by Robert Underwood Johnson.
The town of Stockbridge is located in southwestern Massachusetts. The river enters Stockbridge on the east side of town before turning south toward Connecticut. There is an American nuclear weapon test of the same name, although it is not known if the name originated from the river or some other source; the United States Navy named a ship for the Housatonic River. The USS Housatonic has the distinction of being the first ship in history to be sunk by a submarine, the confederate vessel CSS H. L. Hunley. Three wooden covered bridges cross the Housatonic River. Two are in Connecticut: one known as Bull's Bridge, which spans the river between Gaylordsville and Kent, another at Cornwall, known as the West Cornwall Covered Bridge. Reinforced with present-day materials, both bridges carry normal vehicle traffic, albeit in only one direction at a time; the third bridge, Old Covered Bridge located in Sheffield, was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1998. The Housatonic River, its Naugatuck River tributary, hosted the southernmost Atlantic salmon spawning runs.
The Salmon Creek tributary of the Housatonic River may have been named for this salmonid, which can reach up to 30 pounds. From circa 1932 until 1977, the river received PCB pollution discharges from the General Electric plant at Pittsfield, Massachusetts; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency designated the Pittsfield plant and several miles of the Housatonic as a Superfund site in 1997, ordered GE to remediate the site. EPA and GE began a cleanup of the area in 1999. Most of the PCBs used in the United States during this period were made by Monsanto. Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1260, made by Monsanto, was a primary contaminant of the pollution in the Housatonic River. Although the water quality has improved in recent decades, remediation has taken place, the river continues to be contaminated by PCBs. Additional remediation is planned, as of 2018; the highest concentrations of PCBs in the Housatonic River are found in Woods Pond in Lenox, just south of Pittsfield, where they have been measured up to 110 mg/kg in the sediment.
About 50% of all the PCBs in the river are estimated to be retained in the sediment behind Woods Pond dam. This is estimated to be about 11,000 pounds of PCBs. Former filled oxbows are polluted. Birds, such as ducks, fish that live in and around the river contain significant levels of PCBs and can present health risks if consumed; the Connecticut segment of the river is polluted with
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era. The Ordovician spans 41.2 million years from the end of the Cambrian Period 485.4 million years ago to the start of the Silurian Period 443.8 Mya. The Ordovician, named after the Celtic tribe of the Ordovices, was defined by Charles Lapworth in 1879 to resolve a dispute between followers of Adam Sedgwick and Roderick Murchison, who were placing the same rock beds in northern Wales into the Cambrian and Silurian systems, respectively. Lapworth recognized that the fossil fauna in the disputed strata were different from those of either the Cambrian or the Silurian systems, placed them in a system of their own; the Ordovician received international approval in 1960, when it was adopted as an official period of the Paleozoic Era by the International Geological Congress. Life continued to flourish during the Ordovician as it did in the earlier Cambrian period, although the end of the period was marked by the Ordovician–Silurian extinction events.
Invertebrates, namely molluscs and arthropods, dominated the oceans. The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event increased the diversity of life. Fish, the world's first true vertebrates, continued to evolve, those with jaws may have first appeared late in the period. Life had yet to diversify on land. About 100 times as many meteorites struck the Earth per year during the Ordovician compared with today; the Ordovician Period began with a major extinction called the Cambrian–Ordovician extinction event, about 485.4 Mya. It lasted for about 42 million years and ended with the Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, about 443.8 Mya which wiped out 60% of marine genera. The dates given are recent radiometric dates and vary from those found in other sources; this second period of the Paleozoic era created abundant fossils that became major petroleum and gas reservoirs. The boundary chosen for the beginning of both the Ordovician Period and the Tremadocian stage is significant, it correlates well with the occurrence of widespread graptolite and trilobite species.
The base of the Tremadocian allows scientists to relate these species not only to each other, but to species that occur with them in other areas. This makes it easier to place many more species in time relative to the beginning of the Ordovician Period. A number of regional terms have been used to subdivide the Ordovician Period. In 2008, the ICS erected a formal international system of subdivisions. There exist Baltoscandic, Siberian, North American, Chinese Mediterranean and North-Gondwanan regional stratigraphic schemes; the Ordovician Period in Britain was traditionally broken into Early and Late epochs. The corresponding rocks of the Ordovician System are referred to as coming from the Lower, Middle, or Upper part of the column; the faunal stages from youngest to oldest are: Late Ordovician Hirnantian/Gamach Rawtheyan/Richmond Cautleyan/Richmond Pusgillian/Maysville/Richmond Middle Ordovician Trenton Onnian/Maysville/Eden Actonian/Eden Marshbrookian/Sherman Longvillian/Sherman Soudleyan/Kirkfield Harnagian/Rockland Costonian/Black River Chazy Llandeilo Whiterock Llanvirn Early Ordovician Cassinian Arenig/Jefferson/Castleman Tremadoc/Deming/Gaconadian The Tremadoc corresponds to the Tremadocian.
The Floian corresponds to the lower Arenig. The Llanvirn occupies the rest of the Darriwilian, terminates with it at the base of the Late Ordovician; the Sandbian represents the first half of the Caradoc. During the Ordovician, the southern continents were collected into Gondwana. Gondwana started the period in equatorial latitudes and, as the period progressed, drifted toward the South Pole. Early in the Ordovician, the continents of Laurentia and Baltica were still independent continents, but Baltica began to move towards Laurentia in the period, causing the Iapetus Ocean between them to shrink; the small continent Avalonia separated from Gondwana and began to move north towards Baltica and Laurentia, opening the Rheic Ocean between Gondwana and Avalonia. The Taconic orogeny, a major mountain-building episode, was well under way in Cambrian times. In the early and middle Ordovician, temperatures were mild, but at the beginning of the Late Ordovician, from 460 to 450 Ma, volcanoes along the margin of the Iapetus Ocean spewed massive amounts of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere, turning the planet into a hothouse.
Sea levels were high, but as Gondwana moved south, ice accumulated into glaciers and sea levels dropped. At first, low-lying sea beds increased diversity, but glaciation led to mass extinctions as the seas drained and continental shelves became dry land. During the Ordovician, in fact during the Tremadocian, marine transgressions worldwide were the greatest for which evidence is preserved; these volcanic island arcs collided with proto North America to form the Appalachian mountains. By the end of the Late Ordovician the volcanic emissions had stopped. Gondwana had by that time neared the South Pole and was glaciated
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Salisbury is a town in Litchfield County, United States of the New York metropolitan area. The town is the northwest-most in the State of Connecticut; the MA-NY-CT Tri-State Marker is located just on the border of Salisbury. The population was 3,977 at the 2000 census. Salisbury was established and incorporated in 1741, contains several historic homes, though some were replaced by larger modern structures in the late 20th century. Salisbury was named for a city in England. Historian Ed Kirby tells us that traces of iron were discovered in what was to become Salisbury in 1728, with the discovery of the large deposit at Old Hill in 1731 by John Pell and Ezekiel Ashley. Beginning before the Revolution, during the Federal period, until around 1920, Salisbury was the seat of an important iron industry. Additional iron mines were opened in the Western end of the township, although historian Diana Muir dismisses them as "scarcely big enough to notice," with the further disadvantage of not being near a river large enough to ship iron to market at a reasonable cost.
The solution, according to Muir, was to pour labor into the iron, working it into a quality of wrought iron so high that it could be used for gun barrels. This fetched a high price and made Salisbury iron the celebrated choice of Connecticut's early nineteenth-century arms industry as well as the preeminent source of cast iron railroad car wheels until they were superseded by steel wheels. Peter P. Everts, an agent of the mid-19th-century mines, stated the quality of Salisbury iron varied; the iron industry in Salisbury became inactive following World War I, a plan to revive it during World War II was never implemented, the mines remain under water. Scoville Library in Salisbury was the first in the United States open to the public free of charge. Salisbury is home to the oldest Methodist Church in New England, The Lakeville Methodist Church, constructed in 1789. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 60.1 square miles, of which, 57.3 square miles of it is land and 2.8 square miles of it is water.
Although the peak of Mount Frissell lies in Massachusetts at an elevation of 2,453 ft, the south slope of the mountain in Salisbury, is the highest point in Connecticut. Within Salisbury there are several ponds and six lakes: Wononscopomuc, Washining, Riga Lake and South Pond; the town of Salisbury includes the villages of Salisbury and Lakeville, the hamlets of Amesville, Lime Rock, Taconic, Taconic is located in the northwest section of Salisbury and is a seasonal and affluent community of 200 in population, with a town green and U S Post Office. The areas of Joyceville, Ore Hill, Hammertown and Twin Lakes were recognized as separate communities but are no longer; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,977 people, 1,737 households, 1,042 families residing in the town. The population density was 69.4 people per square mile. There were 2,410 housing units at an average density of 42.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.75% White, 1.66% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.96% Asian, 0.45% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.53% of the population. There were 1,737 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.81. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 3.7% from 18 to 24, 20.4% from 25 to 44, 31.9% from 45 to 64, 21.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $53,051, the median income for a family was $69,152. Males had a median income of $43,807 versus $29,861 for females; the per capita income for the town was $38,752. About 4.9% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.6% of those under age 18 and 2.6% of those age 65 or over.
The Appalachian Trail runs through Salisbury. The Salisbury Winter Sports Association hosts ski jumping competitions at its Satre Hill venue in Salisbury, it has hosted United States Eastern Ski Jumping Championships each February since 1952. The village of Lakeville has the well known automobile racing course at Lime Rock Park. Salisbury has an Open Town Meeting form of government, with three Selectmen. Salisbury is a member of Regional School District 01, which serves the towns of Canaan, Kent, North Canaan, Sharon. Public school students attend Salisbury Central School, Housatonic Valley Regional High School, in Falls Village, CT. There are three boarding schools in the town, Salisbury School and Hotchkiss School, both high schools, Indian Mountain School, pre-K through grade 9; the community is served by The Lakeville Journal. The Salisbury Sampler is a 10-issue-per-year newsletter of community events and news edited by the office of the Selectmen and mailed to all households; the Salisbury Association publishes a bi-annual Newsletter covering the land trust and civic committees news and activities.
It is mailed to all households. Route 44 is the main east-west highway in the town, while Route 41 is the main north-