King River (Tasmania)
The King River is a major perennial river in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. Formed by the confluence of the Eldon and South Eldon rivers, the King River rises near Eldon Range on the slopes of the West Coast Range between Mount Huxley and Mount Jukes; the river flows south and west, joined by nine tributaries including the Tofft, Nelson and Queen rivers before emptying into Macquarie Harbour near Strahan, merging with the Southern Ocean. The river descends 24 metres over its 52-kilometre course; the upper section of the river lies in a glaciated valley, with glacier scouring scars high up on the upper parts of the mountains of the West Coast Range. Small glacial lakes occur on and north of Mount Sedgwick. Lake Beatrice for instance lies on the eastern slope of Mount Sedgwick; the upper portion of the King River valley was first surveyed for damming in 1917 by the Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company. The river is impounded by the Crotty Dam to form Lake Burbury, covering 54 square kilometres over the former valley and named after the first Australian born Governor of Tasmania, Stanley Burbury.
Water drawn from the lake is used to supply the conventional hydroelectric John Butters Power Station, operated by Hydro Tasmania. Below the dam wall, the river flows through a narrow channel as it flows west towards Teepookana, in the last 10 kilometres of the river, where extensive silting from the mine tailings that have been carried down from Queenstown, has created such a resource that at least one mining company has in the past proposed the mining of the deposits at the edge of the river, as well as the delta formed out into Macquarie Harbour due to the amount of economically viable materials in the silt; the small timber mill community adjacent to the old alignment of the Lyell Highway was submerged, as was a significant portion of the old railway alignment of the North Mount Lyell Railway between Linda and Pillinger. The site of the townsite of Crotty, the smelters of Crotty were submerged; the King River was considered to be Australia's most polluted river. Mining started in the 1880s, with the Queen River, a major tributary of the King River, being used for waste water disposal from the Mt Lyell copper mine.
Between 1922 and 1995 low grade ore was concentrated on site and the tailings dumped in the river also. About 1.5 million tonnes of sulfidic tailings entered the river system each year up to 1995, along with huge volumes of acidic, metal-rich water flowing from the workings. This'acid mine drainage' is derived from water leaching through the exposed and oxidised sulfide rocks; when it was in operation, the fumes from the ore smelter produced acid rain which leached minerals from the bare Queenstown hills. In 1992 the King River was dammed above the confluence with the Queen River to generate hydroelectric power at the Crotty Dam; this changed the flow regime in the King River, affected the way tailings were transported through the river system. The tailings in the river affect the water quality. About 100 million tonnes of tailings have been deposited on the banks and bed of the King River and in a delta at the mouth of the river where it enters Macquarie Harbour. Since the closure of the mine in late 1995, the construction of a tailings dam by the new operators, tailings no longer enter the river system.
However, acid water continues to enter the river due to mine dewatering and run-off from the waste rock dumps. Without the buffering provided by the alkaline tailings, the acidity in the Queen and King rivers has increased, dissolved metal concentrations have increased-to levels toxic to aquatic life; the north bank of the lower portion of the King River valley was the route for the old "Abt" rack railway to Queenstown. In 1962 the original builder and owner, the Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company closed and removed the line; this has been since restored in early 2002 for tourism purposes. The new line follows the same route and is known as the West Coast Wilderness Railway. Rivers of Tasmania Crawford, Patsy. King: Story of a River. Montpelier Press. ISBN 1-876597-02-X. Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania - A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown. Http://www.deh.gov.au/ssd/publications/ssr/120.html http://www.rpdc.tas.gov.au/soer/casestudy/16/index.php http://www.hydro.com.au/home/Tourism+and+Recreation/King+Catchment/ https://web.archive.org/web/20060819123555/http://www.hydro.com.au/Storages/Storage.pdf
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an ore body, vein, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package, of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, oil shale, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. De Re Metallica, Georgius Agricola, 1550, Book I, Para. 1Mining operations create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed.
Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, modern practices have improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone and metals found close to the Earth's surface; these were used to make early weapons. Flint mines have been found in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts and galleries; the mines at Grimes Graves and Krzemionki are famous, like most other flint mines, are Neolithic in origin. Other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District; the oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the Ngwenya Mine in Swaziland, which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old.
At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mines of a similar age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons and tools. Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself. Quarries for turquoise and copper were found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna. Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties; the gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps.
The miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust. Mining in Europe has a long history. Examples include the silver mines of Laurium. Although they had over 20,000 slaves working them, their technology was identical to their Bronze Age predecessors. At other mines, such as on the island of Thassos, marble was quarried by the Parians after they arrived in the 7th century BC; the marble was shipped away and was found by archaeologists to have been used in buildings including the tomb of Amphipolis. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns, he captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage producing 26 tons per year. However, it was the Romans who developed large scale mining methods the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts; the water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed and driving simple machinery.
The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing. They built numerous aqueducts to supply water to the minehead. There, the water stored in large tanks; when a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold veins. The rock was worked upon by fire-setting to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a stream of water; the resulting thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed by further streams of water from the overhead tanks. The Roman miners used similar methods to work cassiterite deposits in Cornwall and lead ore in the Pennines; the methods had been developed by the Romans in Spain in 25 AD to exploit large alluvial gold deposits, the largest site being at Las Medulas, where seven long aqueducts tapped local rivers and sluiced the deposits. Spain was one of the most important mining regions, but all regions of the Roman Empire were exploited.
In Great Britain the natives had mined minerals for millennia, but after the Roman conquest, the scale of the operations increased as the Romans needed Britannia's resources gold, silver
Mount Jukes (Tasmania)
Mount Jukes is a mountain located on the Jukes Range, a spur off the West Coast Range, in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. With an elevation of 1,168 metres above sea level, with multiple peaks, glacial lakes on its upper eastern reaches, Mount Jukes is situated above the town of Crotty and is west of Lake Burbury; the mountain was named by Charles Gould in 1862 in honour of Professor Joseph Jukes, an English geologist who gathered evidence to part afforded support for Charles Darwin's theories of coral reefs. Jukes had visited Hobart in 1842-3 on HMS Fly, it has had mines and small mining camps adjacent to the lakes, on the northern upper slopes, near where the Mount Jukes road traverses the upper slopes of the King River Gorge. The Mount Jukes Road was constructed by the Hydro in the 1980s at the time, it connects southern Queenstown with Darwin Dam, where the utilised North Mount Lyell Railway formation between the Linda Valley and Crotty was submerged by Lake Burbury. Two named glacial lakes in the upper part of the eastern side of the mountain are the Upper Lake Jukes and the Lower Lake Jukes.
It is by the lakes that a number of small mines were started in the early years of the twentieth century. Mount Huxley is located to the north and Mount Darwin is located to the south. Mount Jukes has a number of named features: Jukes Range – the ridge between Proprietary Peak in the north, South Jukes Peak Mount Jukes – 1,168 metres Proprietary Peak – 1,104 metres, north west of main part of Mount Jukes, with the Crown Spur the most noticeable feature when viewed from the town of Queenstown to the north. Pyramid Peak – 1,080 metres West Jukes Peak – 1,062 metres South Jukes Peak – 1,014 metres East Jukes Peak – 731 metres, closest to King River Gorge and the Crotty Dam, to the north of the Mount Jukes Road. Central PeakSome other named features include Yellow Knob, Yellow Knob Spur, South Jukes Spur, Crown Spur, East Jukes Spur, Intercolonial Spur, Cliff Spur, Newall Spur. List of highest mountains of Tasmania Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9.
Crawford, Patsy. King: Story of a River. Montpelier Press. ISBN 1-876597-02-X. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania - A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown
Crotty is a former gazetted townsite, located in Western Tasmania, Australia. The township was located on the eastern lower slopes of Mount Jukes, below the West Coast Range, on the southern bank of the King River; the locality had had a former name of King River The town reserve was gazetted on 5 June 1900. The town survey was completed in November 1900. By 1902 there had been development of over 150 dwellings, 700 people living in the town; the last residents to move away left in 1928. In photographs found in Geoffrey Blainey's The Peaks of Lyell, the foreground shows a bridge, the Baxter River bridge; this was a crucial connection for people travelling between the railway stopping places. At the turn of the twentieth century, the township had had a smelter and railway connection with the North Mount Lyell mine; the North Mount Lyell smelters failed, despite attempts in 1902 to correct issues. The company was absorbed by the Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company in 1903; the townsite soon lost population, the North Mount Lyell Railway which serviced Crotty's connections with Gormanston and Pillinger remained in service for a couple of decades before closing.
Most historical photos of Crotty show the smelters, the hotels, the small houses/huts. The most iconic photograph is that found in Geoffrey Blainey's The Peaks of Lyell, dated 1902, taken from the embankment just east of the railway line, looking west, up the main street with the smoke from the smelter in the air, Mount Jukes in the background. During the late 1970s and at an early stage in the "No Dams" campaign to stop the establishment of a dam on the Franklin River, a small group of musicians in Queenstown formed a group called the'Crotty Ditty Band'. During the building of the King power development in the 1980s, the Hydro Crotty Camp was home to several hundred dam construction workers In the 1990s the townsite was inundated by Lake Burbury, the result of the completed King River Power development scheme. Despite this, the Tasmanian 1:25000 Owen map still identifies the Proclaimed Town of Crotty. On the eastern shores of Lake Burbury, the land south of the Lyell Highway, adjacent to the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park, is known as the Crotty Conservation Area.
This has an area of 44.2 square kilometres and was established on 27 December 2000. Darwin Dam Crotty Dam West Coast Tasmania Mines Atkinson, H. K.. Railway Tickets of Tasmania. ISBN 0-9598718-7-X. Rae, Lou; the Abt Railway and Railways of the Lyell region. Sandy Bay: Lou Rae. ISBN 0-9592098-7-5. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania – A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown. List of conservation areas map with Crotty and Queenstown
Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le
Hydro Tasmania, known for most of its history as the Hydro-Electric Commission or The Hydro, is the trading name of the Hydro-Electric Corporation, a Tasmanian Government business enterprise, the predominant electricity generator in the state of Tasmania, Australia. The Hydro was oriented towards hydro-electricity, due to Tasmania's dramatic topography and high rainfall in the central and western parts of the state. Today Hydro Tasmania operates thirty hydro-electric and one gas power station, is a joint owner in three wind farms; the Minister for Energy the Hon. Guy Barnett MP, has portfolio responsibility for Hydro Tasmania. Hydro Tasmania operates under the Government Business Enterprises Act 1995 and the Hydro-Electric Corporation Act 1995, has a reporting requirement to the Treasurer of Tasmania the Hon. Peter Gutwein MP. Hydro Tasmania was projected to pay the Tasmania Government a dividend of A$42 million in 2016. In 1914, the State Government set up the Hydro-Electric Department to complete the first HEC power station, the Waddamana Hydro-Electric Power Station.
Prior to that two private hydro-electric stations had been opened the Launceston City Council's Duck Reach Power Station, opened 1895 on the South Esk River and the Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company's Lake Margaret Power Station, opened in 1914. Both these power stations were taken over by the HEC and closed in 1955 and 2006 Following the Second World War in the 1940s and early 1950s, many migrants came to Tasmania to work for the HEC with construction of dams and sub-stations; this was similar to the Snowy Mountains Scheme in New South Wales and similar effects in bringing in a significant number of people into the local community enriching the social fabric and culture of each state. Most constructions in this era were concentrated in the centre of the island; as the choice of rivers and catchments in the central highlands were exhausted, the planners and engineers began serious surveying of the rivers of the west and south west regions of the state. The long term vision of those within the HEC and the politicians in support of the process, was for continued utilisation of all of the state's water resources.
As a consequence of such a vision, the politicians and HEC bureaucrats were able to create the upper Gordon river power development schemes despite worldwide dismay at the loss of the original Lake Pedder. The hydro-industrialisation of Tasmania was seen as paramount above all, the complaints from outsiders were treated with disdain. Following the flooding of Lake Pedder by the HEC for the upper Gordon Power Development and the subsequent backlash against the HEC incursions into the south west wilderness of Tasmania, environmental groups of the 1970s and 80s alerted the rest of Australia to the continued power that the HEC had over the Tasmanian environment and politics. Numbers of Tasmanian politicians either rose or fell on their alignment with the support of the HEC and its power development schemes in the south west and West Coast of Tasmania; when the HEC proposed a dam on the Gordon River, sited below the Franklin River, there was widespread and vigorous opposition. During the Franklin River'No Dams' campaign it was common for members of families to be in conflict with one another by being aligned with the HEC proposals or the Conservationists.
The Tasmanian Labor Government attempted to resolve the dispute by offering a compromise dam, sited on the Gordon River above the Olga River, which would have avoided flooding the Franklin River. However no-one wanted this compromise. Conservationists were concerned that the Franklin River area and surrounding wilderness would be damaged, those in favour of a dam preferred an option that would utilise the Franklin's water as well as the Gordon's water; the Tasmanian Government offered a referendum on the issue, which only offered two choices: the Gordon below Franklin dam and the Gordon above Olga dam. There was widespread condemnation that the referendum did not offer a 3rd choice of not having any dam on the Gordon River, various opinions were offered as to the best way of communicating this at the ballot box; as it turned out, of the 92% of eligible voters to attend the voting booths that day, 47% voted for the Gordon below Franklin option, with the remainder voting informally or for the Gordon above Olga option.
The conservationists were successful in their campaign to stop any dam on the Gordon River, the proposal and early works on the Gordon-below-Franklin Dam ended in 1983 when it was blockaded by the environmentalists and the elected Liberal State Government lost a High Court challenge to the Commonwealth's powers. The new Hawke Labor Government in Canberra had opposed the Franklin dam and had moved to stop its construction; the compromise between the State and Federal government and conservationists led the HEC to see the end of an over fifty year long dam making enterprise in the construction of the Henty River and King River power developments. The conservationists and the HEC in the 1980s acknowledged that there were a limited range of options for further power development schemes, it was inevitable that the substantial workforce within the HEC employed in the investigation and development of further dams would become redundant. Since the late 1990s HEC water storages have been progressively drawn down due to power demand exceeding long term supply, the overcoming of, the original reason the Gordon-below-Franklin dam was proposed.
The shortfall has been o
Lake Burbury is a man-made water reservoir created by the Crotty Dam inundating the upper King River valley that lies east of the West Coast Range. Discharge from the reservoir feeds the John Butters Hydroelectric Power Station and operated by Hydro Tasmania; the reservoir was named in honour of a former Governor of Tasmania. The lake is fed by rivers from the north, including the upper King River, the Eldon River. Valleys that open to the area include the Linda Valley, it has a natural lake just north of its northern shore known as Lake Beatrice, at the eastern end of Mount Sedgwick. It has a surface area of 54 square kilometres, it is susceptible to extreme weather. Its feeder rivers are the upper King, Nelson and Eldon Rivers. There are design features in the Crotty Dam to lower the surface level in the event of severe floodwaters; the lake has the'Bradshaw' bridge crossing it to connect the Lyell Highway across it, has two dams - one in the King River Gorge - the Crotty Dam, the other adjacent to Mount Darwin, the Darwin Dam.
The dam inundated the historical sites of the Darwin and Crotty - as well as the bridge of the North Mount Lyell Railway over the King River, not salvaged before the flooding. Significant portions of the Kelly Basin Road are inundated as well; the Crotty Dam site had been surveyed in the early twentieth century but the proposed dam did not proceed at that time. It was involved in the last major dam construction by Hydro Tasmania. Crotty Dam and Lake Burbury have been identified as indicative places on the Register of the National Estate; the lake lies to the west of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park and has a series of buffer zone conservation areas. The Hydro Tasmania jurisdiction of the lake is to the 242-metre elevation round the edge of the lake, as well as the island created by the impoundment. A webcam is located on the south east shore of the lake which looks across to where the Lyell Highway emerges from the Linda Valley and moves south around the eastern base of Mount Owen.
List of reservoirs and dams in Tasmania List of lakes in Tasmania Blainey, Geoffrey. The Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Rae, Lou; the Abt Railway and Railways of the Lyell region. Sandy Bay: Lou Rae. ISBN 0-9592098-7-5. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania - A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown. Whitham, Lindsay. Railways, Mines and People and other historical research. Sandy Bay: Tasmanian Historical Research Association. ISBN 0-909479-21-6. Hydro Tasmania information Australian Heritage Database entry