Elk Mountain (Routt County, Colorado)
Elk Mountain is a summit in Routt County, Colorado. The mountain lies to the northwest of Steamboat Springs and is seen from the city from along Lincoln Avenue, Steamboat's main street; the mountain is easily seen from Mount Werner, the home of the Steamboat Ski Resort. The Elk River flows near the mountain just before its confluence with the Yampa River in the Yampa Valley. Locals refer to the mountain as "The Sleeping Giant," due to its resemblance to the profile of a prone person at sleep when viewed from Mount Werner or Steamboat Springs, have created legends to explain this appearance. There are at least six other summits named Elk Mountain in Colorado; this Elk Mountain in Routt County is not part of the Elk Mountains in West Central Colorado. Instead, it is one of the easternmost peaks in the Elkhead Mountains
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
Blanca Peak is the fourth highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The ultra-prominent 14,351-foot peak is the highest summit of the Sierra Blanca Massif, the Sangre de Cristo Range, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains; the fourteener is located 9.6 miles north by east of the Town of Blanca, on the drainage divide separating Rio Grande National Forest and Alamosa County from the Sangre de Cristo Land Grant and Costilla County. The summit is the entire drainage basin of the Rio Grande. Below the steep North Face of Blanca Peak two live Glaciers once developed, until extinction sometime after 1903. North & South Blanca Glaciers were located at 37° 35N.longitude 105° 28W. Blanca Peak is higher than any point in the United States east of its longitude; the Blanca Peak Tripoint of Alamosa and Huerfano counties is located on the same drainage divide 251 feet northeast by north of the Blanca Peak summit at the boundary of the San Isabel National Forest. The Blanca Peak Tripoint is the highest point in Huerfano County.
Blanca Peak is located at the southern end of the Sangre de Cristo Range, a subrange of the more extensive Sangre de Cristo Mountains, is the highest peak in both ranges. It lies 20 miles east-northeast of the town of Alamosa. 15 miles to the north-northwest is Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. Blanca Peak is notable not only for its absolute height, but for its great local relief and dominant position at the end of the range, rising high above the San Luis Valley to the west. For example, it rises nearly 7,000 feet over the edge of the San Luis Valley in only 6 miles. Blanca is the third most topographically prominent peak in Colorado. Blanca Peak heads up three major creeks. Holbrook Creek is on the west, flowing from a basin including Crater Lake, Blue Lakes, Como Lake. An challenging four wheel drive road accesses Como Lake 11,750 feet, provides the most common access to Blanca Peak. Most vehicles stop at 10,000 feet on this road; the Como Lake Road is a designated Alamosa County Road and runs to the edge of the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness just short of Blue Lakes.
The Como Lake Road is rated as the most challenging 4WD road in Colorado. The Huerfano River flows from the north side of Blanca Peak. A road, starting out as a two-wheel drive road becoming a four-wheel drive road, provides access to the technical climbing on the North Face of Blanca Peak. Blanca Creek drains Blanca Basin under the south slopes of the peak, Little Ute Creek descends from the Winchell Lakes on the southeast side; however these are not used to access the peak due to private property. Three other fourteeners are nearby: Mount Lindsey to the east, Ellingwood Point to the north and Little Bear Peak to the southwest. Ellingwood Point is connected to Blanca by a short, high ridge, is climbed in conjunction with Blanca. Little Bear has a high connecting ridge to Blanca, but it is a technical traverse, only recommended for experienced parties; the granite that makes up the Blanca massif is pre-Cambrian in age, dated at 1.8 billion years old. The major part of the Wet Mountains to the east and the Front Range to the northeast are pre-Cambrian about 1.8 billion years old.
In contrast, the Sangre de Cristo Range to the north and the Culebra Range to the south are Permian rock between 250 and 300 million years old. Blanca Peak is known to the Navajo people as the Sacred Mountain of the East: Sisnaajiní, the Dawn or White Shell Mountain; the mountain is considered to be the eastern boundary of the Dinetah, the traditional Navajo homeland. It is associated with the color white, is said to be covered in daylight and dawn and fastened to the ground with lightning, it is gendered male. Summitpost notes that "the first recorded ascent of Blanca by the Wheeler Survey was recorded on August 14, 1874, but to their surprise they found evidence of a stone structure built by Ute Indians or wandering Spaniards." Blanca Peak Mount Blanca Sierra Blanca Peak Sierra Blanca Sisnaajiní List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners List of Ultras of the United States Blanca Peak at The Colorado Hiker High resolution zoomable panorama of Blanca Peak
Elk Mountains (Colorado)
The Elk Mountains are a high, rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of west-central Colorado in the United States. The mountains sit on the western side of the Continental Divide in southern Pitkin and northern Gunnison counties, in the area southwest of Aspen, south of the Roaring Fork River valley, east of the Crystal River; the range sits northeast of the West Elk Mountains. Much of the range is located within the White River National Forest and the Gunnison National Forest, as well as the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness and Raggeds Wilderness; the Elk Mountains rise nearly 9,000 ft. above the Roaring Fork Valley to the north. The highest peaks in the range are its fourteeners, Castle Peak, Maroon Peak, Capitol Peak, Snowmass Mountain, Pyramid Peak, North Maroon Peak. Maroon Peak and North Maroon Peak are collectively known as the Maroon Bells, a popular destination for recreation alpinism. Mount Sopris sits at the northwest end of the range and dominates the skyline of the lower Roaring Fork Valley and the town of Carbondale, serving as an unofficial symbol of the area.
Additional notable peaks in the range include: Cathedral Peak, 13,943 ft, near Pyramid Peak Hagerman Peak, 13,841 ft, near Snowmass Mountain Snowmass Peak, 13,620 ft, near Hagerman Peak Clark Peak, 13,580 ft, near Capitol Peak Treasure Mountain, 13,528 ft, southwest of the Maroon Bells Mount Owen, 13,058 ft, high point of the Ruby Range Mount Sopris, 12,965 ft, north west of Capitol Peak Chair Mountain, 12,721 ft, high point of The Raggeds Crested Butte, 12,162 ft, home of Crested Butte Mountain Resort Whitehouse Mountain, 11,975 ft, northwest of Treasure MountainThe range provides a formidable barrier to travel and is traversed only by backroad passes and trails, including Schofield Pass, Pearl Pass, Taylor Pass. State Highway 133 traverses McClure Pass, at the western end of the range; the range has been the site of mining activity since the days of the Colorado Silver Boom, which saw the founding of mining towns such as Aspen and Ashcroft. In the late 19th century, the western and southern flank of the range became the site of intense coal mining activity which continues to the present day.
Treasure Mountain, overlooking the town of Marble, is home to the famous Yule Marble Quarry. Quarried marble was used to create The Tomb of the Unknowns, the Lincoln Memorial, Denver Post Office and other buildings; the range receives a great deal of snowfall due to its position to the west of the continental divide and the westerly origin of many winter storms. This is exploited by the ski areas in the vicinity of Aspen, which are located on the flanks of smaller mountains alongside the Roaring Fork Valley. West Elk Mountains "Rocky Mountains". Peakbagger.com. Geology of the Elk Mountains
Fort Garland, Colorado
Fort Garland is a census-designated place in Costilla County, United States. The population was 433 at the 2010 census; the Fort Garland Post Office has the ZIP code 81133. Fort Garland is referred to as the "Gateway to the San Luis Valley", as it is the first town one encounters when traveling west having crossed over La Veta Pass in the Sangre de Cristo Range. Fort Garland is home to many artists, painters and internationally known musicians. Fort Garland has a business district with two motels, several restaurants, the Old Fort Market grocery store, the Fort Garland Museum, two gas stations, two recreational marijuana shops, a car wash, hair salon, hardware store, liquor store, multiple shops featuring collectibles and antiquities as well as a Wild West show; the Annual Fort Garland Band Jam Music Festival features local and regional musicians, as well as nationally and internationally recognized musical talent. This summer event held in mid-July, includes an open-air market, local food vendors offering up traditional and regional cuisine, a beer garden, children's activities.
The music offered covers numerous styles, from traditional Spanish guitar to R&B to roll. The Blanca/Fort Garland Community Center is open to residents and the public on daily, monthly or annual fees; the Entrada Visitor's Center offers information on local and regional points of interest, such as the Great Sand Dunes, the Colorado'Gator farm, UFO Watchtower and other activities located within the San Luis Valley. Fort Garland is at the crossroads of U. S. Route 160 and Colorado State Highway 159, which leads south towards Taos and Santa Fe, New Mexico. Fort Garland was established in 1858 to protect settlers in the San Luis Valley part of the New Mexico Territory; the fort was abandoned following the confinement of the Utes to reservations. The Fort Garland Museum preserves some of the historic buildings from the fort. Fort Garland is located in northern Costilla County at 37°25′46″N 105°26′07″W; the town of Blanca is 4 miles west on U. S. Route 160. Walsenburg is 47 miles to the east, across the Sangre de Cristo Range.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the Fort Garland CDP has a total area of 0.37 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 432 people, 152 households, 120 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,514.5 people per square mile. There were 164 housing units at an average density of 574.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 53.01% White, 0.69% African American, 2.31% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 0.93% Pacific Islander, 36.81% from other races, 5.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 72.22% of the population. There were 152 households out of which 42.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.4% were non-families. 18.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the CDP, the population was spread out with 29.9% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $18,929, the median income for a family was $25,833. Males had a median income of $25,625 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $9,470. About 23.4% of families and 31.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.3% of those under age 18 and 28.9% of those age 65 or over. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado census designated places Colorado counties Costilla County, Colorado Fort Garland Old Spanish Trail Spanish Fort Fort Garland at Sangres.com Fort Garland Museum at Colorado Historical Society Trinchera Peak at SummitPost Fort Garland visitors' website Fort Garland Music Festival
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl