North Palisade is the third highest mountain in the Sierra Nevada range of California. It is the highest peak of the Palisades group of peaks in the central part of the range, it sports a small glacier and several prized rock climbing routes on its northeast side. North Palisade has a collection of names from the 19th century; the Wheeler Survey referred to it as Northwest Palisade in 1878. The following year, Lil Winchell called it Dusy's Peak after local rancher Frank Dusy. In 1895, Bolton Brown advocated yet another name, after David Starr Jordan. U. S. Senator Dianne Feinstein, supported by U. S. Senator Barbara Boxer, has introduced legislation to rename the peak as "Brower Palisade", in honor of environmentalist David Brower. There is significant opposition to this proposal; the first ascent was made on July 25, 1903 by James S. Hutchinson, Joseph Nisbet LeConte and James K. Moffitt, they approached the area overland from south of the Palisades, scouted possible routes from the summits of Marion Peak and Mount Sill.
Armed with this intelligence, they planned to ascend the southwest chute of the U Notch, find a way to bypass the rock face between the notch and the upper reaches of North Palisade. Around 13,100 feet, they followed a northward branch of this chute, climbed a difficult system of cracks. From here they found a catwalk ledge that took them to a series of icy gullies, bound toward the summit; these gullies were blocked by a pair of chockstones. Beyond these obstacles, they crested the southeast ridge, climbed a series of granite blocks to the summit. After making this climb, LeConte is quoted as writing in a letter, "I have called the peak the North Palisade. Put Dusy's name on some less imposing mass, give us a name to be handed down through all time." The peak has been called North Palisade since that day, received official recognition by the U. S. Board on Geographic Names. North Palisade has several named subsidiary peaks; these all lie on the main ridge crest, are as follows: Polemonium Peak, 14,080+ ft. Prominence of 160 feet.
This lies between 0.15 mi east-southeast of North Palisade. Named on the USGS topographic map; the peak is named for the Polemonium eximium skypilot found in the area. Starlight Peak, 14,200 feet. Prominence of 80 feet; this is the northwest summit of less than 0.1 mi from the main summit. Some climbing routes end atop this peak known for its famous "Milk Bottle", a 20 ft pillar of rock with huge exposure. Thunderbolt Peak, 14,003 feet. Prominence of 203 feet. About 0.25 mi northwest of North Palisade. Named on the USGS topographic map; the Sierra Club guidebook notes: "This was the last 14,000 foot peak. During a wild storm on the first ascent, a bolt of lightning left Jules Eichorn shaken. List of mountain peaks of California List of highest points in California by county The Palisades of the Sierra Nevada "North Palisade". SummitPost.org. "North Palisade - Aerial view". Timberline Trails. "Climbing North Palisade via the U-Notch Couloir". SierraDescents.com
Rock Creek (Owens River tributary)
Rock Creek is a stream that flows from the high Eastern Sierra Nevada to the Owens River in Mono County of eastern California. The upper watershed is in the John Muir Wilderness of the Inyo National Forests. Rock Creek drains from the Sierra Crest near Bear Creek Spire. Additional creek drainage is from the crest's Mount Abbot, Mount Mills, Ruby Peak, Mount Starr, they combine with flow from Little Lakes Valley to Rock Creek Lake. From the lake Rock Creek flows north to the location known as Tom's Place along U. S. Route 395, less than two miles from the Owens River; the creek, turns southeast and flows parallel to the Owens River joining the river near the mouth of the Owens River Gorge. Upstream from Tom's Place, Rock Creek is 15.9 miles long. Lower Rock Creek, below Tom's Place, flows an additional 14.1 miles to the Owens River. Bishop Creek Morgan Creek List of California rivers
Iztaccíhuatl, is a 5,230 m dormant volcanic mountain in Mexico located on the border between the State of Mexico and Puebla. It is the nation's third highest, after Popocatépetl 5,426 m; the name "Iztaccíhuatl" is Nahuatl for "White woman", reflecting the four individual snow-capped peaks which depict the head, chest and feet of a sleeping female when seen from east or west. Iztaccíhuatl is to the north of Popocatépetl, to which it is connected by the high altitude Paso de Cortés. Depending on atmospheric conditions Iztaccíhuatl is visible much of the year from Mexico City some 70 km to the northwest; the first recorded ascent was made in 1889, though archaeological evidence suggests the Aztecs and previous cultures climbed it previously. It is the lowest peak containing permanent snow and glaciers in Mexico; the summit ridge of the massive 450 km3 volcano is a series of overlapping cones constructed along a NNW-SSE line to the south of the Pleistocene Llano Grande caldera. There have been andesitic and dacitic Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions from vents at or near the summit.
Areas near the El Pecho summit vent are covered in flows and tuff beds post-dating glaciation 11,000 years ago. The most recent vents are at El Pecho and a depression at 5,100 m along the summit ridge midway between El Pecho and Los Pies. In Aztec mythology, Iztaccíhuatl was a princess who fell in love with one of her father's warriors, Popocatépetl; the emperor sent Popocatépetl to war in Oaxaca, promising him Iztaccíhuatl as his wife when he returned. Iztaccíhuatl was falsely told that Popocatépetl had died in battle, believing the news, she died of grief; when Popocatépetl returned to find his love dead, he took her body to a spot outside Tenochtitlan and kneeled by her grave. The gods changed them into mountains. Iztaccíhuatl's mountain is called "White Woman" because it resembles a woman lying on her back, is covered with snow — the peak is sometimes nicknamed La Mujer Dormida, "The Sleeping Woman". Popocatépetl became an active volcano, raining fire on Earth in blind rage at the loss of his beloved.
Iztaccihuatl is listed at 5,286 m. SRTM data and the Mexican national mapping survey assert that a range of 5,220 to 5,230 m is more accurate; the Global Volcanism Program cites 5,230 m. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Mexico List of volcanoes in Mexico List of Ultras of Mexico Iztaccíhuatl - Volcano World Iztaccíhuatl - Ski Mountaineer Iztaccíhuatl - Peakware World Mountain Encyclopedia Iztaccíhuatl - Stamps Legend of The Sleeping Lady and Smoking Mountain
Pico de Orizaba
Pico de Orizaba known as Citlaltépetl, is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America, after Denali of Alaska in the United States and Mount Logan of Canada. It rises 5,636 metres above sea level in the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, on the border between the states of Veracruz and Puebla; the volcano is dormant but not extinct, with the last eruption taking place during the 19th century. It is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Pico de Orizaba overlooks the city of Orizaba, from which it gets its name; the name Citlaltépetl is not used by Nahuatl speakers of the Orizaba area, who instead call it Istaktepetl, or'White Mountain'. Citlaltépetl comes from the Náhuatl citlalli and tepētl and thus means "Star Mountain"; this name is thought to be based on the fact that the snow-covered peak can be seen year round for hundreds of kilometers throughout the region. During the colonial era, the volcano was known as Cerro de San Andrés due to the nearby settlement of San Andrés Chalchicomula at its base.
A third name, which means "the one that colors or illuminates", has been recorded. This name was given by the Tlaxcaltecs in memory of their lost country; the peak of Citlaltépetl rises to an elevation of 5,636 m above sea level. Regionally dominant, Pico de Orizaba is the highest peak in Mexico and the highest volcano in North America. Orizaba is ranked 7th in the world in topographic prominence, it is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro, the volcano is ranked 16th in the world for topographic isolation. About 110 km to the west of the port of Veracruz, its peak is visible to ships approaching the port in the Gulf of Mexico, at dawn rays of sunlight strike the Pico while Veracruz still lies in shadow; the topography of Pico de Orizaba is asymmetrical from the center of the crater. The gradual slopes of the northwestern face of the volcano allows for the presence of large glaciers and is the most traveled route to take for hikers traveling to the summit.
Pico de Orizaba is one of only three volcanoes in México that continue to support glaciers and is home to the largest glacier in Mexico, Gran Glaciar Norte. Orizaba has nine known glaciers: Gran Glaciar Norte, Lengua del Chichimeco, Toro, Glaciar de la Barba, Occidental and Oriental; the equilibrium line altitude is not known for Orizaba. Snow on the south and southeast sides of the volcano melts because of solar radiation, but lower temperatures on the northwest and north sides allow for glaciers; the insolation angle and wind redeposition on the northwest and north sides allow for constant accumulation of snow providing a source for the outlet glaciers. On the north side of Orizaba, the Gran Glaciar Norte fills the elongated highland basin and is the source for seven outlet glaciers; the main glacier extends 3.5 km north of the crater rim, has a surface area of about 9.08 km2 descending from 5,650 m to about 5,000 m. It has a irregular and stepped profile, caused in part by the configuration of the bedrock.
Most crevasses show an ice thickness of 50 m. Below the 5,000 m in elevation on the north side of the volcano, the outlet glaciers Lengua del Chichimeco and Jamapa extend north and northwest another 1.5 km and 2 km, respectively. The terminal lobe of Lengua del Chichimeco at 4,740 m, having a gradient of only 140 m/km, is a low, broad ice fan that has a convex-upward profile, a front typical of all Mexican glaciers; the most distinct glacier is Glaciar de Jamapa, which leaves Gran Glaciar Norte at about 4,975 m and, after 2 km with a gradient of 145 m/km, divides into two small tongues that end at 4,650 m and 4,640 m. Both tongues terminate in broad convex-upward ice fans thinning along their edges; the retreat of these tongues prior to 1994 produced much erosion downstream and buried their edges by ablation rock debris. The west side of Gran Glaciar Norte generates five outlet glaciers. From north to south, the first two, Glaciar del Toro and Glaciar de la Barba, are hanging cliff or icefall glaciers, reaching the tops of giant lava steps at 4,930 m and 5,090 m, respectively.
They descend 200 to 300 m farther down into the heads of stream valleys as huge ice blocks but are not regenerated there. About 1 km, Glaciar Noroccidental, a small outlet glacier 300 m long, drains away from the side of Gran Glaciar Norte at about 5,100 m and draws down the ice surface a few tens of meters over a distance of 500 m, descending to 4,920 m with a gradient of 255 m/km. Another 1 km still farther south, Glaciar Occidental breaks away from Gran Glaciar Norte west of the summit crater at about 5,175 m as a steep, 1 km long glacier having a gradient of 270 m/km that ends at 4,930 m. From the southwest corner of the mountain, another outlet glacier, Glaciar Suroccidental, 1.6 km long, flows from Gran Glaciar Norte at 5,250 m with a gradient of 200 m/km, which en
Nevado de Toluca
Nevado de Toluca is a stratovolcano in central Mexico, located about 80 kilometres west of Mexico City near the city of Toluca. It is cited as the fourth highest of Mexico's peaks, after Pico de Orizaba, Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl, although by some measurements, Sierra Negra is higher; the volcano and the area around it is now a national park. It is called by the Nahuatl name Xinantecatl, translated as The Naked Lord, Señor Desnudo in Spanish, although other etymologies have been suggested such as "Lord of the Corn Stalks", Tzinacantecatl or Zinacantepec. Further evidence regarding the etymologies of this mountain has surfaced after many archeology discoveries in and around the area, it has been concluded that its correct etymology is Chicnauhtecatl meaning "nine lakes" as the top of the cone has various deep lakes. The volcano has a 1.5-kilometre wide summit caldera, open to the east. The highest summit, 4,680-metre Pico del Fraile, is on the southwest side of the crater and the second highest, 4,640-metre Pico del Aguila, is on the northwest.
There are two crater lakes on the floor of the basin at about 4,200 m, the larger Lago del Sol and the smaller, but deeper, Lago de la Luna. A road ran into the caldera to the lakes, but is now gated 2 km before the lakes. From the southeast, Nevado de Toluca looks like shoulders without a head. A Nahuatl legend provides a mythical explanation, it is believed that Nevado de Toluca may once have been as tall as Popocatépetl, until an enormous eruption nearly 25,000 years ago blasted the top of the cone off and reduced its height by as much as 900 m. The same eruption generated mudflows, which coated the sides of the mountains. An eruption 500 years deposited layers of pumice on the mountain's east and northeast slopes; the last major eruption of Nevado de Toluca occurred about 10,500 years ago, as the volcano erupted a total estimated volume of 14 km3 for a VEI strength of 6. The eruption emplaced 1.5 m of pebble-sized pumice in the City of Toluca region and ~50 cm of medium to fine sand in the Mexico City region.
Distal lahar deposits derived from the Upper Toluca Pumice event incorporated mammoth bones and other mammals in the basin of Mexico. The volcano became inactive after a volcanic plug formed in the volcano's vent; the plug became known as El Ombligo. Near the summit, Nevado de Toluca has a cold alpine climate with cold temperatures year round. There is little variation in the temperatures and frost and snow can occur in any month; the dry season covers from November to March and precipitation is low, averaging 12.4 millimetres in March, the driest month. Temperatures during this time are cold; the wet season spans from May to October and precipitation is high, averaging 243.5 millimetres in July. The summit is foggy, averaging 110 days with fog, most of it during the rainy season; the wettest record month was July 2008 when 513.5 millimetres of precipitation fell and the wettest recorded day was July 16, 1999 when 90.5 millimetres of precipitation fell. The highest temperature recorded was 23 °C on August 16, 1993 and the lowest temperature recorded was −10 °C on February 2, 2004.
There are 18 registered archeological sites in the park, as this was a ritual center during pre-Hispanic periods. Bernardino de Sahagún wrote about the lakes as a place where the indigenous held ceremonies and sacrifices; the lakes themselves are considered to be two sites, as a large number of offerings copal, were deposited in the lakes. These deposits can be found all over the lakebed as the burning copal was set adrift on the lakes’ waters until it sank. Other objects have been found such as sculpted stones. Divers used to sack many of the pieces found here but now authorities monitor those who dive. Most of the other sites are found on the crater's peaks. One of the sites is called Xicotepec, at the top of a rocky dome known as the Cerro de Ombligo. Principally green obsidian blades and multicolored ceramic has been found here. On the north side of the crater is Pico Sahagun, with ceramic pieces, Picos Heilprin North and South in which various types of objects have been found, El Mirador, thought to be related the marking of the zenith of the sun.
A stele found. The site at the highest altitude is Pico Noreste at 4,130 meters above sea level, it is a small platform with drainage on, found deteriorated ceramic pieces. On the west side is the Cerro Prieto Cave, a rock shelter, more than 60 meters high. Not only does it contain evidence of pre-Hispanic visits but has been a shrine to the Archangel Michael since the colonial period. There have been intermittent archeological excavations here with the most recent occurring in 2010 sponsored by INAH which found artifacts dating from the Epi-Classic and Post-Classic periods and showed that the crater was a meeting place for astronomer priests to predict the growing season. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Mexico List of volcanoes in Mexico List of Ultras of Mexico Nevado de Toluca National Park Arqueologia Mexicana Global Volcanism Program: Nevado de Toluca Arce, J. L..
The Wheeler Survey was a survey of a portion of the United States lying west of the 100th meridian. It comprised multiple expeditions, was supervised by First Lieutenant George Montague Wheeler; the survey team included Lieutenant Montgomery M. Macomb. Wheeler led early expeditions from 1869 to 1871 in the west, in 1872 the US Congress authorized an ambitious plan to map the portion of the United States west of the 100th meridian at a scale of 8 miles to the inch; this plan necessitated. The survey's main goal was to make topographic maps of the southwestern United States. In addition he was to ascertain everything related to the physical features of the region. Photographers on the expedition included Timothy H. O'Sullivan of New York and William Bell of Philadelphia. Many of their photographs are now on file at the Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs Division; the Wheeler Survey lasted until 1879, when the survey, along with the King and Powell Surveys, were terminated and their work was reorganized as the United States Geological Survey.
Wheeler Peak in Nevada, Wheeler Peak in New Mexico, the scenic Wheeler Geologic Area in southern Colorado are named for George Wheeler. A Guide to the Field notebooks of the Wheeler Survey, NC319. Special Collections, University Libraries, University of Nevada, Reno