Cocoparra National Park
The Cocoparra National Park is a protected national park, located in the Riverina region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 8,357-hectare national park is situated 457 kilometres southwest of Sydney and 25 kilometres northeast of Griffith; the park includes a prominent range of hills such as Bingar Mountain, 455 metres above sea level and Brogden Mountain, 390 metres above sea level, in an otherwise flat landscape. Adjoining the national park to the north is the Cocoparra Nature Reserve; the national park was gazetted in December 1969. The nature reserve was dedicated in 1963 with an area of 4,647 hectares; the Binya-Cocoparra area is classified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because of its large population of the near threatened painted honeyeater, as well as the diamond firetail. The climate is semi arid; the vegetation communities reflect this, with wattle, orchids and blue-tinged cypress pines. The geology comprises Upper Devonian sandstones and conglomerates.
There are a number of a campground at Woolshed Flat. Protected areas of New South Wales List of national parks of Australia NSW Parks and Wildlife Service Cocoparra National Park website Online version of Cocoparra National Park Management Plan
Bago Bluff National Park
Bago Bluff is a national park in New South Wales, Australia 410 km northeast of Sydney. It is situated south west of Wauchope and includes parts of the former Broken Bago State Forest and a part of Lorne State Forest; the Bago Bluff National Park includes in the northern section the old Bago Bluff Flora Reserve and Six B Flora Reserve. Bago Bluff offers splendid views of the Hastings Valley from the top of the bluff which can be accessed via several forest roads from the south, including Bago Road; the park's northern boundary is on southern side of the Oxley Highway where there are two badly washed 4WD tracks into the park. Quarries in the park have yielded leaf and shell fossils. Birds that may be spotted in the park include: Australian magpies, golden whistlers, green winged pigeons, grey fantails, large-billed scrubwrens, spotted pardalotes, pied currawongs, striated thornbills and white-browed scrubwrens. Lantana has become a problem in the park where it is covering some of the tracks. Protected areas of New South Wales
Ben Halls Gap National Park
Ben Halls Gap National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 251 km north of Sydney. Protected areas of New South Wales
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
The Richmond River is a river with a mature wave dominated, barrier estuary, situated in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. The river rises in the Great Dividing Range, on the southern slopes of McPherson Range, west of Mount Lindesay, flows south east and north east, joined by twelve tributaries, including the Wilsons River, before reaching its mouth at its confluence with the Coral Sea of the South Pacific Ocean near between Ballina. On its journey it passes through the towns of Kyogle, Casino and Woodburn. Summerland Way is situated adjacent to much of the middle reaches of the course of Richmond River. At Ballina, the Pacific Highway crosses the river; the catchment area of the river is estimated at 6,862 square kilometres, which makes it the sixth largest catchment in New South Wales. The traditional custodians of the land surrounding the Richmond River are the Aboriginal people of the Githabul, whose territory reached north to the current city of Toowoomba and included the current towns of Tenterfield and Warwick.
One of the annual rituals of the Githabul people was the movement from the mountain ranges to the coast during the winter months, when the mullet were plentiful. Omitted by Captain James Cook when he sailed up the east coast of the Australian mainland in 1770, it wasn't until Captain Henry John Rous identified the mouth of the river in 1828 that it was discovered by Europeans. Rous sailed about 20 miles up river, he subsequently named the river Richmond after the fifth Duke of Richmond. That year the explorer Allan Cunningham reached the river by land; the river was a major port from the 1840s until well into the 20th century. Soon after the first white settlers arrived they discovered the abundant supply of Australian Red Cedar in the Richmond Valley and began logging; the river was vital in the transportation of this resource. At the time of its discovery in 1828 and until the late 1890s the river had a treacherous mouth of shifting sand bars, many ships and lives were lost on it. Understandably, a decision was made to construct two breakwaters to channel the river's flow and these were completed in the early 1900s.
The construction of the breakwaters led to the formation of Shaw's Bay. In 1846, a conflict between white settlers and local Aborigines in the river valley caused the deaths of around 100 of the latter. With the decline of shipping as a transport mode, owing to better roads and rail, the closing of the North Coast Steam Navigation Company in 1954, the river became less important as a port. For boats, the river is navigable for a short way up its length as far as Casino. Wilsons River, which flows through the city of Lismore and is a major tributary of the Richmond, is navigable at least as far as Boatharbour 12 kilometres upstream from Lismore; the Richmond River is used for irrigation along its length. Several weirs have been constructed in order to mitigate the effects of flooding, most notably at Casino; the freshwater reaches of the Richmond River once supported the endemic Richmond River Cod, similar to Murray Cod and a subspecies of Eastern Freshwater Cod. This unique native fish became extinct between the 1930s and 1950s due to habitat degradation and gross overfishing, including with dynamite during the building of the local railway line.
The endangered Oxleyan Pygmy Perch has been recorded from the river. Rivers of New South Wales List of rivers of Australia Border Ranges National Park Richmond Range National Park "Richmond River catchment". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Richmond River County Council Northern Rivers Catchment Management Authority
Weddin Mountains National Park
Weddin Mountains is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 291 kilometres west of Sydney. It is a small crescent shaped range, with a high point some 750 metres AHD , running north south with steep cliffs on the eastern side sloping more down to the plane in the west. Weddin mountains is a small patch of remnant vegetation which escaped clearing due to its ruggedness, it has lots of aircraft passing overhead on their way from Sydney to Adelaide, is part of the Lachlan Fold system and is Wiradjuri country. Ben Hall, who plundered the Forbes-Grenfell area in the 1850s used the Weddin Mountains as a refuge, he holed up in a cave on the north-west side of the park with his gang, which included Johnnie Gilbert and Frank Gardiner. It is rumoured Ben Hall buried a treasure here. There is a walk around'Seaton's Historic Farm', now part of the national park. Seatons Farm is how his wife turned every bit of wire into something useful. Jim Seaton hand made 3 km/1.8 miles of kangaroo proof fence by hand, with posts of local saplings, which are rot and vermin proof.
The property was occupied during the Depression it was set up as a farm. Times and the land were hard and the buildings represent this; the sheds have walls made from flattened corrugated iron. One of the sheds is full of old wire, iron sheets, everything you can imagine. All the old machinery is still there, sitting where it was when the family sold the property to the Government in the 1980s. A unique place, showing how the less well off farmers did it in the early and mid 1900s. There are 216 species of animals recorded in Weddin Mountains National Park, the vast majority of which are birds; the species list includes three types of wallaby one of, the endangered brush tailed rock wallaby. The species list includes painted honeyeater, swift parrot, little lorikeet and turquoise parrot. Pest species seen in the park are cats, foxes and sheep; the park is part of the South-west Slopes of NSW Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for the conservation of swift parrots and superb parrots.
Weddin Mountains National Park is most approached from Grenfell. Travelling west from Grenfell on the Mid Western Highway there are sign posts to Holy Camp and Ben Halls Cave; the Google Earth route from Grenfell will take you along Euladrie road which ends at a farm two kilometres from the park with farmland in between. Near Seaton's Farm is Ben Halls camping and picnic area with well designed fireplace/barbecues, large enough to permit the use of camp ovens, your own barbecue or for an open fire as well as having its own BBQ plate, it is a short walk from here to Ben Halls Cave. Holy Camp is 19 kilometres south-west of Grenfell, Coordinates 33.897857°S 148.002901°E / -33.897857. The last 3.8 kilometres are dirt road. It is one of the entrances to the park with a pit toilet, parking area, picnic tables and fireplaces. Camping is allowed. There don't rely on it. From here you can walk to Peregrine lookouts. There is lots of wildlife in and around the carpark including lace monitors and skinks by day and brushtail possums and owlet nightjars by night.
The Eualdrie walking trail leads from Holy Camp and is advertised as a 2.6-kilometre 2.5 hour return trip passing through Peregrine Lookout which takes 1.5 hours return. This was tested as 30 minutes to Perrigrine lookout, 23 minutes more to the Cairn at the summit and 40 minutes return. Peregrine Lookout is south of the carpark and from there the path turns back on itself as it proceeds upwards so that the cairn at the summit is a little north of the carpark; the path appears to continue past the cairn at Euradrie Trig and can be followed down to Ben Halls Cave. This small range is mentioned in a surprising number of publications. Two of note are A West Country Ballad which refers to a bounty hunter who unsuccessfully tried to capture Gardiner in the Weddin mountains and Robbery Under Arms where Weddin mountains gets a mention as a hideout. Protected areas of New South Wales
Coorabakh National Park
Coorabakh is a national park located near Hannam Vale in New South Wales, Australia, 272 kilometres northeast of Sydney. Three volcanic outcrops known as Big Nellie, Flat Nellie and Little Nellie dominate the park; the park is covered in tall eucalypt forest and shrubs on the exposed Lansdowne escarpment, while warm temperate and subtropical rainforest can be found in more protected areas. Endangered species such as the spotted-tailed quoll, powerful owl and stuttering frog can be found in the area. Newbys Cave is can be reached by following Newbys Creek from the carpark, while Newbys Lookout offers picnic facilities and panoramic views of the Manning River valley. Flat Rock Lookout overlooks the upper Lansdowne Comboyne Plateau escarpment. Starrs Creek picnic area has a rainforest viewing platform; the park borders the Lansdowne State Forest. Protected areas of New South Wales Coopernook, New South Wales Coorabakh National Park