Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps
The Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps are a mountain range system in the Holm Land Peninsula, King Frederick VIII Land, northeastern Greenland. Administratively this range is part of the Northeast Greenland National Park zone; the range was named by the 1938–39 Mørkefjord Expedition after Princess Caroline-Mathilde of Denmark, wife of Prince Knud of Denmark, patron of the expedition. The Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps run from north to south across the western half of the Holm Land peninsula; the Princess Elizabeth Alps located to the north across the Ingolf Fjord display a similar structure. The range is bound to the north and northwest by the inner Ingolf Fjord, to the east by the flatter eastern part of Holm Land, to the west by the Vandre Valley and the Saefaxi River, to the south by the Marmorvigen and the inner Hekla Sound, the NW branch of the Scoresby Sound; the range has numerous rocky ridges that are unnamed. The highest point of the Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps reaches 1,627 m at 80°28′28″N 19°36′38″W with an as high 1,618 m peak located close about 5 km to the southeast.
US Air Force maps display the same highest point reaching other sources 1,744 m. The Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps lie in a uninhabited part of Greenland; the nearest settlement is Nord, a military outpost with an airfield located about 120 km to the north. The main glaciers in the Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps are: Gaflen Glacier, on the western side. Skeen Glacier, on the western side. Spaerre Brae, a large glacier on the northern side. Tungen Glacier, on the western side; the Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps lie in the high Arctic zone. Polar climate prevails in the area of the range, the average annual temperature in the area being -16° C; the warmest month is July when the average temperature rises to -1° C and the coldest is January with -28° C. A. K. Higgins, M. P. Smith, N. J. Soper, A. G. Leslie, J. A. Rasmussen and M. Sønderholm 2000: The Neoproterozoic Hekla Sund Basin, eastern North Greenland: a pre-Iapetan extensional sequence thrust across its rift shoulders during the Caledonian orogeny.
The Geological Society of London. 2001. Pedersen, S. A. S. Leslie, A. G. & Craig, L. E. 1995. Proterozoic and Caledonian geology of the Prinsesse Caroline Mathilde Alper, eastern North Greenland. In: Higgins, A. K. Express Report Eastern North and North-East Greenland 1995. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, 71–86. List of mountain ranges of Greenland Pictures
Summit Camp Summit Station, is a year-round research station on the apex of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Its coordinates are variable; the coordinates provided here are as of July 2009. The station is located 3,216 metres above sea level; the population of the station is five in wintertime, has peaked at 55 in the summer. The station is operated by the American-based CH2M HILL Polar Services, with support from the United States' National Science Foundation. A permit from the Danish Polar Center under the auspices of the Home Rule Government of Greenland is required to visit the station; the camp is located 360 km from the east coast and 500 km from the west coast of Greenland at, 200 km north-northeast of the historical ice sheet camp Eismitte. The closest town is 460 km east-southeast of the station; the station however is not part of Sermersooq municipality, but falls within the bounds of the Northeast Greenland National Park. Summit Camp consists of the Big House, Greenhouse with attached Berthing Module, a combined garage and generator building, the summertime Tent City, storage buildings.
Summit Camp was established in April 1989 in support of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two deep ice coring effort. A ski-equipped C-130 from the New York Air National Guard performed an open snow landing near the site, bringing the put-in team consisting of Mark Twickler, Jay Klink, Michael Morrison, two navigation specialists, they located the exact location chosen for the GISP2 drilling site, established a camp, laid out the runway. Subsequent flights brought in additional materials and personnel needed to build the station. Two major structures were planned and built: The Big House, an insulated panel building, elevated to minimize snow drifts. Extensive under-snow trenches were constructed to house the core handling and storage facilities. Many smaller Weatherport hut buildings and tents were erected as storage and shop areas, as well as sleeping quarters; these were taken down each season. On July 1, 1993, the bedrock was reached. A summer station only, the station had been manned year round since the early 2000s, with a winter population of 4 to 5.
The climate is classified as ice cap, with no month having a mean temperature exceeding 0°C. Typical daily maximum temperatures at Summit Camp are around − 10 °C in summer. Winter minimum temperatures are about −45 °C and only exceed −20 °C; the highest temperature at Summit Camp was 6.0 °C, recorded on June 14, 2017. On July 6th 2017 the site recorded the lowest temperature in the northern hemisphere for the month of July at −33 °C. In May 2018, Summitt was only 0.8° C away from recording the lowest temperature recorded during May in the Northern Hempishpere, at −49 °C. Whilst on the 24th of March 2019, a new record low for the month was set at −58.9 °C During the summer months the camp is accessed via Kangerlussuaq Airport with LC-130 Hercules aircraft which land on a 4,572 by 60 m snow runway, prepared and groomed for ski-equipped aircraft. Winter access is infrequent, using smaller, ski-equipped aircraft such as a Twin Otter flown by Norlandair. List of research stations in the Arctic NEEM Camp Camp Century Eismitte North Ice List of mountains in Greenland Webcam of Summit Camp Summit Camp Homepage CH2M HILL Polar Services Homepage for Summit Station Weather data of Summit Camp Documenting 2013 journey to Summit Station ESRL Global Monitoring Division - Summit Observatory WeatherPort Shelter Systems
Highest unclimbed mountain
An unclimbed mountain is a mountain peak that has yet to be climbed to the top. Determining which unclimbed peak is highest is a matter of controversy. In some parts of the world and mapping are still unreliable. There are no comprehensive records of the routes of explorers and local inhabitants. In some cases modern ascents by larger parties have been poorly documented and, with no universally recognized listing, the best that can be achieved in determining the world's highest unclimbed peaks is somewhat speculative. Most sources indicate that Gangkhar Puensum in Bhutan or on the Bhutan-China border is the tallest mountain in the world that has yet to be summited. Gangkhar Puensum has been off limits to climbers since 1994 when Bhutan prohibited all mountaineering above 6,000 m due to spiritual/religious beliefs. Unclimbed mountains are sometimes referred to as "virgin peaks." Many virgin peaks exist because the mountain is unreachable, due to either geographic isolation or political instability.
Some mountains remain off limits due to religious beliefs of a country or region that hold such mountains are sacred and should remain inviolate. Additionally, since the endeavor to scale taller mountains of the world is a major undertaking, lesser peaks, while still formidable get less attention than the taller ones, instead these taller peaks are summited by parties following a new route or during the winter when conditions are more treacherous. Many mountains, in addition to their highest point or peak, will have subsidiary subpeaks; the topographic prominence of a peak or subpeak, as well as the general topography, all come into consideration when determining whether such apexes are considered to be independent peaks or subpeaks. Although objective criteria have been proposed for distinguishing peaks from subpeaks, there is no agreed standard. In 1994, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation classified 82 mountain peaks in the Alps whose summits were at least 4,000 m above sea level and with at least 30 m of topographic prominence over any adjacent mountain pass or col, as a distinct peak.
It can be difficult sometimes to determine whether or not a mountain peak has been summited. Long before modern mountaineering commenced in the middle of the 19th century, evidence indicates that people did indeed travel up to the summits or near to the summits of major mountain peaks. Archaeological excavations in the Andes have shown that humans travelled up to 6,739 m in pre-historic times. Permanent settlements as high as 4,500 m were established as long as 12,000 years ago in the Andes as well. In the Greater Himalaya region, Lhasa, in Tibet, sitting at 3,650 m has been permanently occupied since the 7th century and many smaller settlements across the Greater Himalaya thrive at elevations exceeding 4,000 m. With humans living at high elevations for many millennia, nearby peaks to such settlements may or may not have been summited at some point in the past. However, many regions away from settlements may have never before been explored since some high peaks in the Greater Ranges are so remote that they were unknown to local inhabitants when first sighted by European explorers.
The world's third tallest peak, has been summited a number of times, but after the first climbers of the peak agreed to honor the wishes of locals and not set foot on the topmost part of the mountain, succeeding mountaineering parties may have followed this tradition. Nanda Devi has been climbed but the topmost summit was not ascended and the primary summit is now off limits to climbers. Machapuchare had only one summit attempt back in 1957; the mountain most claimed to be the highest unclimbed mountain in the world in terms of elevation is Gangkhar Puensum. It is on or near the border with China. In Bhutan, the climbing of mountains higher than 6,000 m has been prohibited since 1994; the rationale for this prohibition is based on local customs that consider this and similar peaks to be the sacred homes of protective deities and spirits, the lack of high-altitude rescue resources from any locale closer than India. The prohibition was further expanded in 2003 when mountaineering of any kind was disallowed within Bhutan.
Gangkhar Puensum will remain unclimbed so long as the government of Bhutan prohibits it. It is unclear, the highest unclimbed non-prohibited mountain. While some recognize only peaks with 100 m of topographical prominence as individual summits, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation uses a 30 m as the cutoff for determining individual summits. Based on the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation's criteria, Muchu Chhish in Pakistan is the world's tallest that has not been climbed though it is legal to do so. Other unclimbed summits include one on the massif known as Kabru, Labuche Kang III/East with prominence of 570 m and Karjiang. Unclimbed candidates with high topographic prominence are by definition independent mountains, but some have modest elevations. With such peaks there is a greater possibility of undocumented ascents occurring long ago. Sauyr Zhotasy, the highpoint in the Saur Range on the border between Kazakhstan a
Gunnbjørn Fjeld is Greenland's highest mountain and the highest mountain north of the Arctic circle. This mountain's name refers to the mythical Norse Hvitserk meaning "whiteshirt", of the Icelandic Sagas, it is a rocky peak protruding through glacial ice. Gunnbjørn Fjeld is located in the Watkins Range, an area of nunataks on the east coast, which contains several other summits above 3,500 metres, its height is given as 3,700 metres, although figures vary slightly. Gunnbjørn Fjeld was first climbed on 16 August 1935 by Augustine Courtauld, Jack Longland, Ebbe Munck, Harold G. Wager, Lawrence Wager, it is named after the first European to have sighted Greenland. The peak rises in an uninhabited part of the eastern coast of Greenland; the mountain is not so climbed owing to its remote location. Access is done with helicopter or ski-equipped plane. Mont Forel assumed to be the highest point List of mountain peaks of Greenland List of mountains in Greenland 2004 trip report
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
Ejnar Mikkelsen Range
Ejnar Mikkelsen Range is a mountain range in King Christian IX Land, eastern Greenland. Administratively it is part of the Sermersooq Municipality; the range is part of the greater Watkins Range and is named after Danish polar explorer Ejnar Mikkelsen. The highest peak is one of the most impressive mountains in Greenland and has a good reputation among alpinists, it was first climbed in 1970 by Andrew Ross leading a Scottish team, for the second time in 1998 by Roland Aeschimann leading a Swiss team. The Ejnar Mikkelsen Range is a long nunatak with high peaks extending for about 23 km in a north-south direction, it is located east of the main Watkins Range on the eastern side of the Kronborg Glacier and west of the Borgtinderne, another nunatak with high peaks. Its northern end connects with the northern part of the Watkins Range; the area of this range is uninhabited. The highest point in the range is 3,282.7 m high Ejnar Mikkelsen Fjeld main peak, a massive mountain having a black rock needle at the top that marks the true summit.
None of the other peaks in the nunatak rises above 3,000 m. This summit is one of the highest summits in Greenland and it is marked as a 3,325 m peak in some sources. Ejnar Mikkelsen Fjeld; the average annual temperature in the area of the range is -14 °C. The warmest month is July when the average temperature reaches -2 °C and the coldest is February when the temperature sinks to -22 °C. List of mountain ranges of Greenland List of mountains in Greenland List of Nunataks of Greenland List of the major 3000-meter summits of North America List of Ultras of North America Syenite The Development of Mountaineering in East and North-East Greenland- An Outline History The Kap Gustav Holm Tertiary Plutonic Centre, East Greenland Tertiary Magmatism In East Greenland And Hotspot Magmatism Worldwide
Petermann Peak known as Petermann Fjeld, Petermanns Topp and Petermann Point is a mountain in King Christian X Land, Northeast Greenland. Administratively it is part of the Northeast Greenland National Park zone; the area around Petermann Peak is uninhabited. This mountain is located in the high Arctic zone; the average annual temperature in the area is −16 °C. The warmest month is June, when the average temperature rises to −2 °C, the coldest is January, with −22 °C. Petermann Peak rises to a height of 2,943 m on a nunatak located the northern side of the Nordenskiöld Glacier, in western Fraenkel Land in the inner Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord, it has a magnificent appearance. The Gregory Glacier flows from its northeastern side into the Knækdalen valley; the Kalifbjerg, Kerberus and Magog peaks are located to the north of Petermann Peak. Believed to be the highest peak in Greenland, this mountain is one of the most renowned summits in northeastern Greenland together with Payer Peak located nearby.
The Petermann Peak is marked as a 9,646-foot-high peak in the Defense Mapping Agency Greenland Navigation charts and as a 2,790-metre-high mountain in other sources. Petermann Peak was first seen in August 1870 by Julius Payer and Ralph Copeland when they climbed Payer Peak, it was named Petermanns Spitze by Carl Koldewey during the Second German North Polar Expedition he led while first surveying and exploring Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord in 1869–70. The peak was named after German geographer August Heinrich Petermann, a great supporter of the expedition. In 1899 A. G. Nathorst mistook a lower peak in the vicinity, now named Nathorst Tinde, for Petermann Bjerg. At the turn of the century Petermann Peak was assumed to be the highest peak in all Greenland; the first ascent of the peak was made on 15 August 1929 by the Cambridge Expedition to East Greenland led by Scottish polar explorer James Wordie. The second ascent by John Haller and Wolfgang Diehl on 9 August 1951. List of mountain peaks of Greenland List of mountains in Greenland List of the ultra-prominent summits of North America List of the major 100-kilometer summits of North America AAJ - North America, Petermann Peak Peakery - Greenland mountains and peaks Geological Magazine - A Contribution to the Geology of the Country between Petermann Peak and Kjerulf Fjord, East Greenland