Conrad Anker is an American rock climber and author. He is the team leader of The North Face climbing team. In 1999, he located George Mallory's body on Everest as a member of a search team looking for the remains of the British climber, he lives in Montana. 2010 - David A Brower Award - American Alpine Club 2016 - Golden Pitons: Lifetime Achievement - Climbing Magazine 2017 - University of Utah Honorary Degree Recipient 2018 - Jack Roberts Lifetime Achievements Award - Cody, WY Ice Festival 1987 Southeast Face Gurney Peak, Kichatna Mountains, Alaska Range, United States. First Ascent with Seth'S. T.' Shaw, Robert Ingle and James Garrett. 1989 Northwest Face Mount Hunter, Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. FA with Seth'S. T.' Shaw, summit attained July 3, 1989. 1990 Rodeo Queen, Streaked Wall, Zion National Park, Utah, USA. FA with Mugs Stump. 1992 East Buttress, Middle Triple Peak, Kichatna Spires, Alaska, USA, 2nd ascent with Seth Shaw. 1992 Shunes Buttress, Red Arch Mountain, Zion National Park. FFA with Dave Jones.
1994 Badlands, Southeast Face, Torre Egger, Patagonia. Conrad Anker, Jay Smith and Steve Gerberding, FA 12 December 1994. 1997 The Northwest Face, Peak Loretan, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica Jan 15-16, 1997. 1997 Rakekniven Peak, Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, FA with Jon Krakauer. Featured in the cover article of the February 1998 National Geographic Magazine. 1997 Tsering Mosong, Latok II, Karakorum, FA with Thomas Huber and Toni Gutsch. 1997 Continental Drift, El Capitan, Yosemite, CA, USA. FA with Steve Gerberding and Kevin Thaw. 1999 Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition, Mount Everest, Nepal / Tibet. 1999 Shishapangma American Ski Expedition, Tibet. Survived a massive avalanche which killed climbing partner Alex Lowe and cameraman David Bridges. 2001 East Face of Antarctica. FA with Jon Krakauer. Featured on PBS series NOVA in February 2003. 2005 Southwest Ridge, Khumbu region, Nepal - summit attained with Kevin Thaw, John Griber, Kris Erickson and Abby Watkins on May 12, 2005. 2007 Leads Altitude Everest Expedition 2007, joined by Leo Houlding, Jimmy Chin and Kevin Thaw, retracing Mallory's last steps on Everest.
2nd summit. First documented free climb of the Second Step. 2011 Shark's Fin, Meru Peak, FA with Renan Ozturk. 2012 Leads "Everest Education Expedition" with National Geographic, The North Face, Montana State University and Mayo Clinic - 3rd summit, this time without oxygen. With Cory Richards, Sam Elias, Kris Erickson, Emily Harrington, Philip Henderson, Mark Jenkins, David Lageson Ph. D, Hilaree O'Neill. Mayo Team - Dr. Bruce Johnson, Landon Bassett, Derek Campbell, Amine Issa. Base Camp Support Andy Bardon, Travis Courthouts, Anjin Herndon, Max Lowe. Anker has climbed notable routes in Yosemite Valley, Zion National Park, Baffin Island, the Ellsworth Mountains in Antarctica. Anker, Conrad. "Gumbies on Gurney". American Alpine Journal. NYC, NY, USA: American Alpine Club. 30: 69–75. ISBN 0-930410-33-5. Anker, Conrad. "Hunter's Northwest Face". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. 42: 36–38. ISBN 0-930410-43-2. Anker, Conrad. "With You in Spirit". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. 40: 140–145.
ISBN 0-930410-78-5. Anker, Conrad; the Lost Explorer: Finding Mallory on Mt. Everest. New York, NY, USA: Simon and Schuster / Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-87151-3. Shackleton's Antarctic Adventure Light of the Himalaya. At the heart of the planet's most formidable mountain range live people who suffer from the highest rates of cataract blindness on the planet; the North Face athletes join eye surgeons from America in hopes of making a difference. The film follows the doctors' work on the Himalayan Cataract Project all the way to the summit of a 21,000-foot Himalayan giant; the Endless Knot. Directed by Michael Brown and produced by David D'Angelo, an HDTV documentary film with Rush HD and The North Face. In October 1999, Alex Lowe and Conrad Anker were buried by an avalanche in the Tibetan Himalaya. Anker survived the avalanche, but was overcome with survivor's guilt. In the months following the tragedy, he worked to comfort Lowe's widow, they unexpectedly found love; the Wildest Dream, IMAX, directed by Anthony Geffen, Altitude Films, US distribution, National Geographic Entertainment releasing.
Meru, a 2015 documentary film about climbing the Shark's fin route National Parks Adventure, a short IMAX film/documentary by MacGillivray Freeman about the National Park Service. Lunag Ri, a documentary film by Joachim Hellinger about the attempted ascend of the Lunag Ri by Conrad Anker and David Lama List of Mount Everest summiters by number of times to the summit Timex Expedition WS4 Conrad Anker's "return to the outdoors" blog Conrad Anker's website Conrad Anker on the North Face website Conrad Anker, Leader of the 2012 Everest Education Expedition Conrad Anker on Altitude Everest Expedition 2007 The Wildest Dream / Official Website The Endless Knot / Official Website Light of the Himalaya / Official Website Dave Reuss, "Gallatin to the Ganges", Outside Bozeman magazine BBC Radio 4: Desert Island Discs / Conrad Anker Conrad Anker on IMDb
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Heinrich Harrer was an Austrian mountaineer, sportsman and author. He is best known for being on the four-man climbing team that made the first ascent of the North Face of the Eiger in Switzerland, for his books Seven Years in Tibet and The White Spider. Heinrich Harrer was born 6 July 1912 in Hüttenberg, Austria, in the district of Sankt Veit an der Glan in the state of Carinthia, his father was a postal worker. From 1933 to 1938, Harrer studied geography and sports at the Karl-Franzens University in Graz. Harrer became a member of the traditional student corporation ATV Graz. In 1935, Harrer was designated to participate in the Alpine skiing competition at the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen; the Austrian Alpine skiing team, boycotted the event due to a conflict regarding the skiing instructors' status as professionals. As a result, Harrer did not participate. In 1937, Harrer won the downhill event at the World Student Championships at Zell am See. Mountain climbing was Harrer's true passion.
Knowing an extraordinary feat of climbing could win him a place on a Himalayan expedition, Harrer and a friend, Fritz Kasparek, resolved to be the first to climb the North Face of the Eiger in the Bernese Alps of Switzerland. The near vertical wall, with its ice-field known as The White Spider, had claimed several lives. Following his final university exams in July 1938, Harrer and Kasparek traveled to Kleine Scheidegg at the foot of the Eiger and set out on their climb. Halfway up the mountain and Kasparek encountered another team making the attempt, Ludwig Vörg and Anderl Heckmair from Germany; the four decided to make the rest of the climb as a single team, with the experienced Heckmair leading. Throughout the climb, the four men were threatened by snow avalanches and rock falls, they were caught in an avalanche as they climbed the White Spider on the upper face, but all possessed sufficient strength to resist being swept off the face. The members reached the summit at four o'clock in the afternoon 24 July 1938.
This first ascent of the Eiger North Face was described by Italian climber Reinhold Messner as "a glorious moment in the history of mountaineering and a great sensation, since several climbers had perished on the Face", made headlines around the world, is recounted in Harrer's book The White Spider, published in 1959. In 1996, ORF editor and filmmaker Gerald Lehner found in American archives the membership card of Harrer, who joined the Sturmabteilung in October 1933. After the Anschluss of March 1938, as Germany annexed Austria, he joined the Schutzstaffel on 1 April, he held the rank of Oberscharführer, on 1 May he became a member of the Nazi Party. After their ascent of the Eiger North Face, the four climbers were received by and photographed with Adolf Hitler. Harrer said he wore his SS uniform only once, on the day of his marriage to Charlotte Wegener, daughter of the eminent explorer and scholar Alfred Wegener. After returning to Europe in 1952, Harrer was cleared of any pre-war crimes and this was supported by Simon Wiesenthal.
In his memoir, Beyond Seven Years in Tibet, Harrer called his involvement with the Nazi Party a mistake made in his youth, when he had not yet learned to think for himself. In 1939, Harrer joined a four-man expedition, led by Peter Aufschnaiter, to the Diamir Face of the Nanga Parbat with the aim of finding an easier route to the peak. Having concluded that the face was viable, the four mountaineers were in Karachi at the end of August, waiting for a freighter to take them home; the ship being long overdue, Harrer and Hans Lobenhoffer tried to reach Persia, but several hundred kilometers northwest of Karachi they were put under the "protection" of British soldiers and escorted back to Karachi, where Aufschnaiter had stayed. Two days war was declared, on 3 September 1939 all were put behind barbed wire to be transferred to a detention camp at Ahmednagar near Bombay, they considered escaping to Portuguese Goa, but when further transferred to Dehradun to be detained there for years with 1,000 other enemy aliens, they found Tibet more promising, the final goal being the Japanese front in Burma or China.
Aufschnaiter and Harrer escaped and were re-captured a number of times before succeeding. On 29 April 1944, Harrer and six others, including Rolf Magener and Heins von Have, the Salzburger Bruno Treipel and the Berliners Hans Kopp and Sattler, walked out of the camp. Magener and von Have took the train to Calcutta and from there found their way to the Japanese army in Burma; the others headed for the closest border via Landour. After Sattler gave up on 10 May, the remaining four entered Tibet on 17 May 1944, crossing the Tsang Chok-la Pass and thereafter split into two groups: Harrer and Kopp and Treipel. On 17 June, exhausted, bought himself a horse and rode back to the lowlands. Several months when the remaining three were still without visas for Tibet, Kopp gave up and left for Nepal. Aufschnaiter and Harrer, helped by the former's knowledge of the Tibetan language, proceeded to Tibet's capital city, which they reached on 15 January 1946, having crossed Western Tibet, the South-West with Gyirong County, the Northern Changthang.
In 1948, Harrer became a salaried official of the Tibetan government, translating foreign news and acting as the Court photographer. Harrer first met the 14th Dalai Lama when he wa
George Lowe (American alpinist)
George Henry Lowe III is an American rock climber and alpinist, noted for his history of alpine-style mountaineering on difficult and infrequently repeated routes and his development of traditional climbing routes in the Western United States. He pioneered winter ascents in the North American Rockies along with cousins Jeff Lowe, Mike Lowe, Greg Lowe, he is known for his technically difficult ascents of mixed climbing faces in the Himalayas including the unclimbed North Ridge of Latok I and the first ascent of the East Face of Mt. Everest, where the Lowe Buttress bears his name. Lowe is a resident of Colorado, he was raised in Ogden and began climbing in 1962 while attending Harvey Mudd College. He finished his undergraduate degree at the University of Utah where he received a PhD in Physics in 1973. Lowe was the 1990 recipient of the American Alpine Club's Miriam Underhill Award; the award is given "annually to a person who, in the opinion of the selection committee, has demonstrated the highest level of skill in the mountaineering arts and who, through the application of this skill and perseverance, has achieved outstanding success in the various fields of mountaineering endeavor".
He is an Honorary Member of the American Alpine Club which represents "the highest award the AAC has to offer. It is given to those individuals who have had a lasting and significant impact on the advancement of the climbing craft". Lowe was president of the Piolet d’Or 2014 International Jury which included Catherine Destivelle and was responsible for selecting the award-winners from the nominees; the Piolet d'Or is an award for mountaineering created by the magazine Montagnes and The Groupe de Haute Montagne 1965 Dorsal Fin - First Ascent -, Little Cottonwood Canyon, United States with Mark McQuarrie, climbed in a pair of tight hiking boots. Graded 5.9 1965 Mount Owen - First Winter Ascent, Grand Teton National Park with Mike Lowe 1968 North Face of the Grand Teton - First Winter Ascent, Grand Teton National Park with Rick Horn and Mike Lowe 1971 North Face, Piramide de Garcilaso - Second Ascent with Mike Lowe and North Face, Huandoy Norte - First Ascent of new route with Perutah Expedition members.
Both Cordillera Blanca, Peru. 1972 West Face of the Grand Teton - First Winter Ascent, Grand Teton National Park with Jeff Lowe 1972 North Face, Mount Alberta - First Ascent, Canadian Rockies, Canada with Jock Glidden. 1973 South Face, Devils Thumb - First Ascent, Coast Mountains, Alaska with Chris Jones and Lito Tejada-Flores. 1974 North Face, North Twin Peak - First Ascent, Canadian Rockies, with Chris Jones regarded as some of the best alpinism of the era. 1977 Infinite Spur, First Ascent on the south face of Mount Foraker, Alaska Range with Michael Kennedy. Ascent time 6 days. 1978 North Ridge, Latok I, Karakorum Range, Pakistan. Attempt with Michael Kennedy, Jim Donini and Jeff Lowe, highest attempt to within 100m of summit until 2018. 1983 Kangshung Face, First Ascent. Summited on same day as Jay Cassell, Dan Reid following the summits of Carlos Buhler, Kim Momb and Louis Reichardt the prior day. Expedition focused on limiting risk to Sherpas. At the time, considered the most difficult route up Everest.
1990 Northeast Ridge, Dhaulagiri I, First American Solo Ascent, part of international expedition with Carlos Buhler, lt:Dainius Makauskas of Lithuania, Nuru Sherpa of Nepal. 2015 West Face Couloir, Mount Huntington, Alaska summited with Joe Terravecchia and Mark Richey, Lowe was 70 years old on this trip