Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano on the island of Hawaii. Its peak is 4,207.3 m above sea level. Most of the mountain is under water, when measured from its oceanic base, Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world measuring over 10,000 m. Mauna Kea is about a million years old, has thus passed the most active shield stage of life hundreds of thousands of years ago. In its current post-shield state, its lava is more viscous. Late volcanism has given it a much rougher appearance than its neighboring volcanoes due to construction of cinder cones, decentralization of its rift zones, glaciation on its peak, weathering by the prevailing trade winds. Mauna Kea last is now considered dormant; the peak is about 38 m higher than its more massive neighbor. In Hawaiian mythology, the peaks of the island of Hawaii are sacred. An ancient law allowed only high-ranking aliʻi to visit its peak. Ancient Hawaiians living on the slopes of Mauna Kea relied on its extensive forests for food, quarried the dense volcano-glacial basalts on its flanks for tool production.
When Europeans arrived in the late 18th century, settlers introduced cattle and game animals, many of which became feral and began to damage the mountain's ecological balance. Mauna Kea can be ecologically divided into three sections: an alpine climate at its summit, a Sophora chrysophylla–Myoporum sandwicense forest on its flanks, an Acacia koa–Metrosideros polymorpha forest, now cleared by the former sugar industry, at its base. In recent years, concern over the vulnerability of the native species has led to court cases that have forced the Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources to eradicate all feral species on the mountain. With its high elevation, dry environment, stable airflow, Mauna Kea's summit is one of the best sites in the world for astronomical observation. Since the creation of an access road in 1964, thirteen telescopes funded by eleven countries have been constructed at the summit; the Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum and comprise the largest such facility in the world.
Their construction on a landscape considered sacred by Native Hawaiians continues to be a topic of debate. Mauna Kea is one of five volcanoes that form the island of Hawaii, the largest and youngest island of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. Of these five hotspot volcanoes, Mauna Kea is the fourth oldest and fourth most active, it began as a preshield volcano driven by the Hawaii hotspot around one million years ago, became exceptionally active during its shield stage until 500,000 years ago. Mauna Kea entered its quieter post-shield stage 250,000 to 200,000 years ago, is dormant. Mauna Kea does not have a visible summit caldera, but contains a number of small cinder and pumice cones near its summit. A former summit caldera may have been filled and buried by summit eruption deposits. Mauna Kea is over 32,000 km3 in volume, so massive that it and its neighbor, Mauna Loa, depress the ocean crust beneath it by 6 km; the volcano continues to slip and flatten under its own weight at a rate of less than 0.2 mm per year.
Much of its mass lies east of its present summit. Mauna Kea stands 4,207.3 m above sea level, about 38 m higher than its neighbor Mauna Loa, is the highest point in the state of Hawaii. Measured from its base on the ocean floor, it rises over 10,000 m greater than the elevation of Mount Everest above sea level. Like all Hawaiian volcanoes, Mauna Kea has been created as the Pacific tectonic plate has moved over the Hawaiian hotspot in the Earth's underlying mantle; the Hawaii island volcanoes are the most recent evidence of this process that, over 70 million years, has created the 6,000 km -long Hawaiian Ridge–Emperor seamount chain. The prevailing, though not settled, view is that the hotspot has been stationary within the planet's mantle for much, if not all of the Cenozoic Era. However, while Hawaiian volcanism is well understood and extensively studied, there remains no definite explanation of the mechanism that causes the hotspot effect. Lava flows from Mauna Kea overlapped in complex layers with those of its neighbors during its growth.
Most prominently, Mauna Kea is built upon older flows from Kohala to the northwest, intersects the base of Mauna Loa to the south. The original eruptive fissures in the flanks of Mauna Kea were buried by its post-shield volcanism. Hilo Ridge, a prominent underwater rift zone structure east of Mauna Kea, was once believed to be a part of the volcano; the shield-stage lavas that built the enormous main mass of the mountain are tholeiitic basalts, like those of Mauna Loa, created through the mixing of primary magma and subducted oceanic crust. They are covered by the oldest exposed rock strata on Mauna Kea, the post-shield alkali basalts of the Hāmākua Volcanics, which erupted between 250,000 and 70–65,000 years ago; the most recent volcanic flows are hawaiites and mugearites: they are the post-shield Laupāhoehoe Volcanics, erupted between 65,000 and 4,000 years ago. These changes in lava composition accompanied the slow reduction of the supply of magma to the summit, which led to weaker eruptions that gave way to isolated episodes associated with volcanic dormancy.
The Laupāhoehoe lavas are more viscous and contain more volatiles than the earlier tholeiitic basalts.
Mount Veniaminof is an active stratovolcano on the Alaska Peninsula. The Alaska Volcano Observatory rates Veniaminof as Aviation Color Code ORANGE and Volcano Alert Level WATCH as of 22 November 2018, at 2005, after it being RED/WARNING since 21 November 2018, at 1915; the mountain was named after Ioann Veniaminov, a Russian Orthodox missionary priest whose writings on the Aleut language and ethnology are still standard references. He is a saint of the Orthodox Church, known as Saint Innocent for the monastic name he used in life; the volcano was the site of a colossal eruption around 1750 BC. This eruption left a large caldera. In modern times the volcano has had numerous small eruptions, all at a cinder cone in the middle of the caldera. Veniaminof is one of the highest of Alaskan volcanoes. For this reason, it is covered by a glacier that fills most of the caldera; because of the glacier and the caldera walls, there is the possibility of a major flood from a future glacier run. The volcano began erupting on September 3rd, 2018 as magma broke through the summit and flowed down its slopes as a lava flow.
Despite starting off as an effusive eruption, by November 20th, the eruption became more intense and ash was reaching 20,000 feet, prompting the AVO to give a warning for aviation because of the ash posing a threat to aviation. An ashfall warning was issued for the nearby town of Perryville. In 1967, Mount Veniaminof was designated as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service. List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of Ultras of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States "Veniaminof". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Volcanoes of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands-Selected Photographs Alaska Volcano Observatory
Pavlof Volcano is a stratovolcano of the Aleutian Range on the Alaska Peninsula. It has been one of the most active in the United States since 1980, with eruptions recorded in 1980, 1981, 1983, 1986–1988, 1996–1997, 2007, 2013, twice in 2014 and most in March 2016. Basaltic andesite with SiO2 around 53% is the most common lava type; the volcano is monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory- a joint program of the United States Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. With a threat score of 95, the threat from future eruptions is considered to be high; the mountain has basic real-time monitoring, but the USGS would like to improve instrumentation at the site. The mountain shares a name with the nearby Pavlof Sister, which last erupted in 1786. After its eruption in 1996, the volcano entered a period of dormancy, the longest it had been dormant since records of its eruptions have been kept.
This period ended on August 15, 2007, with the start of a new eruption involving seismic disturbances and a "vigorous eruption of lava." Scientists said that the volcano "could be working toward a massive eruption that could affect air travel but was not expected to threaten any of the towns in the area." The eruption ended on September 13. The volcano erupted again on May 13, 2013, but activity had diminished by July 3, 2013, on August 8, 2013, the Current Volcano Alert Level was reduced to NORMAL and the Current Aviation Color Code reduced to GREEN. A low-level eruption began on May 31, 2014. On June 2 seismic activity intensified and officials raised the alert level from "Watch" to "Warning" and the aviation color code from "Orange" to "Red" after pilots in the area reported an ash plume that reached as high as 22,000 feet above sea level. A new eruption began on March 27, 2016, sending an ash cloud to 37,000 feet above sea level, extending 400 miles NE; the volcano gave 25 minutes warning before the onset of the eruption.
The alert level was raised to "Warning" and the aviation color code was raised to "Red", which indicates incoming eruption with high levels of ash. The nearby village of Nelson Lagoon was coated with tephra during the powerful eruption; the volcano stopped emitting ash clouds on March 31, 2016. The first recorded ascent of Pavlof Volcano was on June 27, 1928, by T. A. Jagger, J. Gardiner, O. P. McKinley, P. A. Yatchmenoff and R. H. Stewart, although "speculation surrounds this ascent, recounted in National Geographic." The straightforward nature of the climb suggests that an earlier unrecorded ascent may have occurred. The second ascent was in June 1950 by T. P. Bank; the main challenge of climbing this peak is the consequent difficulty of access. The peak is a 30 mi journey from the north side of Cold Bay; the climb itself is a straightforward snow climb, the ski descent is recommended. List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of volcanoes in the United States "Pavlof". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
Volcanoes of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands-Selected Photographs Alaska Volcano Observatory Pavlof Volcano on Topozone "Pavlof Volcano, Alaska" on Peakbagger Photo of Pavlof in 2007
Mount Shishaldin is a moderately active volcano on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands chain of Alaska. It is the highest mountain peak of the Aleutian Islands; the most symmetrical cone-shaped glacier-clad large mountain on earth, the volcano's topographic contour lines are nearly perfect circles above 6,500 feet. The lower north and south slopes are somewhat steeper than western slopes; the volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an east–west line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." The upper 6,600 ft is entirely covered by glacial snow and ice. In all, Shishaldin's glacial shield covers about 35 square miles, it is flanked to the northwest by 24 monogenetic parasitic cones, an area blanketed by massive lava flows. The Shishaldin cone is less than 10,000 years old and is constructed on a glacially eroded remnant of an ancestral somma and shield. Remnants of the older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and northeast sides at 4,900 to 5,900 ft elevation.
The Shishaldin edifice contains about 120 square miles of material. A steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater, about 500 ft across and breached along the north rim. In 1967, Shishaldin Volcano was designated as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service; this volcano has had many recorded eruptions during the 19th and 20th centuries, a couple reports of volcanic activity in the area during the 18th century may have referred to Shishaldin as well. Therefore, the volcano's entire recorded history is spotted with reports of activity. AVO has 24 confirmed eruptions at Shishaldin, making it the volcano with the third most confirmed eruptions. However, Shishaldin has the most eruptions in Alaska, but half of the eruptions are unconfirmed, with the most recent one being in January 2015. Mount Shishaldin's most recent eruptions were in 1995–96 and 1999. Since the 1999 eruption, it has maintained seismic activity having low-magnitude volcanic earthquakes every 1–2 minutes. During this period of non-eruptive seismic activity, it has been puffing steam, with puffs occurring about every 1–2 minutes.
There were reports in 2004 of small quantities of ash being emitted with the steam. The Alaska Volcano Observatory monitors the volcano for more hazardous activity with seismometers and satellite images. Visual observations are rare, because of the remote location of the volcano; the first recorded ascent of Shishaldin was by G. Peterson and two companions. Given the straightforward nature of the climbing, it is possible that an earlier ascent occurred, either by native Aleuts, Russians, or other visitors. Shishaldin is a popular ski descent for local climbers. Due to its remoteness, Shishaldin is not climbed by outsiders. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of Ultras of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States "Shishaldin". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Petersen, Tanja.
Mount Baker known as Koma Kulshan or Kulshan, is a 10,781 ft active glaciated andesitic stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the North Cascades of Washington in the United States. Mount Baker has the second-most thermally active crater in the Cascade Range after Mount Saint Helens. About 31 miles due east of the city of Bellingham, Whatcom County, Mount Baker is the youngest volcano in the Mount Baker volcanic field. While volcanism has persisted here for some 1.5 million years, the current glaciated cone is no more than 140,000 years old, no older than 80–90,000 years. Older volcanic edifices have eroded away due to glaciation. After Mount Rainier, Mount Baker is the most glaciated of the Cascade Range volcanoes, it is one of the snowiest places in the world. Mt. Baker is the third-highest mountain in Washington and the fifth-highest in the Cascade Range, if Little Tahoma Peak, a subpeak of Mount Rainier, Shastina, a subpeak of Mount Shasta, are not counted. Located in the Mount Baker Wilderness, it is visible from much of Greater Victoria and Greater Vancouver in British Columbia, to the south, from Seattle in Washington.
Indigenous peoples have known the mountain for thousands of years, but the first written record of the mountain is from Spanish explorer Gonzalo Lopez de Haro, who mapped it in 1790 as Gran Montaña del Carmelo, "Great Mount Carmel". The explorer George Vancouver renamed the mountain for 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker of HMS Discovery, who saw it on April 30, 1792. Mount Baker was well-known to indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest. Indigenous names for the mountain include Koma Kulshan. In 1790, Manuel Quimper of the Spanish Navy set sail from Nootka, a temporary settlement on Vancouver Island, with orders to explore the newly discovered Strait of Juan de Fuca. Accompanying Quimper was first-pilot Gonzalo Lopez de Haro, who drew detailed charts during the six-week expedition. Although Quimper's journal of the voyage does not refer to the mountain, one of Haro's manuscript charts includes a sketch of Mount Baker; the Spanish named the snowy volcano La Gran Montana del Carmelo, as it reminded them of the white-clad monks of the Carmelite Monastery.
The British explorer George Vancouver left England a year later. His mission was to survey the northwest coast of America. Vancouver and his crew reached the Pacific Northwest coast in 1792. While anchored in Dungeness Bay on the south shore of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Joseph Baker made an observation of Mount Baker, which Vancouver recorded in his journal:About this time a high conspicuous craggy mountain... presented itself, towering above the clouds: as low down as they allowed it to be visible it was covered with snow. Six years the official narrative of this voyage was published, including the first printed reference to the mountain. By the mid-1850s, Mount Baker was a well-known feature on the horizon to the explorers and fur traders who traveled in the Puget Sound region. Isaac I. Stevens, the first governor of Washington Territory, wrote about Mount Baker in 1853:Mount Baker... is one of the loftiest and most conspicuous peaks of the northern Cascade range. It is visible from all the water and islands... and from the whole southeastern part of the Gulf of Georgia, from the eastern division of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
It is for this region a important landmark. Edmund Thomas Coleman, an Englishman who resided in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada and a veteran of the Alps, made the first attempt to ascend the mountain in 1866, he chose a route via the Skagit River, but was forced to turn back when local Native Americans refused him passage. That same year, Coleman recruited Whatcom County settlers Edward Eldridge, John Bennett, John Tennant to aid him in his second attempt to scale the mountain. After approaching via the North Fork of the Nooksack River, the party navigated through what is now known as Coleman Glacier and ascended to within several hundred feet of the summit before turning back in the face of an "overhanging cornice of ice" and threatening weather. Coleman returned to the mountain after two years. At 4:00 pm on August 17, 1868, Eldridge and two new companions scaled the summit via the Middle Fork Nooksack River, Marmot Ridge, Coleman Glacier, the north margin of the Roman Wall. 1948 North Ridge Fred Beckey and Dick Widrig The present-day cone of Mount Baker is young.
The volcano sits atop
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List