Warrumbungle National Park
Warrumbungle National Park is a heritage listed national park located in the Orana region of New South Wales, Australia. The national park is located 550 kilometres northwest of Sydney and contained within 23,311 hectares; the park attracts 35,000 visitors per annum. The national park is based on the geographical Warrumbungle Mountain Range, sometimes shortened to the Warrumbungles, thus the park name is heard in the plural; the park lies within the Pilliga Important Bird Area, so identified by BirdLife International because of its importance for a range of woodland bird species, many of which are threatened. Warrumbungle National Park was added to the Australian National Heritage List in December 2006. On 4 July 2016, the park was the first within Australia to be certified as a Dark Sky Park by the International Dark Sky Association; the nearest towns to the park are Baradine, Coonamble, Gilgandra and Tooraweenah. Access via Coonabarabran to the east is by 27 kilometres of sealed road called the John Renshaw Parkway, built in 1966.
Via Coonamble to the west, access is by a 57 kilometres long road with some gravel. The park is contained within three local government areas: Warrumbungle Shire to the east, Gilgandra Shire to the south and Coonamble Shire to the west. Located within the large area of temperate savanna grasslands the park incorporates the most spectactular part of the Warrumbungle mountains, a region of past volcanic activity with unusual lava formations; some of the most well-known rock formations include Bluff Mountain, Mount Exmouth, The Breadknife, Split Rock, Fans Horizon and Crater Bluff. There are many scenic bushwalks and both rock climbing and abseiling are popular. Though the park preserved habitat for koalas in the past, a massive 2013 fire decimated the koala population. Located adjacent to the national park is the Siding Spring Observatory; the observatory opened in 1965, was constructed on the boundary of the park because the park provided a light-free environment. This scientific facility consists of several internationally important telescopes and has considerable socio-economic importance to the local Coonabarabran community.
There are four main campsites. All camping in the park is only permitted after obtaining a permit. There is a visitors centre for keys to a number of huts; the park caters for large school groups. There are free electric barbecues available however firewood is not supplied or to be collected within park grounds. A proposal to reserve the more scenic parts of the Warrumbungle Range as the Warrumbungle National Monument was first initiated by the National Parks and Primitive Areas Council in 1936; the area was first proclaimed as a reserve in 1953. In 1967 management of the park was signed over to the National Parks and Wildlife Service; the construction of a network of walking tracks done by hand was headed by the parks first ranger, Carl Dow. The park was added to the list of the National Heritage in December 2006, in recognition of the park's importance as an extensive and spectacular geomorphological site with bold volcanic landforms that are unrivalled anywhere else in Australia. In January 2013 about 80% of the national park was destroyed in a conflagration that burned much of the area surrounding the park as well as destroying dozens of homes.
The visitor centre and museum were wiped out, as well as railings and viewing platforms throughout the park. The park has since reopened, although some parts remain closed. Protected areas of New South Wales Warrumbungle National Park: Park management at the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage. NSW Parks and Wildlife Service Closure notice
Nymboi-Binderay National Park
Nymboi-Binderay is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 444 kilometres north of Sydney. It is located north of the town of Dorrigo; this park surrounds the granite banks of the rugged Nymboida River. The Nymboida rapids are used by white water rafters; the park contains sections of the Little Nymboida River and recreational areas at Cod Hole and The Junction. Rainforest and extensive old growth forest provide habitat for a variety of threatened fauna, it includes patches of the rare Dorrigo white gum. Protected areas of New South Wales High Conservation Value Old Growth forest Nymboi-Binderay National Park
Middle Brother National Park
Middle Brother National Park is a protected area of 1830 hectares, situated in the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales. The nearest large town is Laurieton; the high rainfall and volcanic soils produce rainforest. Large Flooded Gum and Blackbutt grow in sheltered areas. Protected areas of New South Wales
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Murrumbidgee Valley National Park
The Murrumbidgee Valley National Park is a protected national park, located in the Riverina region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 47,703-hectare national park is located 6 kilometres east of Hay, 15 kilometres west of Narrandera; the park protects part of what is now the largest continuous tract of river red gum forest in the world. The Murrumbidgee Valley River Park, when combined with the Murrumbidgee Valley Nature Reserve, comprise a number of separate precincts spread over 250 kilometres along the valley of the Murrumbidgee River between Collingullie, 30 kilometres west of Wagga Wagga, Hay; the parks fall within the Riverina bioregion. The precincts that make up the Murrumbidgee Valley River Parks are quite small and narrow and collectively span a large section of river frontage, they consist of a number of former state forests. Wetlands, river red gum forests and grasslands, all of which are found in the Murrumbidgee Valley River Parks, are acknowledged as among the most threatened ecosystems in Australia.
The inclusion of forested wetlands in the national park system is significant given they occur only in riverine corridors and floodplains on rich alluvial soils prized for their timber and an agricultural production. The river red gum forests are an important component of the broader Murrumbidgee floodplain ecosystem, they contribute valuable ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration, in the otherwise cleared bioregion. The Murrumbidgee River is modified due to irrigation in the region which has altered natural flooding regimes. Land use surrounding the reserves includes dry land and irrigated cropping, grazing of natural and improved pastures, private forestry harvesting. Protected areas of New South Wales Media related to Murrumbidgee Valley National Park at Wikimedia Commons "Murrumbidgee Valley River Parks: Statement of management intent". NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. Government of New South Wales. June 2014. ISBN 978-1-74359-518-3
Mount Royal National Park
The Mount Royal National Park is a protected national park located in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Gazetted in 1997, the 6,920-hectare park is situated 187 kilometres north of Sydney; the park is part of the Barrington Tops group World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. Protected areas of New South Wales Mount Royal Mount Royal Range
Myall Lakes National Park
Myall Lakes National Park is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 236 kilometres north of Sydney. It encompasses one of the state's largest coastal lake systems Myall Lakes, includes Broughton Island; the park includes 40 kilometres of rolling sand dunes. Myall Lakes is one of the most visited parks in New South Wales; the Worimi Aboriginal people had inhabited the Myall Lakes National Park land area for its abundance of natural resources. These natural resources had offered a traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyle for the Worimi people; the park includes important spiritual sites that are an important part of the identity of local Aboriginal people. Dark Point Aboriginal Place served as a location for the Worimi people to gather together for ceremonies and feasts and has been of significance to Worimi people for at least 4000 years. Myall Lakes National Park incorporates a patchwork of freshwater lakes, the ocean, native flora, dense littoral rainforest and beaches. Since 1999, Myall Lakes has been listed under the Ramsar Convention.
The lakes support a large variety of birds including bowerbirds, white-bellied sea eagle and tawny frogmouths. Other native Fauna which can be seen in the park includes the nocturnal long-nosed bandicoot which has grey-brown fur and a pointed snout for which it uses to forage for worms and insects; the Striped marsh frog can be found near ponds and swamps and has a distinct sound which can be heard all year round. The Eastern swamp crayfish was first discovered here; the average high temperature during the summer season averages between 19 °C and 27 °C. The highest temperature recorded at the park is 41.5 °C. The average temperature during the winter season averages between 10 °C and 19 °C with the lowest temperature on record being 1.1 °C. The wettest month occurs in May while the driest month occurs in November; the area’s highest recorded rainfall in one day is 257.8mm. Protected areas of New South Wales