Popocatépetl is an active stratovolcano, located in the states of Puebla and Morelos, in central Mexico, lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. At 5,426 m it is the second highest peak in Mexico, after Citlaltépetl at 5,636 m, it is linked to the Iztaccihuatl volcano to the north by the high saddle known as the Paso de Cortés. Popocatépetl is 70 km southeast of Mexico City, from where it can be seen depending on atmospheric conditions; until the volcano was one of three tall peaks in Mexico to contain glaciers, the others being Iztaccihuatl and Pico de Orizaba. In the 1990s, the glaciers such as Glaciar Norte decreased in size due to warmer temperatures but due to increased volcanic activity. By early 2001, Popocatépetl's glaciers were gone. Lava erupting from Popocatépetl has been predominantly andesitic, but it has erupted large volumes of dacite. Magma produced in the current cycle of activity tends to be a mixture of the two; the name Popocatépetl comes from the Nahuatl words popōca "it smokes" and tepētl "mountain", meaning Smoking Mountain.
The volcano is referred to by Mexicans as El Popo. The alternate nickname Don Goyo comes from the mountain's association in the lore of the region with, "Goyo" being a nickname-like short form of Gregorio; the stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 m × 600 m wide crater. The symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano; the modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. According to paleomagnetic studies, the volcano is about 730,000 years old, it is cone shaped with a diameter of 25 km with a peak elevation of 5,450 m.
The crater is elliptical with an orientation northeast-southwest. The walls of the crater vary from 600 to 840 m in height. Popocatépetl is active after being dormant for about half of last century, its activity increased in 1991 and smoke has been seen emanating from the crater since 1993. The volcano is monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project; the geological history of Popocatépetl began with the formation of the ancestral volcano Nexpayantla. About 200,000 years ago, Nexpayantly collapsed in an eruption, leaving a caldera, in which the next volcano, known as El Fraile, began to form. Another eruption about 50,000 years ago caused that to collapse, Popocatépetl rose from that. Around 23,000 years ago, a lateral eruption destroyed the volcano's ancient cone and created an avalanche that reached up to 70 kilometres from the summit; the debris field from, one of four around the volcano, it is the youngest. Three Plinian eruptions are known to have taken place: 3,000 years ago, 2,150 years ago, 1,100 years ago.
The latter two buried the nearby village of Tetimpa. The first known ascent of the volcano was made by an expedition led by Diego de Ordaz in 1519; the early-16th-century monasteries on the slopes of the mountain are a World Heritage Site. Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and the most famous, having had more than 15 major eruptions since the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. Timeline: Mid-to late first century: A violent VEI-6 eruption may have caused the large migrations that settled Teotihuacan, according to DNA analysis of teeth and bones. Eruptions were observed in 1363, 1509, 1512, 1519–1528, 1530, 1539, 1540, 1548, 1562–1570, 1571, 1592, 1642, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1697, 1720, 1802, 1919, 1923, 1925, 1933. 1947: A major eruption. 21 December 1994: The volcano spewed gas and ash, carried as far as 25 km away by prevailing winds. The activity prompted the evacuation of nearby towns and scientists to begin monitoring for an eruption. December 2000: Tens of thousands of people were evacuated by the government, based on the warnings of scientists.
The volcano made its largest display in 1,200 years. 25 December 2005: The volcano's crater produced an explosion which ejected a large column of smoke and ash about 3 km into the atmosphere and expulsion of lava. January and February 2012: Scientists observed increased volcanic activity at Popocatépetl. On January 25, 2012, an ash explosion occurred on the mountain, causing much dust and ash to contaminate the atmosphere around it. 15 April 2012: Reports of superheated rock fragments being hurled into the air by the volcano. Ash and water vapor plumes were reported 15 times over 24 hours. Wednesday 8 May 2013, at 7:28 p.m. local time: Popocatépetl erupted again with a high amplitude tremor that lasted and was recorded for 3.5 hours. It began with plumes of ash that rose 3 km into the air and began drifting west at first, but began to drift east-southeast, covering areas of the villages of San Juan Tianguismanalco, San Pedro Benito Juárez and the City of Puebla in smoke and ash. Explosions from the
An icefall is a portion of certain glaciers characterized by rapid flow and a chaotic crevassed surface. The term icefall is formed by analogy with the word waterfall, a similar, but much higher speed, phenomenon; when ice movement is faster than elsewhere, because the glacier bed steepens or narrows, the flow cannot be accommodated by plastic deformation and the ice fractures, forming crevasses. Where two fractures meet, seracs can be formed; when the movement of the ice slows down, the crevasses can coalesce, resulting in the surface of the glacier becoming smoother. The most conspicuous consequence of glacier flow, icefalls occur where the glacier bed steepens and/or narrows. Most glacier ice flows at speeds of a few hundred metres per less. However, the flow of ice in an icefall may be measured in kilometres per year; such rapid flow cannot be accommodated by plastic deformation of the ice. Instead, the ice fractures forming crevasses. Intersecting fractures form ice seracs; these processes are imperceptible for the most part.
This behavior poses the biggest risk to mountaineers climbing in an icefall. Below the icefall, the glacier bed flattens and/or widens and the ice flow slows. Crevasses close and the glacier surface becomes easier to traverse. Icefalls vary in height; the Roosevelt Glacier icefall, on the north face of Mount Baker, is about 730 metres high. The ice cliff of the left side of the ice fall and above the debris covering the glacier is 20 to 40 metres high. Typical of mountain glaciers, this icefall forms as the ice flows from a high elevation plateau or basin accumulation zone to a lower valley ablation zone. Much larger icefalls may be found in the outlet glaciers of continental ice sheets; the icefall feeding the Lambert Glacier in Antarctica is 7 kilometres wide and 14 kilometres long though the elevation difference is only 400 metres, a little more than half that of the Roosevelt Glacier icefall. Icefalls are climbed because of the challenge they pose. In some cases, an icefall may provide the only feasible or the easiest route up one face of a mountain.
An example is the Khumbu Icefall on the Nepalese side of Mount Everest, variously described as "treacherous" and "dangerous." It is about 5,500 metres above sea level. In 2016 the Guinness Book of World Records called a solid mass of ice weighing "nearly a ton", found to have "landed" at a farm near the Scottish town of Balvullich on July 30, 1849, the "Largest Piece of Fallen Ice". In 1980 Arthur C. Clark speculated; the farmer reported hearing "one of the loudest peals of thunder we heard" and found an "irregular shaped mass of ice... twenty feet in circumference." It had a salty taste and nearly was transparent. Environmental physicist, Randall Osczevski, an authority on wind chill, believes he solved the mystery of the ice mass. Using weather reports from newspapers and Google Maps, he discovered that 1849 was at the end of the "Little Ice Age", in February it looked like spring had arrived, but March through June were cold—some of the coldest in "living memories" according to local contemporary newspapers.
Osczevski believes that the salty taste, rounded shape and translucent appearance of the ice, meant that it was a frozen pond that became dislodged by a warm thunderstorm in July. The rain "dislodged a large piece of the pond's thick covering of ice, washed it down the slope", a 12 percent grade; the ice rolled on-edge towards the farm, rounding its edges as it went, causing a loud sound and a sensation for the media. Osczevski believes that it is possible to test this hypothesis. Glacier morphology Media related to Icefalls at Wikimedia Commons
Mount Logan is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest peak in North America, after Denali. The mountain was named after Sir William Edmond Logan, a Canadian geologist and founder of the Geological Survey of Canada. Mount Logan is located within Kluane National Park Reserve in southwestern Yukon, less than 40 kilometres north of the Yukon–Alaska border. Mount Logan is the source of the Logan glaciers. Logan is believed to have the largest base circumference of any non-volcanic mountain on Earth, including a massif with eleven peaks over 5,000 metres. Due to active tectonic uplifting, Mount Logan is still rising in height. Before 1992, the exact elevation of Mount Logan was unknown and measurements ranged from 5,959 to 6,050 metres. In May 1992, a GSC expedition climbed Mount Logan and fixed the current height of 5,959 metres using GPS. Temperatures are low on and near Mount Logan. On the 5,000 m high plateau, air temperature hovers around −45 °C in the winter and reaches near freezing in summer with the median temperature for the year around −27 °C.
Minimal snow melt leads to a significant ice cap, reaching 300 m in certain spots. The Mount Logan massif is considered to contain all the surrounding peaks with less than 500 m of prominence, as listed below: In 1922, a geologist approached the Alpine Club of Canada with the suggestion that the club send a team to the mountain to reach the summit for the first time. An international team of Canadian and American climbers was assembled and they had planned their attempt in 1924 but funding and preparation delays postponed the trip until 1925; the international team of climbers began their journey in early May, crossing the mainland from the Pacific coast by train. They walked the remaining 200 kilometres to within 10 kilometres of the Logan Glacier where they established base camp. In the early evening of June 23, 1925, Albert H. MacCarthy, H. F. Lambart, Allen Carpé, W. W. Foster, Norman H. Read and Andy Taylor stood on top for the first time, it had taken them 65 days to approach the mountain from the nearest town, McCarthy and return, with all climbers intact.
1957 East Ridge. Don Monk, Gil Roberts and 3 others reached the summit on July 19. 1965 Hummingbird Ridge. Dick Long, Allen Steck, Jim Wilson, John Evans, Franklin Coale Sr. and Paul Bacon over 30 days, mid-July to Mid-August. Fred Beckey remarked: "couldn't believe that they had climbed that thing. We didn't think they had a chance". Featured in Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. 1967, the first ski descent of the mountain was made in two stages by Daniel C. Taylor main summit to the Kluane glacier 1977 Warbler Ridge. Dave Jones, Frank Baumann, Fred Thiessen, Jay Page and Rene Bucher in 22 days. 1978 West Ridge. Steve Davis, Jon Waterman, George Sievewright, Roger Hurt. Climbed ridge in 27 days "capsule-style". 1979 "Northwest Ridge" Michael Down, Paul Kindree, John Howe, Reid Carter and John Wittmayer climbed to the summit over 22 days, topping out on June 19. 1979 South-Southwest Ridge. Raymond Jotterand, Alan Burgess, Jim Elzinga and John Laughlan reached the summit after 15 days of climbing on June 30 and July 1.
1987 an alpine-style attempt on the Hummingbird Ridge ended with the deaths of Catherine Freer, North America's strongest female alpinist, David Cheesmond from South Africa and Canada, considered among the best alpinists in the world, when a snow cornice broke. 1992 June 6, an expedition sponsored by the Royal Canadian Geographic Society confirmed the height of Mount Logan using GPS. The leader was Michael Schmidt, with Lisel Currie, Leo Nadeay, Charlie Roots, J-C. Lavergne, Roger Laurilla, Pat Morrow, Karl Nagy, Sue Gould, Alan Björn, Lloyd Freese, Kevin McLaughlin and Rick Staley. 2017 May 23, 15-year-old Naomi Prohaska reached the summit. She was part of a team led by her father. Following the death of former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, a close friend of Trudeau's, proposed renaming the mountain Mount Trudeau. A mountain in British Columbia's Premier Range was named Mount Pierre Elliott Trudeau instead. During the last few days of May 2005, three climbers from the North Shore Search and Rescue team of North Vancouver became stranded on the mountain.
A joint operation by Canadian and American forces rescued the three climbers and took them to Anchorage, Alaska for treatment of frostbite. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Canada List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories List of Ultras in Canada List of elevation extremes by country Irving, R. L. G.. Ten Great Mountains. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. Roper, Steve. Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. San Francisco, CA, USA: Sierra Club Books. Pp. 179–182. ISBN 0-87156-292-8. Scott, Chic. Pushing the Limits, The Story of Canadian Mountaineering. Calgary, Canada: Rocky Mountain Books. ISBN 0-921102-59-3. Retrieved December 27, 2013. Selters, Andy. Ways to the Sky. Golden, CO, USA: American Alpine Club Press. ISBN 0-930410-83-1. Sherman, Paddy. Cloud Walkers - Six Climbs on Major Canadian Peaks. Toronto, Canada: Macmillan of Canada. Lib Congress Cat# 65-25069. Mount Log
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
In mountaineering in the United States, a thirteener is a mountain that exceeds 13,000 feet above mean sea level, similar to the more familiar "fourteeners," which exceed 14,000 feet. In most instances, "thirteeners" refers only to those peaks between 13,000 and 13,999 feet in elevation; the importance of thirteeners is greatest in Colorado, which has the majority of such peaks in North America with over 600 of them. Despite the large number of peaks, over 20 peak baggers have reported climbing all of Colorado's thirteeners. Thirteeners are significant in states whose highpoints fall between 13,000 and 13,999 feet. Regarding whether or not peaks in excess of 13,999 feet should be considered as "thirteeners", this article will count them as such for statistical purposes, but concentrate its focus on those peaks less than 14,000 feet since the higher peaks are covered in the fourteeners list. Not all summits over 13,000 feet qualify as thirteeners, but only those summits that mountaineers consider to be independent.
Objective standards for independence include a combination. However thirteener lists do not always use such objective rules. A rule used by mountaineers in the contiguous United States is that a peak must have at least 300 feet of prominence to qualify. According to the Mountaineering Club of Alaska, it is standard in Alaska to use a 500 ft prominence rule rather than a 300-foot rule; these are the standards applied for the lists below. Thirteeners are found in nine U. S. states. This table summarizes their numbers based on each state's prominence criteria: By the most detailed count, Colorado has 637 peaks that exceed 13,000 feet and meet the prominence criteria, of which 53 are fourteeners; the highest of them less than 14,000 feet are as follows: Grizzly Peak is not only the name of Colorado's highest thirteener, but the state has four other Grizzly Peaks plus one Grizzly Mountain on the list: Other notable Colorado thirteeners include: California has the second greatest number of thirteeners with 149 of them, of which 12 are fourteeners.
The highest under 14,000 feet are as follows: Other notable California thirteeners include: Alaska has at least 41 thirteeners that meet its more stringent prominence criteria of 500 ft, of which 20 are fourteeners. Different sources list varying numbers of 13,000+ ft peaks in the state because many of the peaks are unnamed and have no spot elevations given on the USGS topographical maps. Using a 300' interpolated prominence criterion, there are 61 13,000+ ft peaks in Alaska; the following list may miss a few peaks that should be included: Wyoming has 34 thirteeners with at least 300 ft of prominence, but no fourteeners. 30 of the 34 are located in the rugged and remote Wind River Range. The highest of them are: Other notable Wyoming thirteeners include: Utah has 17 thirteeners with at least 300 ft of prominence, but no fourteeners. All of them are located in the remote Uinta Mountains near the Wyoming border; the highest of the thirteeners are: New Mexico has 3 thirteeners, all located within about 40 miles of each other in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.
Hawaii has two thirteeners, the great shield volcanoes which comprise the bulk of the Big Island of Hawaii. Nevada has only a single thirteener that meets the threshold for inclusion, Wheeler Peak in Great Basin National Park with an impressive 7,568 feet of prominence. However, the highest point in the state is Boundary Peak, a sub-peak of California's Montgomery Peak with only 240 feet of prominence. Mount Rainier is the only mountain in Washington state that exceeds 13,000 feet, it has two summits that meet the prominence criteria, both of which are included on the list of fourteeners. Outline of the United States Index of United States-related articles Fourteener Mountain peaks of Alaska Mountain peaks of California Mountain peaks of Colorado Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains Mountain peaks of the United States Peak Lists by Gerry Roach 13ers.com - Home of Colorado's Thirteeners Climb13ers.com - Peakbagging Info for Colorado 13ers listsofjohn.com
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
David H. Jarvis
David Henry Jarvis was a captain in the United States Revenue Cutter Service. During the harsh winter of 1897–1898, Jarvis serving as a first lieutenant aboard the U. S. Revenue Cutter Bear, led the Overland Relief Expedition, bringing a three-man rescue team with a herd of about 400 reindeer across 1,500 miles of tundra and pack-ice to Point Barrow, Alaska, to bring needed food to 265 whalers whose ships had become stranded in the ice off the northern Alaska coast. Jarvis was born at Berlin, Maryland on August 24, 1862, he was appointed as a cadet to the United States Revenue Cutter Service on May 28, 1881. On June 18, 1883 he was commissioned as a temporary third lieutenant and his first assignment was aboard USRC Hamilton, reporting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 5, 1883; this assignment lasted a little more than two months as he was transferred from the cutter on September 11 for an undisclosed reason only to be reassigned to Hamilton again on November 24. While assigned to Hamilton his temporary rank was changed to permanent third lieutenant on December 26, 1883.
During the time Jarvis was assigned to Hamilton, her cruising area was from Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to Bodie Island, North Carolina, including Delaware Bay. Jarvis was transferred from Hamilton to USRC Stevens based out of New Bern, North Carolina on June 13, 1885. On March 16, 1888 Jarvis received orders that transferred him to the Pacific coast where he spent the balance of his career with the RCS, he reported aboard USRC Bear based in San Francisco, California for the first time on April 3, 1888 Aboard Bear, Jarvis made the first of many cruises on the Bering Sea Patrol. After his return from the patrol, he was transferred to USRC Thomas Corwin based in San Francisco on October 18, 1888. Corwin spent the winter patrolling waters near San Francisco Bay and was docked for repairs when Jarvis received orders transferring him from Corwin on March 14, 1889. On January 2, 1890 he reported aboard USRC Rush based in San Francisco. While assigned to Rush, Jarvis received orders promoting him to temporary second lieutenant.
Rush left San Francisco bound for the Seal Islands on June 5 and returned from the patrol on October 15 at Port Townsend, Washington. While assigned to Bear in August 1891, Jarvis helped load reindeer purchased in Siberia onto the decks of the cutter; the reindeer were transported to Unalaska in an effort to establish a herd and teach animal husbandry to the Eskimo natives. The experiment station was moved to Teller Reindeer Station with the assistance of personnel from Bear. On 18 January 1896 Jarvis was promoted to first lieutenant. In 1897, eight whaling ships were trapped in an Arctic ice field surrounding Point Barrow, the northernmost point of Alaska. Trapped by ice, the harsh environment, a dwindling food supply, the whalers had little chance of surviving. 0n November 29, 1897, the Bear, commanded by Captain Francis Tuttle, sailed from Port Townsend, Washington. It was too late in the year for the cutter to push through the ice, so it was decided the party must go overland, enlisting the help of natives, stopping by a reindeer station to purchase a herd of reindeer.
The overland trek left from Cape Vancouver, Alaska on December 16, 1897. The expedition was led by the executive officer of the Bear, they were accompanied by Dr. Samuel J. Call, the ship's surgeon of the Bear, for part of the way by reindeer handlers Frederick Koltchoff and Alexis Kalenin They were assisted by William Thomas Lopp, the Superintendent of the Teller Reindeer Station, Charlie Antisarlook, a native reindeer herder; the distance to Point Barrow overland from Cape Vancouver was 1,500 miles. The rescue party traveled and carried the provisions using dog sleds, sleds pulled by reindeer and skis; because of a lack of trained dogs, Jarvis instructed Bertholf to continue searching the Inuit villages for sled teams while he and Call went ahead to Cape Prince of Wales, where there were large numbers of domesticated reindeer. Bertholf helped re-provision the relief mission; the group reached Point Barrow on March 29, 1898, having walked most of the distance and endured temperatures as low as −45 degrees Fahrenheit.
Jarvis assumed command in accordance with orders from the Secretary of the Treasury. The expedition brought 382 reindeer to the whalers, having lost only 66. On July 28, 1898, the Bear reached the expedition officers could rejoin their ship. In spring 1899 Jarvis was promoted to command of the Bear and returned north to pay the Inuit for the reindeer. President William McKinley recognized the achievements of the rescue in a letter dated January 17, 1899 to the United States Congress, in which he requested of Congress "That gold medals of honor of appropriate design, to be approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, be awarded to Lieutenants Jarvis and Bertholf and Dr. Call, commemorative of their heroic struggles in aid of suffering fellow-men."In recognition of their work, Jarvis and Call were awarded Congressional Gold Medals for "heroic service rendered" in legislation passed on 28 June 1902. The enabling statute reads as follows: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby directed to bestow a gold medal of honor, of such design as he may approve, upon First Lieutenant David H. Jarvis, Second Lieutenant Ellsworth P. Bertholf, Doctor Samuel J. Call, all of the Revenue-Cutter Service and members of the overland expedition of eighteen hundred and ninety-seven and eighteen hundred and ninety-eight for the relief of the whaling fleet in the arctic region