The Alaska Peninsula is a peninsula extending about 800 km to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska and ending in the Aleutian Islands. The peninsula separates the Pacific Ocean from an arm of the Bering Sea. In literature the term ‘Alaska Peninsula’ was used to denote the entire northwestern protrusion of the North American continent, or all of what is now the state of Alaska, exclusive of its panhandle and islands; the Lake and Peninsula borough, the Alaskan equivalent of a county, is named after the peninsula. The Aleutian Range is a active volcanic mountain range which runs along the entire length of the Peninsula. Within it lie Wildlife Refuges, including the Katmai National Park and Preserve, the Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve and the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge, the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge; the southern side of the Alaska Peninsula is rugged and mountainous, created by the uplifting tectonic activity of the North Pacific Plate subsiding under a western section of the North American Plate.
The northern and southern shores are quite different. The northern Bristol Bay coastal side is turbid and muddy, experiences tidal extremes, is shallow. All of the Peninsula is organized as a part of four adjacent boroughs; the Lake and Peninsula Borough includes most of the peninsula's territory. Average annual precipitation ranges from 24 to 65 in. Coastal areas are subject to intense storms and rain. Winter temperatures average between −11°C and 1°C, in summer between 6°C and 15°. Frosts can occur any day of the year at higher elevations; the climate can be compared to that of the Aleutian Islands and Tierra del Fuego. The Alaska Peninsula is home to some of the largest populations of native and undisturbed wildlife in the United States. Besides the famous McNeil River and Katmai Alaskan brown bear populations, large herds of caribou, moose and waterfowl inhabit the area; the bears of the peninsula and Bristol Bay are so numerous because they feed on the world's largest sockeye salmon runs, which occur here in large part because the many large lakes of the peninsula are an important element in their lifecycle.
These salmon, after returning from their short life at sea, swim into the lakes and their contributing streams to spawn. Their offspring, or fry, overwinter in the deep and food-abundant depths of these lakes until their migration to the sea in one or two years. Exceptionally large seabird colonies exist along the coast; the rugged southern half of the peninsula, the Kodiak Archipelago which lie off the south coast of the peninsula and are home to more bears, constitute the Alaska Peninsula montane taiga ecoregion and contain a number of protected areas such as Katmai National Park. Besides the communities on the coast, the Alaska Peninsula is home to several well-known villages: Cold Bay, King Cove, Chignik, Chignik Lake, Chignik Lagoon, Port Moller; each is inhabited by Alaska Natives and each is dependent on the fishing industry for sustenance. The village of Sand Point should be included here, despite its location on Popof Island, an island of the Sumagin Islands, just off the southern coast of the Peninsula.
Ugashik Area website Lake & Peninsula Borough Lake and Peninsula School District Alaska Peninsula Trek Trawl survey of shrimp and forage fish in Alaska's Westward region, 2006 / by David R. Jackson. Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program
Mount Marcus Baker
Mount Marcus Baker is the highest peak of the Chugach Mountains of Alaska. It is located 75 miles east of Anchorage; this peak is prominent because of its proximity to tidewater and is only 12 miles north of the calving face of Harvard Glacier. When ranked by topographic prominence, Mount Marcus Baker is one of the top 75 peaks in the world. Mount Marcus Baker was called "Mount Saint Agnes"; the name was changed to honor a cartographer and geologist named Marcus Baker. The peak was first climbed on June 1938 by a party led by famed explorer Bradford Washburn. Today's standard route is the North Ridge. Despite being much lower in elevation than Denali, Marcus Baker is a serious ascent, due to the remoteness of the peak and the resulting length of the approach and climb. A number of noted climbers have perished or sustained permanent injury in attempting to summit the peak as climbing conditions can change as storms arise. In early 1988, a State of Alaska Fish and Game biologist, 28-year-old Sylvia Jean Lane, succumbed to hypothermia as a two-day storm separated her from the two others in the climbing party attempting to dash to the top in a winter ascent.
List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of Ultras of the United States Alaskan peaks with prominence > 1500m Mount Marcus Baker on bivouac.com
Redoubt Volcano, or Mount Redoubt, is an active stratovolcano in the volcanic Aleutian Range of the U. S. state of Alaska. Located at the head of the Chigmit Mountains subrange in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, the mountain is just west of Cook Inlet, in the Kenai Peninsula Borough about 110 miles southwest of Anchorage. At 10,197 feet, in just over 5 miles Mount Redoubt attains 9,150 feet of prominence over its surrounding terrain, it is the highest summit in the Aleutian Range. In 1976, Redoubt Volcano was designated as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service. Active for millennia, Mount Redoubt has erupted four times since it was first observed: in 1902, 1966, 1989 and 2009, with two questionable eruptions in 1881 and 1933; the eruption in 1989 spewed volcanic ash to a height of 45,000 ft. It caught KLM Flight 867, a Boeing 747 aircraft, in its plume. After the plane descended 13,000 feet, the pilots restarted the engines and landed the plane safely at Anchorage; the ash blanketed an area of about 7,700 sq mi.
The 1989 eruption is notable for being the first volcanic eruption to be predicted by the method of long-period seismic events developed by Swiss/American volcanologist Bernard Chouet. As of August 2015, the Alaska Volcano Observatory has rated Redoubt as Aviation Alert Level Green and Volcano Alert Level Normal; the official name of the mountain is Redoubt Volcano, a translation of the Russian name "Sopka Redutskaya", referring to, as does the word "redoubt", "a fortified place". A local name, "Ujakushatsch" means "fortified place", but it is difficult to determine if one name is derived from the other; the Board on Geographic Names decided on the name "Redoubt Volcano" in 1891. The Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution refers to the mountain as "Redoubt", lists the following as alternate names: Burnt Mountain, Mirando, Ujakushatsch and Yjakushatsch; the Alaska Volcano Observatory uses "Redoubt". The volcano is about 3.7 miles in diameter at its base with a rough volume of 7.2 to 8.4 cu mi.
The sides of the upper cone are steep. Made up of pyroclastic flow deposits and lava flows, resting on Mesozoic era rocks of the Aleutian Mountain Range batholith, the mountain has been somewhat weathered by movement of several glaciers that reside on it; the current main vent is on the north side of the crater by the head of the Drift glacier. Present on the mountain are Holocene lahar deposits that extend as far as the Cook Inlet; this mountain has produced andesite and dacite, with silicic andesite dominant in recent eruptions. Captain James Cook saw Mt. Redoubt during the summer of 1778, describing it as "emitting a white smoke but no fire which made some think it was no more than a white thick cloud such as we have seen on the Coast, for the most part appearing on the sides of hills and extends along a whole range and at different times falls or rises, expands or contracts itself and has a resemblance to Clouds of white smoke, but this besides being too small for one of those clouds, remained as it were fixed in the same spot for the whole time the Mountain was clear, above 48 hours."
However, several sources call this a "discredited eruption". There are several other of these activities. In 1819, smoke was observed at the mountain. However, this is not recorded as an eruption as the information was insufficient to identify it as such. In 2003, a blowing cloud of snow was mistaken by an employee of the ConocoPhillips Building in Anchorage for an ash plume. Possible steam-vapor let off was observed in 1933 at the mountain. There was an eruption described as "to the eastward, Redoubt Volcano, 11,060 feet high, is smoking, with periods of exaggerated activity. Fire has been seen issuing from its summit far out at sea. A great eruption took place in 1881, when a party of native hunters half-way up its slopes were overwhelmed by a lava-flow and only two escaped." However, this eruption is not well documented by other sources. The volcano erupted rather abruptly in 1902. A local newspaper stated, "Word has just been received that Redoubt, one of the volcanoes at Cook's Inlet had an eruption on January 18, the country for 150 miles around was covered with ashes and lava.
The news comes from Sunrise, but nothing definite has been ascertained as to whether any damage was done, for no boats have as yet been in the neighborhood of the volcano." There were many other news reports on the eruption, one describing the eruption as "a terrific earthquake which burst the mountain asunder leaving a large gap," which could suggest the crack formation in the volcano's crater, however, it is unlikely. The volcano was ejecting "flames" from its crater, the eruption terrified natives in the area. Newspapers seemed to suggest that the ash had traveled for more than 150 miles, reaching the opposite side of the Cook Inlet; the volcano erupted on December 14, 1989, continued to erupt for over six months. Sudden melting of snow and ice at the summit caused by pyroclastic flows and dome collapses caused lahars, or mudflows, which flowed down the north flank of the mountain. A majority of the mudflows coursed about 22 miles from the volcano; the lahars entered a nearby river, worrying officials that they might destroy an oil storage facility located along it.
Since lahars were produced sci
Mount Rainier known as Tahoma or Tacoma, is a large active stratovolcano located 59 miles south-southeast of Seattle, in the Mount Rainier National Park. With a summit elevation of 14,411 ft, it is the highest mountain in the U. S. state of Washington, of the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest, it is the second topographically prominent mountain in the continental United States and the first in the Cascade Volcanic Arc. Mt. Rainier is considered one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world, it is on the Decade Volcano list; because of its large amount of glacial ice, Mt. Rainier could produce massive lahars that could threaten the entire Puyallup River valley. "About 80,000 people and their homes are at risk in Mount Rainier’s lahar-hazard zones." Mount Rainier was first known by Tacoma or Tahoma. One hypothesis of the word origin is, in the Lushootseed language spoken by the Puyallup people. Another hypothesis is that "Tacoma" means "larger than Mount Baker" in Lushootseed: "Ta", plus "Koma", Mount Baker.
Other names used include Tahoma and Pooskaus. The current name was given by George Vancouver, who named it in honor of his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier; the map of the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804-1806 refers to it as "Mt. Regniere". Although "Rainier" had been considered the official name of the mountain, Theodore Winthrop, in his posthumously published 1862 travel book The Canoe and the Saddle, referred to the mountain as "Tacoma" and for a time, both names were used interchangeably, although "Mt. Tacoma" was preferred in the city of Tacoma. In 1890, the United States Board on Geographic Names declared that the mountain would be known as "Rainier". Following this in 1897, the Pacific Forest Reserve became the Mount Rainier Forest Reserve, the national park was established three years later. Despite this, there was still a movement to change the mountain's name to "Tacoma" and Congress was still considering a resolution to change the name as late as 1924. In the lead-up to Super Bowl XLVIII, the Washington State Senate passed a resolution on Friday, January 31, 2014, temporarily renaming the mountain Mount Seattle Seahawks until the midnight after the Super Bowl, February 3, 2014, in response to the renaming of 53 mountains in Colorado after the 53 members of the Denver Broncos by Governor of Colorado John Hickenlooper.
After the 2015 restoration of the original name Denali from Mount McKinley in Alaska, debate over Mount Rainier's name intensified. Mount Rainier is the tallest mountain in the Cascade Range; this peak is located just southeast of Seattle and Tacoma. Mount Rainier is ranked third of the 128 ultra-prominent mountain peaks of the United States. Mount Rainier has a topographic prominence of 13,210 ft, greater than that of K2, the world's second-tallest mountain, at 13,189 ft. On clear days it dominates the southeastern horizon in most of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area to such an extent that locals sometimes refer to it as "the Mountain." On days of exceptional clarity, it can be seen from as far away as Corvallis and Victoria, British Columbia. With 26 major glaciers and 36 sq mi of permanent snowfields and glaciers, Mount Rainier is the most glaciated peak in the lower 48 states; the summit is topped by two volcanic craters, each more than 1,000 ft in diameter, with the larger east crater overlapping the west crater.
Geothermal heat from the volcano keeps areas of both crater rims free of snow and ice, has formed the world's largest volcanic glacier cave network within the ice-filled craters, with nearly 2 mi of passages. A small crater lake about 130 by 30 ft in size and 16 ft deep, the highest in North America with a surface elevation of 14,203 ft, occupies the lowest portion of the west crater below more than 100 ft of ice and is accessible only via the caves; the Carbon, Mowich and Cowlitz Rivers begin at eponymous glaciers of Mount Rainier. The sources of the White River are Winthrop and Fryingpan Glaciers; the White and Mowich join the Puyallup River, which discharges into Commencement Bay at Tacoma. The broad top of Mount Rainier contains three named summits; the highest is called the Columbia Crest. The second highest summit is Point Success, 14,158 ft, at the southern edge of the summit plateau, atop the ridge known as Success Cleaver, it has a topographic prominence of about 138 ft, so it is not considered a separate peak.
The lowest of the three summits is Liberty Cap, 14,112 ft, at the northwestern edge, which overlooks Liberty Ridge, the Sunset Amphitheater, the dramatic Willis Wall. Liberty Cap has a prominence of 492 ft, so would qualify as a separate peak under most prominence-based rules. A prominence cutoff of 400 ft is used in Washington state. High on the eastern flank of Mount Rainier is a peak known as Little Tahoma Peak, 11,138 ft, an eroded remnant of the earlier, much higher, Mount Rainier, it has a prominence of 858 ft, it is never climbed in direct conjunction with Columbia Crest, so it is considered a separate peak. If considered separately from Mt. Rainier, Little Tahoma Peak would be the third highest mountain peak in Washington. Mount Rainier is a stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc that consists of lava flows, debris flows, pyroclastic ejecta and flows, its early volcanic deposits are estimated
Mount Shasta is a active volcano at the southern end of the Cascade Range in Siskiyou County, California. At an elevation of 14,179 feet, it is the second-highest peak in the Cascades and the fifth-highest in the state. Mount Shasta has an estimated volume of 85 cubic miles, which makes it the most voluminous stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc; the mountain and surrounding area are part of the Shasta–Trinity National Forest. Mount Shasta is connected to its satellite cone of Shastina, together they dominate the landscape. Shasta rises abruptly to tower nearly 10,000 feet above its surroundings. On a clear winter day, the mountain can be seen from the floor of the Central Valley 140 miles to the south; the mountain has attracted the attention of poets and presidents. It is dormant; the mountain consists of four overlapping volcanic cones that have built a complex shape, including the main summit and the prominent satellite cone of 12,330 ft Shastina, which has a visibly conical form. If Shastina were a separate mountain, it would rank as the fourth-highest peak of the Cascade Range.
Mount Shasta's surface is free of deep glacial erosion except, for its south side where Sargents Ridge runs parallel to the U-shaped Avalanche Gulch. This is the largest glacial valley on the volcano. There are seven named glaciers on Mount Shasta, with the four largest radiating down from high on the main summit cone to below 10,000 ft on the north and east sides; the Whitney Glacier is the longest, the Hotlum is the most voluminous glacier in the state of California. Three of the smaller named glaciers occupy cirques near and above 11,000 ft on the south and southeast sides, including the Watkins and Mud Creek glaciers; the oldest-known human settlement in the area dates to about 7,000 years ago. At the time of Euro-American contact in the 1820s, the Native American tribes who lived within view of Mount Shasta included the Shasta, Modoc, Atsugewi, Klamath and Yana tribes; the historic eruption of Mount Shasta in 1786 may have been observed by Lapérouse, but this is disputed. Although first seen by Spanish explorers, the first reliably reported land sighting of Mount Shasta by a European or American was by Peter Skene Ogden in 1826.
In 1827, the name "Sasty" or "Sastise" was given to nearby Mount McLoughlin by Ogden. An 1839 map by David Burr lists the mountain as Rogers Peak; this name was dropped, the name Shasta was transferred to present-day Mount Shasta in 1841 as a result of work by the United States Exploring Expedition. Beginning in the 1820s, Mount Shasta was a prominent landmark along what became known as the Siskiyou Trail, which runs at Mount Shasta's base; the Siskiyou Trail was on the track of an ancient trade and travel route of Native American footpaths between California's Central Valley and the Pacific Northwest. The California Gold Rush brought the first Euro-American settlements into the area in the early 1850s, including at Yreka and Upper Soda Springs; the first recorded ascent of Mount Shasta occurred after several earlier failed attempts. In 1856, the first women reached the summit. By the 1860s and 1870s, Mount Shasta was the subject of literary interest. In 1854 John Rollin Ridge titled a poem "Mount Shasta."
A book by California pioneer and entrepreneur James Hutchings, titled Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California, contained an account of an early summit trip in 1855. The summit was achieved by John Muir, Josiah Whitney, Clarence King, John Wesley Powell. In 1877, Muir wrote a dramatic popular article about his surviving an overnight blizzard on Mount Shasta by lying in the hot sulfur springs near the summit; this experience was inspiration to Kim Stanley Robinson's short story "Muir on Shasta". The 1887 completion of the Central Pacific Railroad, built along the line of the Siskiyou Trail between California and Oregon, brought a substantial increase in tourism and population into the area around Mount Shasta. Early resorts and hotels, such as Shasta Springs and Upper Soda Springs, grew up along the Siskiyou Trail around Mount Shasta, catering to these early adventuresome tourists and mountaineers. In the early 20th century, the Pacific Highway followed the track of the Siskiyou Trail to the base of Mount Shasta, leading to still more access to the mountain.
Today's version of the Siskiyou Trail, Interstate 5, brings thousands of people each year to Mount Shasta. From February 13–19, 1959, the Mount Shasta Ski Bowl obtained the record for the most snowfall during one storm in the U. S. with a total of 15.75 feet. Mount Shasta was declared a National Natural Landmark in December 1976; the lore of some of the Klamath Tribes in the area held that Mount Shasta is inhabited by the Spirit of the Above-World, who descended from heaven to the mountain's summit at the request of a Klamath chief. Skell fought with Spirit of the Below-World, who resided at Mount Mazama by throwing hot rocks and lava representing the volcanic eruptions at both mountains. Italian settlers arrived in the early 1900s to work in the mills as stonemasons and established a strong Catholic presence in the area. Many other faiths have been attracted to Mount Shasta over the years—more than any other Cascade volcano. Mount Shasta City and Dunsmuir, small towns near Shas
Denali is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level. With a topographic prominence of 20,156 feet and a topographic isolation of 4,629 miles, Denali is the third most prominent and third most isolated peak on Earth, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U. S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Preserve. The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley. In August 2015, following the 1975 lead of the State of Alaska, the United States Department of the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain to Denali. In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, unsuccessful. In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, proven to be false; the first verifiable ascent to Denali's summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit.
In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, therefore the most popular in use. On September 2, 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet high, not 20,320 feet, as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry. Denali is a granitic pluton lifted by tectonic pressure from the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate; the forces that lifted Denali cause many deep earthquakes in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The Pacific Plate is seismically active beneath Denali, a tectonic region, known as the "McKinley cluster". Denali has a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level, making it the highest peak in North America and the northernmost mountain above 6,000 meters elevation in the world. Measured from base to peak at some 18,000 ft, it is among the largest mountains situated above sea level. Denali rises from a sloping plain with elevations from 1,000 to 3,000 ft, for a base-to-peak height of 17,000 to 19,000 ft.
By comparison, Mount Everest rises from the Tibetan Plateau at a much higher base elevation. Base elevations for Everest range from 13,800 ft on the south side to 17,100 ft on the Tibetan Plateau, for a base-to-peak height in the range of 12,000 to 15,300 ft. Denali's base-to-peak height is little more than half the 33,500 ft of the volcano Mauna Kea, which lies under water. Denali has two significant summits: the South Summit is the higher one, while the North Summit has an elevation of 19,470 ft and a prominence of 1,270 ft; the North Summit is sometimes counted as sometimes not. Five large glaciers flow off the slopes of the mountain; the Peters Glacier lies on the northwest side of the massif, while the Muldrow Glacier falls from its northeast slopes. Just to the east of the Muldrow, abutting the eastern side of the massif, is the Traleika Glacier; the Ruth Glacier lies to the southeast of the mountain, the Kahiltna Glacier leads up to the southwest side of the mountain. With a length of 44 mi, the Kahiltna Glacier is the longest glacier in the Alaska Range.
The Koyukon Athabaskans who inhabit the area around the mountain have for centuries referred to the peak as Dinale or Denali. The name is based on a Koyukon word for "high" or "tall". During the Russian ownership of Alaska, the common name for the mountain was Bolshaya Gora, the Russian translation of Denali, it was called Densmore's Mountain in the late 1880s and early 1890s after Frank Densmore, an Alaskan prospector, the first European to reach the base of the mountain. In 1896, a gold prospector named it McKinley as political support for then-presidential candidate William McKinley, who became president the following year; the United States formally recognized the name Mount McKinley after President Wilson signed the Mount McKinley National Park Act of February 26, 1917. In 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson declared the north and south peaks of the mountain the "Churchill Peaks", in honor of British statesman Winston Churchill; the Alaska Board of Geographic Names changed the name of the mountain to Denali in 1975, how it is called locally.
However, a request in 1975 from the Alaska state legislature to the United States Board on Geographic Names to do the same at the federal level was blocked by Ohio congressman Ralph Regula, whose district included McKinley's hometown of Canton. On August 30, 2015, just ahead of a presidential visit to Alaska, the Barack Obama administration announced the name Denali would be restored in line with the Alaska Geographic Board's designation. U. S. Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell issued the order changing the name to Denali on August 28, 2015, effective immediately. Jewell said the change had been "a long time coming"; the renaming of the mountain received praise from Alaska's senior U. S. senator, Lisa Murkowski, who had introduced legislation to accomplish the name change, but it drew criticism from several politicians from Pres
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17