Atherton is a rural town and locality on the Atherton Tablelands within the Tablelands Region, Far North Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 census, Atherton had a population of 7,287; the town was named after John Atherton, a pioneer pastoralist who settled at Mareeba in 1875. The area was known as Priors Pocket or Priors Creek. William John Bock was an early pioneer in Atherton, he made an audio recording discussing the early town, prior to his death on 19 February 1953. Atherton Pioneer Cemetery opened in 1897 and closed in 1927 when the Rockley Road Cemetery was opened. Atherton Post Office opened by 1903; the Atherton War Memorial commemorates local residents who died in World War I. It was dedicated on 1 May 1924 by Frederick Grau, it is the only war memorial in Queensland of a digger in an animated pose. The Atherton Courthouse was used as a wartime hospital for officers during World War II and has air raid bunkers beneath the building; the Atherton Public Library was opened in 1978. Atherton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Herberton Road: Chinatown Herberton Road: Atherton Chinese Temple Kennedy Highway: Atherton War Memorial corner of Kennedy Highway and Rockley Road: Atherton War Cemetery 42 Mable Street: Atherton State School Head Teacher's Residence 53 Main Street: Barron Valley Hotel Mazlin Street: Merriland Hall 6 Silo Street: Atherton Performing Arts Theatre Atherton has a humid subtropical climate that differs from the surrounding tropical savannah climate due to the town's elevation 752 metres ASL high on the Atherton Plateau.
Temperature extremes have ranged from 36.7 °C to –0.6 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1,379.8 mm Atherton is joined by the Gillies Highway to Yungaburra, the Kennedy Highway north to Mareeba and south to Ravenshoe and Mount Garnet, the Malanda Road to Malanda and the Herberton Road to Herberton. Trans North offers a number of return services during a seven-day week between Atherton, Walkamin, Mareeba and Cairns including drop-offs to airport, railway station and bus depots. There are connections available between Ravenshoe and Herberton and along the Wheelbarrow Way to Chillagoe. There is an Atherton taxi service. Due to its moderate climate and less humid than the tropical coast, its booming agricultural industries, Atherton has a busy and prosperous community, a vibrant social and cultural life. Atherton is attractive to retirees and "tree changers" due to the cool climate, fertile garden soils, housing prices lower than the nearby coastal city of Cairns, the vibrant cultural life; the land around Atherton is used to grow a variety of crops, including sugar cane, mangoes, potatoes, blueberries, blackberries and macadamia nuts.
Dairy and beef cattle are reared in the area. Each year towards the end of August, Atherton celebrates the Maize festival, which features a parade with decorated floats, the Maize Queen pageant, children's amusement rides and activities including tug of war and wood chopping. There are shop window displays and artwork competitions, as well as a prize given to the best float; the annual Atherton Agricultural Show is held in the second week of July at Atherton Show grounds including Heritage Listed Merriland Hall. The Atherton Roosters field teams in the Cairns District Rugby League. Atherton has two primary schools, one secondary school, one independent Prep - Grade 12 school and a technical and further education campus. There are two day care centres in the town. Atherton's schools and other places of education include: Atherton State High School The School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, a virtual campus of Atherton State High School. Atherton State School Jubilee Christian College St Joseph’s Catholic Primary School Tropical North Institute of TAFEAtherton State School opened on 2 March 1891 and celebrated its centenary in 1984.
The Tablelands Regional Council operates the Atherton Library on Atherton. The library facility opened in 1978, with a major refurbishment in 2012; the Atherton branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall on the corner of Jack Street and Arnott Lane. Atherton Hospital is in the Tablelands Health District, it hospital provides obstetric, surgical, operating theatre and emergency services. Peter Beattie, who served as the 36th Premier of Queensland from 1998 to 2007 Ron Grainer, best known for composing the Doctor Who theme music Rod Jensen, former North Queensland Cowboys and Huddersfield Giants player Dallas Johnson, North Queensland Cowboys lock forward and former Melbourne Storm player and Queensland State of Origin representative Elizabeth O'Conner, author Ren Pedersen, children's brain cancer research advocate Alexander Prokhorov, Soviet/Russian physicist and Nobel Prize winner Historical weather of Atherton University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Atherton
The Daintree River is a river that rises in the Daintree Rainforest near Cape Tribulation in Far North Queensland, Australia. The river is located about 100 kilometres northwest of Cairns in the UNESCO World Heritage–listed Wet Tropics of Queensland; the area is now a tourist attraction. The river rises on the slopes of the Great Dividing Range within the Daintree National Park below Black Mountain at an elevation of 1,270 metres AHD ; the river flows in meandering course north, than east south and east, through the rainforest where the water is fresh. At this convergence point, an abundance of wildlife congregate fish; the river is joined by two minor tributaries before flowing through the Cairns Marine Park through thick mangrove swamps where the water is saline. The mouth of the Daintree River opens onto a giant sandbar; the river descends 1,270 metres over its 127-kilometre course. The catchment area of the river occupies an 2,107 square kilometres of which an area of 33 square kilometres is composed of estuarine wetlands.
The river is surrounded by deep valleys. Combined with the climatic conditions of the area the river is prone to developing floods with little warning due to the high rainfalls on the 1,000-metre-high mountain ranges around the catchment and the influence of the cyclonic forces in the adjacent Coral Sea. In March 1996, record flood levels swamped properties throughout the Daintree region. Statistics gathered at the time recorded 606 millimetres of rain falling in 24 hours. In 2011, two new causeways were completed over Cape Tribulation Road, making the drive floodproof in all but the most severe rain events. In particular, the notorious bottleneck at Cooper Creek was raised 3 metres. People are drawn to the area for its ancient vegetation, scenic surroundings and the vast array of native wildlife and plant species that inhabit the area. There is no bridge to enable crossing the river, so access is limited to the Daintree River Ferry, a commercial ferry that traverses the river for the purpose of tourism.
Other features that surround the river include Black Mountain, Daintree Range, Thornton Peak and the Cape Tribulation Rainforest. The Daintree River is home to a dazzling array of tropical life; the Kuku Yulanji is the indigenous people who once inhabited the regions surrounded by the Daintree River. The tribespeople were hunter-gatherers who lived in groups of eight to twelve, camping along the banks of the river and living on a staple diet that included a selection of bush tucker harvested from the vegetation from the forest surrounding the Daintree, it has been estimated that the tribe resided on the banks of the Daintree river for over 9,000 years. Due to the ever-shifting deep centre of the sandbar, entering the Daintree River has always been a problem for ship captains; the area was missed by Captain Cook when passing in the voyage where his ship was wrecked on the Great Barrier Reef. The Daintree River was discovered by Europeans in 1873 after they were attracted to nearby regions due to its vast natural reserves of gold.
George Elphinstone Dalrymple, the Queensland Gold Commissioner on the Gilbert gold field at that time, was the first European to discover the river and he named the river in honour of Richard Daintree, an English geologist and the Agent-General for Queensland in London. The Daintree was rated second to the Proserpine River, as the river in Queensland where people were most to spot a saltwater crocodile from 2000 to 2012, with 145 sightings recorded over the period; the Wet Tropics of Queensland was given UNESCO World Heritage listing, inclusive of the Daintree River in recognition of "its outstanding natural universal value as an outstanding example representing. The river is part of the much larger Daintree Rainforest, region in Northern Queensland encompassing 894,000 hectares; the river and its surroundings are home to some of the most primitive forms of animal and plant life in the world. The surrounding mountains and valleys provided protection from the forces to adapt to climate change by sheltering several species of plants.
A notable example is the primitive She-oak Gymnostoma australianum. This pine-like tree is the only remaining species in the Gymnostoma group of plants in Australia, is now restricted to isolated pockets north of the Daintree River; the genus was once widespread throughout Gondwana, its relatives are still found in parts of the Pacific and south-east Asia. Of the five species of ringtail possum found in north Queensland rainforests, the Cinereus ringtail possum is wholly restricted to the Daintree catchment. Within the park, this species is found only in upland rainforest on Thornton Peak and the upper reaches of the Daintree and Mossman Rivers. Once considered a light-coloured form of the Herbert River ringtail possum found throughout the Atherton Tablelands, it was described as a distinct species in 1989. Black and white Striped possums are quite common throughout the park in the coastal lowlands north of the Daintree River, although to see one while spotlighting requires a mixture of luck and know-how.
Due to the river's isolation, saltwater crocodiles - once threatened in the region due to hunting - have flourished in recent years, beneficiaries of legislation that
Euastacus is a genus of freshwater crayfish known as "spiny crayfish". They are found in the south-east of the Australian mainland, along with another genus of crayfish, Cherax. Both genera are members of the family Parastacidae, a family of freshwater crayfish restricted to the Southern Hemisphere. Euastacus crayfish are distinguished from the smooth-shelled Cherax species by the short robust spikes on their claws and carapace, their larger size. Many Euastacus species grow to a large size, with the Murray River crayfish being the second largest freshwater crayfish species in the world; the genera Cherax and Euastacus continue a trend present in many Australian native freshwater fish genera of speciation into generalist lowland and specialist upland species. Cherax species inhabit lowland rivers at low to medium altitudes and swamps and ephemeral waters in inland areas of Australia including the Murray-Darling Basin. Conversely, Euastacus species are only found in permanent waters and inhabit upland rivers at medium to high altitudes in the Murray-Darling Basin as well as many easterly and southerly flowing coastal river systems.
The partial exceptions to this are: the Murray River crayfish, found along the entire length of the Murray River in addition to many upland habitats, is still found in the middle reaches of the Murray River the Glenelg Spiny Crayfish, found in lowland areas of the Glenelg River system and Eight Mile Creek/Ewen Ponds system the Gippsland Crayfish, found in lowland areas of some streams in the Gippsland area. When found in lowland habitats, these several more adaptable Euastacus crayfish are still dependent on reliable flows and good water quality, with good dissolved oxygen levels and low salinity. In contrast to Cherax species, Euastacus species are unable to survive drying of their habitats; the genus Cherax has a far wider distribution than the genus Euastacus, is found in many parts of Australia including south-western Australia. The genus Euastacus is restricted to the south-east of the Australian mainland. There is a high degree of endemism in Euastacus species in coastal river systems, with many species restricted to single river or creek catchment.
Euastacus species occur in several upland reservoirs. Of the 50 species in the genus Euastacus, 17 are on the IUCN Red List as critically endangered, 17 are endangered, 5 vulnerable, 1 near threatened, 8 least concern and 1 is data deficient: Giant Spiny Crayfish video on Youtube Gippsland Spiny Crayfish video on Youtube
The golden bowerbird is a species of bird in the family Ptilonorhynchidae, the bowerbird. It is endemic to Queensland in Australia; this species has a patchy distribution in northeastern Queensland. Though it has a limited range, it is common in the area, populations are stable, it is a least-concern species on the IUCN Red List. This bird lives in rainforests above 700 meters in elevation, including some habitat, disturbed by human activities such as logging; the male golden bowerbird has a brown head and brown wings which are bright yellow-gold underneath, as are the tail and nape. The female is olive brown with ash-gray underparts. Immatures look similar to the female; this is the smallest species of bowerbird. The golden bowerbird feeds on fruits, sometimes takes insects and spiders. Like most other bowerbirds, the male maintains a bower over several years. Males do not grow their adult plumage for at least five or six years, during which time they wander, learn the social hierarchy of mature males, practice building bower-like structures.
Upon maturity, a male establishes his bower site, builds his structure, spends much time decorating it. He may steal decorations from his neighbours, defend his possessions from other males. During the breeding season August through December, the male perches at his bower and produces a number of vocalizations, which attract females; the female establishes a nest in cup-shaped crevices in tree trunks. There are one to two eggs per clutch; the nestlings are fed fruit and insects, fledging occurs most in January. BirdLife Species Factsheet
Coen is a town and locality in the Shire of Cook, Australia. The town of Coen is inland on the Peninsula Developmental Road, the main road on the Cape York Peninsula in far northern Queensland. In the 2011 census, Coen had a population of 416 people; the locality of Coen is on the eastern side of Cape York Peninsula with the Coral Sea forming its eastern boundary. Part of the northern boundary follows the Archer River, while the Coen River forms part of its western boundary; the Peninsula Developmental Road runs north to south through the locality. In 1623, Jan Carstensz, the navigator of the ship Pera of the Dutch East India Company named a river on Cape York Peninsula after Jan Pieterszoon Coen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Today that river is known as the Archer River and the name Coen River is given to one of its tributaries. Gold was discovered on the Coen River in 1876. Coen came into being first as a small fort built by gold miners and prospectors in May 1877 but this first gold rush came to an end, the settlement did not recover until 1883.
It became a centre for several small goldmines in the region but, in 1893, the rich Great Northern mine boomed and the town became a more substantial place. Coen Post Office opened on 20 June 1893; the Great Northern mine continued operations until 1916 and produced some 52,000 troy ounces of gold before it closed. On 3 July 2014, Barry Port retired from the Queensland Police, he was Australia's last Aboriginal police tracker. In his 36 years working for the police, he has tracked criminals, missing stowaways. Today Coen provides services to the region, is an important supply point on the long unpaved road leading to Weipa and other northern communities, it is a popular stopping point for tourists driving to the tip of Cape York - the northernmost part of the Australian mainland. It has an airstrip at Coen Airport, public library, hotel/motel, guest house, two general stores and fuel outlets, post office, police station, camping grounds, primary school kindergarten, ranger base and more. There is a scheduled air service to Cairns four times a week.
Coen is an ideal destination for birdwatchers: there are good accommodations and a large and varied bird fauna with representatives from rain forest, monsoon forest and coastal forests. Coen has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Coleman Close: Coen Carrier Station Moon, Ron & Viv. 2003. Cape York: An Adventurer's Guide. 9th edition. Moon Adventure Publications, Victoria. ISBN 0-9578766-4-5 Roberts, Jan. 1981. Massacres to Mining: The Colonization of Aboriginal Australia. Dove Communications, Victoria. Rev. Australian ed. Previous ed.: CIMRA and War on Want, 1978, London. ISBN 0-85924-171-8. Premier's Department. 1989. Cape York Peninsula Resource Analysis. Cairns.. ISBN 0-7242-7008-6 Ryan and Burwell, eds. 2000. Wildlife of Tropical North Queensland: Cooktown to Mackay. Queensland Museum, Brisbane. ISBN 0-85905-045-9. Scarth-Johnson, Vera. 2000. National Treasures: Flowering plants of Cooktown and Northern Australia. Vera Scarth-Johnson Gallery Association, Cooktown. ISBN 0-646-39726-5. Sutton, Peter.
Languages of Cape York: Papers presented to a Symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.. ISBN 0-85575-046-4 Wallace, Lennie. 2003. Cape York Peninsula: A History of Unlauded Heroes 1845-2003. Central Queensland University Press, Rockhampton. ISBN 1-876780-43-6 Wynter, Jo and Hill, John. 1991. Cape York Peninsula: Pathways to Community Economic Development; the Final Report of The Community Economic Development Projects Cook Shire. Cook Shire Council. McIvor, Roy. Cockatoo: My Life in Cape York. Stories and Art. Roy McIvor. Magabala Books. Broome, Western Australia. ISBN 978-1-921248-22-1
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Hope Vale, Queensland
Hope Vale is a town within the Aboriginal Shire of Hope Vale and a locality split between the Aboriginal Shire of Hope Vale and the Shire of Cook, Australia. It is an Aboriginal community. At the 2011 census, Hopevale had a population of 974 people. Hope Vale is on Cape York Peninsula about 46 kilometres northwest of Cooktown by road, about 10 kilometres off the Battlecamp Road that leads to Lakefield National Park and Laura; the Cape Bedford Mission was established by Johann Flierl, a missionary of the Lutheran Church in 1886, with the settlement at Elim on the beach. Owing to fears that the German-influenced Aboriginal people might cooperate with the advancing Japanese in World War II, the total population of 286 was evacuated south to various communities by the military in May 1942; the German Lutheran missionaries were sent to internment camps. Most of the people were sent to Woorabinda, near Rockhampton, in Queensland, where a large number perished from disease and malnutrition. Hope Vale was re-established as a Lutheran mission in September 1949.
Aboriginal people from the Hope Valley and Cape Bedford Missions settled there. A work crew was allowed to return in 1949 and the first families came home in 1950. Hopevale Post Office opened on 1 May 1965 and closed in 1990. Hopevale is no longer run as a mission by its own elected community council. In 1986 it received a "deed of grant in trust" which "granted title to 110,000 ha of land, Aboriginal Reserve Land held by the Under Secretary as trustee, to the community council to act as trustees of the land for the benefit of the residents." The Aboriginal Land Act 1991 transferred into Indigenous ownership all previous reserve land under DOGIT titles. "The Warra people of the Hopevale Community of Eastern Cape York Peninsula in Queensland received acknowledgement of their native title rights in December 1997. The determination recognised rights of exclusive possession, occupation use and enjoyment over 110,000 ha. "Hopevale is home to several clan groups who speak Guugu Yimidhirr and other related languages, as well as English.
Due to a lack of reliable water supplies at Elim, the community was shifted about 20 kilometres inland to its present site. Notable former residents of Hopevale are Queensland rugby league player Matt Bowen and lawyer and activist Noel Pearson. Pearson has criticised the level of violence in the community. On 21 July 2008 the Hope Vale community opened the Indigenous Knowledge and Technology Centre, in the Jack Bambie building at 5 Muni Street; this centre provides training venue and public Internet access. The Hope Vale community has a strong choral singing tradition since its evacuation to Woorabinda; the ensemble has performed at the Queensland Music Festival on three occasions—in 2005, 2007 and 2009. Marie Yamba Aboriginal Mission, a Mission situated south of Proserpine that commenced in 1897 and finished in 1902 with 24 Aboriginals being moved to Hope Vale Mission. Pohlner, Peter. 1986. Gangarru. Hopevale Mission Board, Queensland. ISBN 1-86252-311-8 Poland, Wilhelm. Loose leaves. Originally published as three booklets by The Mission Institute of Neuendettelsau, Bavaria, 1905-1912.
Reprint: Lutheran Publishing House, Adelaide. 1988. ISBN 0-85910-468-0 Roth, W. E. 1897. The Queensland Aborigines. 3 Vols. Reprint: Facsimile Edition, Hesperian Press, Victoria Park, W. A. 1984. ISBN 0-85905-054-8. Sutton, Peter. Languages of Cape York: Papers presented to a Symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.. ISBN 0-85575-046-4. Wynter, Jo and Hill, John. 1991. Cape York Peninsula: Pathways to Community Economic Development; the Final Report of The Community Economic Development Projects Cook Shire. Cook Shire Council. Aboriginal Co-Ordinating Council Media Facility. 2002. The Woorabinda Story: 7 Years in Exile. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Cairns. 20 April 2005. The Morning Show with Pat Morrish. Radio Broadcast. Bambie, Herman. 2000. Bringing Them Home Oral History Project. Hope Vale, 26 October, Oral History, TRC 5000/ 204. Bennett and Gordon, Wilfred. 2007. ‘Social Capital and the Indigenous Tourism Entrepreneur’.
In: J. Buultjens and D. Fuller Striving for Sustainability: Case Studies in Indigenous Tourism, pp. 333–70. Lismore, NSW, Australia: Southern Cross University Press. Brad, Jen. 1994. Milbi Thagaalbigu Balgaayga. Hopevale: Guugu Yimithirr Cultural Centre. Callaghan, editor. Mangal-Bungal Clever with Hands: Baskets and stories woven by some of the women of Hopevale, Cape York Peninsula. Hopevale Community Learning Centre Aboriginal Corporation. ISBN 978-0-646-46701-6 Costello, David Bringing Them Home Oral History Project. Hope Vale, 26 October, Oral History, TRC 5000/ 187. Deeral, Eric no date. Lest we Forget: Home at Last. Hopevale: Guugu Yimithirr Cultural Centre. Dekker, John. 8 June 1970. Guugu-Yimidhirr Words of Life. Global Recordings: catalogue number C16750, CD. Dekker, John. 8 June 1970. Guugu-Yimidhirr Words of Life. Global Recordings: catalogue number C16751, CD. Evans, Kay E. 1972. ‘Marie Yamba and Hope Vale: The Lutheran Missions to the North Queensland Aborigines, 1886-1905’ Queensland Heritage 2.6:26-35.
Gordon and Haviland, John. 1980. "Milbi: Aboriginal Tales from Queensland's Endeavour River. Canberra: Australian National University Press. Gordon and Bennett, Judy (July 2007 first print no