North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
U.S. National Geodetic Survey
"United States Coast Survey" and "United States Coast and Geodetic Survey" redirect here. They are former scientific agencies of the United States government which should not be confused with the United States Coast Guard, a seagoing U. S. government law enforcement and safety agency, the modern Coast Survey, a U. S. government agency that makes nautical charts, or the United States Geological Survey, a U. S. government agency that studies earth science and makes topographical maps. The National Geodetic Survey the United States Survey of the Coast, United States Coast Survey, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication. Since its foundation in its present form in 1970, it has been part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, of the United States Department of Commerce; the National Geodetic Survey's history and heritage are intertwined with those of other NOAA offices.
As the U. S. Coast Survey and U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, the agency operated a fleet of survey ships, from 1917 the Coast and Geodetic Survey was one of the uniformed services of the United States with its own corps of commissioned officers. Upon the creation of the Environmental Science Services Administration in 1965, the commissioned corps was separated from the Survey to become the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps. Upon the creation of NOAA in 1970, the ESSA Corps became the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps. Thus, the National Geodetic Survey's ancestor organizations are the ancestors of today's NOAA Corps and Office of Coast Survey and are among the ancestors of today's NOAA fleet. In addition, today's National Institute of Standards and Technology, although long since separated from the Survey, got its start as the Survey's Office of Weights and Measures; the National Geodetic Survey is an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service.
Its core function is to maintain the National Spatial Reference System, "a consistent coordinate system that defines latitude, height, scale and orientation throughout the United States." NGS is responsible for defining the NSRS and its relationship with the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The NSRS enables precise and accessible knowledge of where things are in the United States and its territories; the NSRS may be divided into its geometric and physical components. The official geodetic datum of the United States, NAD83 defines the geometric relationship between points within the United States in three-dimensional space; the datum may be accessed via NGS's network of survey marks or through the Continuously Operating Reference Station network of GPS reference antennas. NGS is responsible for computing the relationship between NAD83 and the ITRF; the physical components of the NSRS are reflected in its height system, defined by the vertical datum NAVD88. This datum is a network of orthometric heights obtained through spirit leveling.
Because of the close relationship between height and Earth's gravity field, NGS collects and curates terrestrial gravity measurements and develops regional models of the geoid and its slope, the deflection of the vertical. NGS is responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the NSRS over time as the North American plate rotates and deforms over time due to crustal strain, post-glacial rebound, elastic deformation of the crust, other geophysical phenomena. NGS will release new datums in 2022; the North American Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2022 will supersede NAD83 in defining the geometric relationship between the North American plate and the ITRF. United States territories on the Pacific and Mariana plates will have their own respective geodetic datums; the North American-Pacific Geopotential Datum of 2022 will separately define the height system of the United States and its territories, replacing NAVD88. It will use a geoid model accurate to 1 centimeter to relate orthometric height to ellipsoidal height measured by GPS, eliminating the need for future leveling projects.
This geoid model will be based on airborne and terrestrial gravity measurements collected by NGS's GRAV-D program as well as satellite-based gravity models derived from observations collected by GRACE, GOCE, satellite altimetry missions. NGS provides a number of other public services, it maps changing shorelines in the United States and provides aerial imagery of regions affected by natural disasters, enabling rapid damage assessment by emergency managers and members of the public. The Online Positioning and User Service processes user-input GPS data and outputs position solutions within the NSRS; the agency offers other tools for conversion between datums. The original predecessor agency of the National Geodetic Survey was the United States Survey of the Coast, created within the United States Department of the Treasury by an Act of Congress on February 10, 1807, to conduct a "Survey of the Coast." The Survey of the Coast, the United States government's first scientific agency, represented the interest of the administration of President Thomas Jefferson in science and the stimulation of international trade by using scientific surveying methods to chart t
Alma is a statutory town located in Park County, United States. The town population was 270 at the 2010 United States Census. At an elevation of 10,578 feet, it is the highest incorporated municipality in the United States with permanent residents, its United States Post Office is located at the highest elevation of any in the country. Alma, a town, did not take the title as highest incorporated city from Leadville, Colorado, as is believed. Leadville is still the highest incorporated city in North America. Using administrative boundaries as a measure, not settled areas, in 2006 Winter Park, Colorado became the highest incorporated town due to its annexation of a ski area. Alma, has a contiguous residential area extending to 11,680 feet above sea level, while any such area in or near Winter Park reaches only 9,550 feet, Leadville 10,360 feet; the town was named by a merchant named Mr. James, after his wife. Another tradition states. Alma is located at 39°17′03″N 106°03′48″W, along State Highway 9.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.362 square miles all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 179 people, 94 households, 40 families residing in the town; the population density was 523.6 people per square mile. There were 147 housing units at an average density of 430.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.74% White, 2.23% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 3.35% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 3.35% of the population. There were 94 households, of which 18.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.2% were married couples living together, 2.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 57.4% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.90 and the average family size was 2.63. The age distribution was 12.8% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 53.1% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 4.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 132.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 140.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $41,563, the median income for a family was $59,688. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $26,563 for females; the per capita income for the town was $25,165. None of the families and 4.3% of the population were living below the poverty line. Alma's climate is subarctic and borders on an alpine climate with July average of 10.9 C. Two miles from Alma are the remains of the defunct Orphan Boy mine, which produced gold, silver and zinc over a number of decades; the historic Sweet Home Mine near Alma a silver mine, now produces spectacular rhodochrosite mineral specimens. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado municipalities Colorado counties Park County, Colorado Colorado metropolitan areas Front Range Urban Corridor North Central Colorado Urban Area Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO Combined Statistical Area Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area List of highest towns by country Town of Alma Website Alma Foundation Website CDOT map of the Town of Alma SteveGarufi.com - Alma, CO Ghost Town photos of Alma featured by RockyMountainProfiles.com
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Park County, Colorado
Park County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,206; the county seat is Fairplay. The county was named after the large geographic region known as South Park, named by early fur traders and trappers in the area. Park County is included in CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. A majority of the county lies within the boundaries of the South Park National Heritage Area; the geographic center of the State of Colorado is located in Park County. Park County has been and is the location of several important mines, including the defunct Orphan Boy, discovered near Alma in 1861 and produced gold, silver and zinc; the historic Sweet Home Mine near Alma, is a former silver mine now known for its rhodochrosite mineral specimens. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,211 square miles, of which 2,194 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water; the headwaters of the South Platte River are in Park County. Clear Creek County - north Jefferson County - northeast Teller County - east Fremont County - southeast Chaffee County - southwest Lake County - west Summit County - northwest Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Lost Creek Wilderness Pike National Forest San Isabel National Forest Eleven Mile State Park Spinney Mountain State Park Staunton State Park American Discovery Trail Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Great Parks Bicycle Route Guanella Pass Scenic Byway TransAmerica Trail Bicycle Route As of the census of 2000, there were 14,523 people, 5,894 households, 4,220 families residing in the county.
The population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 10,697 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.07% White, 0.50% Black or African American, 0.92% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.23% from other races, 1.84% from two or more races. 4.32% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,894 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.10% were married couples living together, 4.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.40% were non-families. 21.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 5.10% from 18 to 24, 33.40% from 25 to 44, 30.60% from 45 to 64, 7.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years.
For every 100 females there were 107.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $51,899, the median income for a family was $57,025. Males had a median income of $41,480 versus $27,807 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,019. About 3.40% of families and 5.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.60% of those under age 18 and 5.70% of those age 65 or over. Alma Fairplay Guffey Antero Junction Buckskin Joe Garo Howbert Tarryall Trump In the animated television series South Park, the fictional town of the same name is situated in Park County, Colorado; the police in South Park were a one-man South Park Police force at first, but it has since been phased out in favor of the Park County police. In 1955, part of the film The Looters, co-starring Rory Calhoun, subsequently of the CBS western television series, The Texan, the actress Julie Adams, was filmed in Park County; the Looters is the story of a plane crash in the Rocky Mountains.
The filming was undertaken about Tarryall Creek. The advertising poster reads: "Five desperate men... and a girl who didn't care... trapped on a mountain of gale-lashed rock!" John Lewis Dyer Gottlieb Fluhmann Marie Guiraud Samuel Hartsel John J. Hoover Irving Howbert Sheldon Jackson Frank H. Mayer Benjamin Ratcliff Anna Blythe Speas Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Arapahoe County, Kansas Territory Park County, Jefferson Territory Colorado census statistical areas Denver-Aurora-Boulder Combined Statistical Area Front Range Urban Corridor National Register of Historic Places listings in Park County, Colorado South Park Park County Government website Geographic data related to Park County, Colorado at OpenStreetMap South Park National Heritage Area Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Geologic Map of the Harvard Lakes 7.5ʹ Quadrangle and Chaffee Counties, Colorado United States Geological Survey
Mount Garfield (Colorado)
Mt. Garfield is the high point of the Book Cliffs, north of Grand Junction, overlooking the town of Palisade. Two classic hiking trails ascend the mountain; the mountain was named after President James Garfield a year after Garfield's death
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t