An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geophysical and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed. Observatories were as simple as containing an astronomical sextant or Stonehenge. Astronomical observatories are divided into four categories: space-based, ground-based, underground-based. Ground-based observatories, located on the surface of Earth, are used to make observations in the radio and visible light portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Most optical telescopes are housed within a dome or similar structure, to protect the delicate instruments from the elements. Telescope domes have a slit or other opening in the roof that can be opened during observing, closed when the telescope is not in use. In most cases, the entire upper portion of the telescope dome can be rotated to allow the instrument to observe different sections of the night sky. Radio telescopes do not have domes.
For optical telescopes, most ground-based observatories are located far from major centers of population, to avoid the effects of light pollution. The ideal locations for modern observatories are sites that have dark skies, a large percentage of clear nights per year, dry air, are at high elevations. At high elevations, the Earth's atmosphere is thinner, thereby minimizing the effects of atmospheric turbulence and resulting in better astronomical "seeing". Sites that meet the above criteria for modern observatories include the southwestern United States, Canary Islands, the Andes, high mountains in Mexico such as Sierra Negra. A newly emerging site which should be added to this list is Mount Gargash. With an elevation of 3600 m above sea level, it is the home to the Iranian National Observatory and its 3.4m INO340 telescope. Major optical observatories include Mauna Kea Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory in the US, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, Paranal Observatory in Chile.
Specific research study performed in 2009 shows that the best possible location for ground-based observatory on Earth is Ridge A — a place in the central part of Eastern Antarctica. This location provides the least atmospheric disturbances and best visibility. Beginning in 1930s, radio telescopes have been built for use in the field of radio astronomy to observe the Universe in the radio portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; such an instrument, or collection of instruments, with supporting facilities such as control centres, visitor housing, data reduction centers, and/or maintenance facilities are called radio observatories. Radio observatories are located far from major population centers to avoid electromagnetic interference from radio, TV, other EMI emitting devices, but unlike optical observatories, radio observatories can be placed in valleys for further EMI shielding; some of the world's major radio observatories include the Socorro, in New Mexico, United States, Jodrell Bank in the UK, Arecibo in Puerto Rico, Parkes in New South Wales and Chajnantor in Chile.
Since the mid-20th century, a number of astronomical observatories have been constructed at high altitudes, above 4,000–5,000 m. The largest and most notable of these is the Mauna Kea Observatory, located near the summit of a 4,205 m volcano in Hawaiʻi; the Chacaltaya Astrophysical Observatory in Bolivia, at 5,230 m, was the world's highest permanent astronomical observatory from the time of its construction during the 1940s until 2009. It has now been surpassed by the new University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory, an optical-infrared telescope on a remote 5,640 m mountaintop in the Atacama Desert of Chile; the oldest proto-observatories, in the sense of a private observation post, Wurdi Youang, Australia Zorats Karer, Armenia Loughcrew, Ireland Newgrange, Ireland Stonehenge, Great Britain Quito Astronomical Observatory, located 12 minutes south of the Equator in Quito, Ecuador. Chankillo, Peru El Caracol, Mexico Abu Simbel, Egypt Kokino, Republic of Macedonia Observatory at Rhodes, Greece Goseck circle, Germany Ujjain, India Arkaim, Russia Cheomseongdae, South Korea Angkor Wat, CambodiaThe oldest true observatories, in the sense of a specialized research institute, include: 825 AD: Al-Shammisiyyah observatory, Iraq 869: Mahodayapuram Observatory, India 1259: Maragheh observatory, Iran 1276: Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory, China 1420: Ulugh Beg Observatory, Uzbekistan 1442: Beijing Ancient Observatory, China 1577: Constantinople Observatory of Taqi ad-Din, Turkey 1580: Uraniborg, Denmark 1581: Stjerneborg, Denmark 1642: Panzano Observatory, Italy 1642: Round Tower, Denmark 1633: Leiden Observatory, Netherlands 1667: Paris Observatory, France 1675: Royal Greenwich Observatory, England 1695: Sukharev Tower, Russia 1711: Berlin Observatory, Germany 1724: Jantar Mantar, India 1753: Stockholm Observatory, Sweden 1753: Vilnius University Observatory, Lithuania 1753: Navy Royal Institute and Observatory, Spain 1759: Trieste Observatory, Italy 1757: Macfarlane Observatory, Scotland 1759: Turin Observatory, Italy 1764: Brera Astronomical Observatory, Italy 1765: Mohr Observatory, Indonesia 1774: Vatican Observatory, Vatican 1785: Dunsink Observatory, Ireland 1786: Madras Observatory, India 1789: Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland 1790: Real Observatorio de Madrid, Spain, 1803: National Astronomical Observatory, Bogotá, Colombia.
1811: Tartu Old Observatory, Estonia 1812: Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Italy 1830/1842: Depot of Charts & Instruments
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. More all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject is physical cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest of the natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. Astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, analyzed using basic principles of physics.
Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs still play an active role in the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject. Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena."
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees; some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye.
In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically; the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations. The Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and inven
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill known as UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, or Carolina is a public research university in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. It is the flagship of the 17 campuses of the University of North Carolina system. After being chartered in 1789, the university first began enrolling students in 1795, which allows it to be one of three schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States. Among the claimants, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is the only one to have held classes and graduated students as a public university in the eighteenth century; the first public institution of higher education in North Carolina, the school opened its doors to students on February 12, 1795. The university offers degrees in over 70 courses of study through fourteen colleges and the College of Arts and Sciences. All undergraduates receive a liberal arts education and have the option to pursue a major within the professional schools of the university or within the College of Arts and Sciences from the time they obtain junior status.
Under the leadership of President Kemp Plummer Battle, in 1877 North Carolina became coeducational and began the process of desegregation in 1951 when African-American graduate students were admitted under Chancellor Robert Burton House. In 1952, North Carolina opened its own hospital, UNC Health Care, for research and treatment, has since specialized in cancer care; the school's students and sports teams are known as "Tar Heels". UNC's faculty and alumni include 9 Nobel Prize laureates, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, 49 Rhodes Scholars. Additional notable alumni include a U. S. President, a U. S. Vice President, 38 Governors of U. S. States, 98 members of the United States Congress, 9 Cabinet members, 39 Henry Luce Scholars, 9 World Cup winners and 3 astronauts as well as founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies; the campus covers 729 acres of Chapel Hill's downtown area, encompassing the Morehead Planetarium and the many stores and shops located on Franklin Street. Students can participate in over 550 recognized student organizations.
The student-run newspaper The Daily Tar Heel has won national awards for collegiate media, while the student radio station WXYC provided the world's first internet radio broadcast. In 2018, UNC was ranked amongst the top 30 universities in the United States according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Washington Monthly, U. S. News & World Report. Internationally, UNC is ranked 33rd and 34th in the world by Academic Ranking of World Universities and U. S. News and World Report, respectively. UNC is regarded as a Public Ivy, an institution which provides an Ivy League collegiate experience at a public school price. North Carolina is one of the charter members of the Atlantic Coast Conference, founded on June 14, 1953. Competing athletically as the Tar Heels, North Carolina has achieved great success in sports, most notably in men's basketball, women's soccer, women's field hockey. Chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly on December 11, 1789, the university's cornerstone was laid on October 12, 1793, near the ruins of a chapel, chosen because of its central location within the state.
The first public university chartered under the US Constitution, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is one of three universities that claims to be the oldest public university in the United States and the only such institution to confer degrees in the eighteenth century as a public institution. During the Civil War, North Carolina Governor David Lowry Swain persuaded Confederate President Jefferson Davis to exempt some students from the draft, so the university was one of the few in the Confederacy that managed to stay open. However, Chapel Hill suffered the loss of more of its population during the war than any village in the South, when student numbers did not recover, the university was forced to close during Reconstruction from December 1, 1870 until September 6, 1875. Despite initial skepticism from university President Frank Porter Graham, on March 27, 1931, legislation was passed to group the University of North Carolina with the State College of Agriculture and Engineering and Woman's College of the University of North Carolina to form the Consolidated University of North Carolina.
In 1963, the consolidated university was made coeducational, although most women still attended Woman's College for their first two years, transferring to Chapel Hill as juniors, since freshmen were required to live on campus and there was only one women's residence hall. As a result, Woman's College was renamed the "University of North Carolina at Greensboro", the University of North Carolina became the "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." In 1955, UNC Chapel Hill desegregated its undergraduate divisions. During World War II, UNC Chapel Hill was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. During the 1960s, the campus was the location of significant political protest. Prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protests about local racial segregation which began in Franklin Street restaurants led to mass demonstrations and disturbance; the climate of civil unrest prompted the 1963 Speaker Ban Law prohibiting speeches by communists on state campuses in North Carolina.
The law was criticized by university Chancellor William Brantley Aycock and university President William Friday, but was not reviewed by the North Carolina General Assembly until 1965. Small amendments to allow "infrequent" visits failed to placate the student body when the university's board of trustees overruled new Chancellor Paul Frederick Sh
San Diego State University
San Diego State University is a public research university in San Diego, California. Founded in 1897 as San Diego Normal School, it is the third-oldest university in the 23-member California State University system. SDSU has a Fall 2018 student body of 34,828 and an alumni base of more than 280,000, it is classified among "Doctoral Universities: High Research Activity." In the 2015–16 fiscal year, the university obtained $130 million in public and private funding—a total of 707 awards—up from $120.6 million the previous fiscal year. As reported by the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index released by the Academic Analytics organization of Stony Brook, New York, SDSU is the number one small research university in the United States for four academic years in a row. SDSU sponsors the second-highest number of Fulbright Scholars in the State of California, just behind UC Berkeley. Since 2005, the university has produced over 65 Fulbright student scholars; the university generates over $2.4 billion annually for the San Diego economy, while 60 percent of SDSU graduates remain in San Diego, making SDSU a primary educator of the region's work force.
Committed to serving the diverse San Diego region, SDSU ranks among the top ten universities nationwide in terms of ethnic and racial diversity among its student body, as well as the number of bachelor's degrees conferred upon minority students. San Diego State University ranks in the top 500 universities in the world, according to Forbes, is among the top 91st percentile of public colleges in the United States. San Diego State University is a member of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities. Established on March 13, 1897, San Diego State University first began as the San Diego Normal School, meant to educate local women as elementary school teachers, it was located on a 17-acre campus on Park Boulevard in University Heights. It opened with 91 students. In 1923, the San Diego Normal School became San Diego State Teachers College, "a four-year public institution controlled by the state Board of Education."
By the 1930s the school had outgrown its original campus. In 1931 it moved to its current location on a mesa at what was the eastern edge of San Diego. In 1935, the school expanded its offerings beyond teacher education and became San Diego State College. In 1960, San Diego State College became a part of the California State Colleges system, now known as The California State University. In 1972, San Diego State College became California State University, San Diego, in 1974 San Diego State University. John F. Kennedy the President of the United States of America, gave the graduation commencement address at San Diego State University on June 6, 1963. Kennedy was given an honorary doctorate degree in law at the ceremony, making SDSU the first California State College to award an honorary doctorate. In 1964, this event was registered as California Historical Landmark #798. On May 29, 1964, civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. addressed a near-capacity audience in the Open Air Theater. King discussed his vision for the future and called for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 being debated in the Senate.
In April 2012, the XIV Dalai Lama spoke at SDSU's Viejas Arena as part of his "Compassion Without Borders" tour. SDSU has had 10 presidents. Several structures on the campus are named in past presidents' honor, such as Hardy Tower, Hepner Hall, the Malcolm A. Love Library. In March 2017 President Hirshman announced his resignation for June 30, 2017. Sally Roush was the interim president until January 31, 2018. On that date, the CSU Board of Trustees appointed Adela de la Torre to serve as the permanent President, she is the first woman to serve in the role on a permanent basis. Samuel T. Black Edward L. Hardy Walter R. Hepner Malcolm Love Donald E. Walker Brage Golding Trevor Colbourn Thomas B. Day Stephen L. Weber Elliot Hirshman Sally Roush Adela de la Torre A shooting occurred on campus on August 15, 1996. A 36-year-old graduate engineering student, while defending his thesis and killed his three professors, Constantinos Lyrintzis, Cheng Liang, D. Preston Lowrey III, at San Diego State University.
The shooter, suffering from certain mental problems, was convicted on July 19, 1997, was sentenced to life in prison. As a memorial, tables with a plaque with information about each victim have been placed adjacent to the College of Engineering building. On May 6, 2008, the Drug Enforcement Administration announced the arrests of 96 individuals, of whom 33 were San Diego State University students, on a variety of drug charges in a year-long narcotics sting operation dubbed Operation Sudden Fall, it was reported that 75 of the arrested were students, but the inflated number included students, arrested months earlier, in some cases for simple possession. The bust, the largest in the history of San Diego County, drew a mixed reaction from the community. In late 2014, SDSU began an "It's on Us" campaign. In the fall 2014 semester, there were 14 sexual assault allegations reported on or around the college area. In early 2015, SDSU was found to have wrongfully accuse
San Diego State Aztecs
The San Diego State Aztecs are the athletic teams that represent San Diego State University. San Diego State sponsors six men's and thirteen women's sports at the varsity level; the Aztecs compete in NCAA Division I. Its primary conference is the Mountain West Conference; the women's water polo team participates in the Golden Coast Conference after leaving the Big West Conference in July 2013. The men's soccer team participates as an associate member of the Pac-12 Conference; the women's rowing team is a member of the American Athletic Conference, following moves from the Western Intercollegiate Rowing Association to Conference USA in 2013 and from C-USA to The American in 2014. San Diego State's football team had intended to move to the Big East Conference beginning in 2013 with the remainder of its current Mountain West sports moving to the Big West, but on January 17 it was reported that all of San Diego State's athletic teams would be readmitted to the Mountain West. News reports mention "Montezuma Mesa" or "news from the mesa" when discussing San Diego State-related sports events.
The San Diego State campus is known as "Montezuma Mesa", as the university is situated on a mesa overlooking Mission Valley and is located at the intersection of Montezuma Road and College Avenue in the city of San Diego. All varsity teams representing San Diego State participate in the Mountain West Conference for conference play excluding lacrosse in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation, men's soccer in the Pac-12 Conference, rowing in the American Athletic Conference, water polo in the Golden Coast Conference. Head Coach: Mark Martinez Stadium: Tony Gwynn Stadium Conference regular season championships: 5 Conference tournament championships: 8 NCAA Division I Baseball Championship appearances: 14 See: San Diego State baseball and College baseball Head Coach: Brian Dutcher Arena: Viejas Arena Conference regular season championships: 21 Conference tournament championships: 7 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament appearances: 12 Aztec basketball alumni who became more famous outside the sport include 1930s player Art Linkletter, who went on to an illustrious entertainment career that spanned more than 70 years, Tony Gwynn, who played baseball at San Diego State and opted for that sport professionally, ending up in the Baseball Hall of Fame.
In the 2010–2011 Season, the men's team had a phenomenal record of 32–2 to capture a share of the Mountain West Conference title, winning the Conference Tournament outright for the automatic berth to the 2011 NCAA basketball tournament. The only losses of the regular season were to another top 10 ranked team, BYU, who the Aztecs beat to win the tournament, they earned a 2nd seed in the NCAA Tournament. Head Coach: Rocky Long Stadium: SDCCU Stadium Conference championships: 19 NCAA postseason bowl game appearances: 17 San Diego State University's football team is part of the highest level of American collegiate football, the Football Bowl Subdivision of Division I; until the 2010 season, the Aztec football team had not won a bowl game in the past 37 years. In his second year as head coach, Brady Hoke led the team to an 8–4 record in the 2010 regular season and a win in the 2010 Poinsettia Bowl, before accepting the head coaching job at the University of Michigan. San Diego State athletics have contributed to the National Football League.
Several NFL head coaches were members of the Aztec Football program: - Brian Billick – NFL former head coach of the Baltimore Ravens, He returned to coaching with San Diego State University, serving as the tight ends coach and recruiting coordinator for five seasons. After being named the offensive coordinator of Utah State University, Billick improved the second-worst offense in Division I-A into a top-ten offense in only three seasons. - Don Coryell – former NFL head coach of the San Diego Chargers, former Aztec head coach. - Herman Edwards – former NFL head coach of the New York Jets and Kansas City Chiefs, former Aztec and Philadelphia Eagles player. Fondly remembered for the "Miracle in the Meadowlands" play against the rival New York Giants. - John Fox – former NFL head coach of the Carolina Panthers, former Aztec player. - Joe Gibbs – Hall of Fame NFL head coach of the Washington Redskins, NASCAR team owner, former Aztec player and assistant coach. - John Madden – Hall of Fame AFL/NFL head coach of the Oakland Raiders, former Aztec assistant coach.
- Ted Tollner – former NFL offensive coordinator for the Detroit Lions, San Francisco 49ers and San Diego Chargers, former Aztec head coach. - Sean Payton – Head coach of the New Orleans Saints The football team plays at SDCCU Stadium ). SDSU is 8–9 all time in post-
Mount Laguna, California
Mount Laguna is a small census-designated place in San Diego County, California. It is 6000 ft above sea level in a forest of Jeffrey pine, east of San Diego in the Laguna Mountains on the eastern edge of the Cleveland National Forest; the hamlet sits at the high point of a scenic drive on Sunrise Highway from Interstate 8 to Highway 79. Mount Laguna consists of a small general store, rustic lodge and cabins, local restaurant, rural post office, campgrounds adjacent to the Pacific Crest Trail; the Laguna Mountain Recreation Area surrounds the village, the visitor's center for the pine-covered area is located here. The mountain backcountry of San Diego County is high enough to receive snowfall in winter months, the Mount Laguna region offers locally-unique winter recreation in the form of snow play and cross country skiing for several days after larger storms; the population was 57 at the 2010 census. The ZIP Code is 91948 and the community is inside area code 619. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 1.7 square miles, all of it land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Mount Laguna had a population of 57. The population density was 33.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Mount Laguna was 55 White, 0 African American, 0 Native American, 1 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 1 from other races, 0 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1 persons; the Census reported that 57 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 32 households, out of which 3 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 15 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 0 had a female householder with no husband present, 1 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 0 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 0 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 15 households were made up of individuals and 9 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.78. There were 16 families; the population was spread out with 4 people under the age of 18, 4 people aged 18 to 24, 3 people aged 25 to 44, 21 people aged 45 to 64, 25 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 61.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males. There were 167 housing units at an average density of 98.4 per square mile, of which 25 were owner-occupied, 7 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0%. 50 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 7 people lived in rental housing units