Caloundra is the southernmost town in the Sunshine Coast Region in South East Queensland, Australia. Caloundra is 90 kilometres north of the Brisbane central business district. Caloundra is accessible from Landsborough railway station, 21 km away, the Caloundra bus station. In 1875, Robert Bulcock, an English immigrant who founded a Brisbane newspaper and represented the Brisbane suburb of Enoggera in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland from 1885 until 1888, bought 277 acres of land in the region. A town was surveyed in the 1870s, land sales commenced in 1883. With its proximity to beaches, the area became popular with tourists and a number of hotels and guest houses were set up to accommodate them. In 1917, Bulcock's son, Robert Bulcock Jr, a councillor in the Shire of Landsborough, subdivided part of the land into 404 lots; this area became known as Bulcock Beach. By 1933, Caloundra had a population of 271; the Caloundra branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association was established in July 1937.
The first female councillor was who represented Division 5 from 29 April 1961 to 30 March 1973. She was one of the first teachers at Caloundra State School, she was active in community groups such as the RSL Women's Auxiliary and a founder of the Caloundra Branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association and the local branch of the Red Cross. During World War II, the area became key to Australian defence due to defensive positions along the beaches. Radar stations and machine gun pits were mounted, Australian and US armed forces came to the area. From the early 1950s onwards, Caloundra experienced a boom in development and population, by 1968, it had come to dominate the Shire of Landsborough so that the council chambers were relocated to Caloundra; the Caloundra Library opened in 1986 with a major refurbishment in 2017. Caloundra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Bowman Road: Tripcony Hibiscus Caravan Park 6 Arthur Street and 3 Canberra Terrace, Kings Beach: Caloundra Lighthouses Ormonde Terrace, Kings Beach: Kings Beach Bathing Pavilion Caloundra is not defined, but the boundary used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics for census purposes and the urban zone defined by the Sunshine Coast Regional Council exactly coincide.
This region is bounded by Currimundi Creek, Rainforest Drive and the Mooloolah River to the north, Beerwah State Forest and Bruce Highway to the west, the Pumicestone Passage and the ocean to the east, Bells Creek to the south. The central business district for the area is located on Caloundra; the Caloundra urban centre consists of the following suburbs: The region of the Sunshine Coast, including Caloundra, is serviced by the Sunshine Coast Airport, located at Marcoola. A smaller regional airport is located at Caloundra. Caloundra's suburbs are served by Sunbus Sunshine Coast, who operate the Caloundra bus station in Cooma Terrace in the CBD. Bus routes 600, 602, 603, 605, 607, 609 connect Caloundra to Kawana Waters, Maroochydore and Landsborough. Landsborough railway station on the Sunshine Coast line has regular services to Roma Street railway station in Brisbane, operated by Queensland Rail. There are several bus companies providing coach services from Caloundra to Brisbane Airport. Census populations for the Caloundra urban centre have been recorded since 1933.
Since the 2001 census, it is divided between the Caloundra North and Caloundra South statistical local areas. The drop between 1981 and 1986 reflects an adjustment of the boundary with the Kawana Waters urban centre. Caloundra has a variety of beaches, providing amenity to the local tourists. Golden Beach is protected by Bribie Island to the east, is used for swimming, windsurfing and fishing. At low tide, Golden Beach and Bribie Island are close. Bulcock Beach, a still water beach, has board-walks and numerous restaurants, is situated opposite the northern end of Bribie Island; the Des Dywer walking track is an oceanway that starts at Bulcock beach and follows the coastline on cliffs and boardwalks. The walking track ends at Moffat Beach north-east of Bulcock, is about a one-hour walk. Bulcock Beach is patrolled by volunteer lifesavers from Ithaca–Caloundra City Life Saving Club. Kings Beach, named for Allan King who ran a guest house in the area in 1888, is the main beach of Caloundra. Kings is patrolled all year round by Metropolitan – Caloundra Surf Life Saving Club and has a picnic and children's play area.
Kings Beach has a swimming pool which, whilst built to be separate from the ocean, is fed directly from seawater. Shelly Beach is not a swimming beach, with the danger of rocks. However, the northern and southern ends are safer for more supervised swimmers. Locals find these places appropriate as, not only is it remote from the crowds of the adjacent King's beach, but local council laws allow dogs on the sand. On low tide and rock pools can be found along the beach. Shelly is surrounded by residential housing with a maximum of five storeys. Moffat Beach is not a patrolled beach, but Dicky Beach, located one kilometre north, has a surf lifesaving club and is patrolled year-round. Moffat Beach is surrounded by residential housing, cafes, a post office, a newsagent and apartments; the surf beaches are Kings Beach and Dicky Beach which commence at the eastern end of Bulcock Beach, namely Happy Valley – Officially Happy Valley is part of and shown on maps as Bulcock Beach. Kings Beach Shelly Beach Moffat Beach Dicky Beach On Caloundra's outskirts is Aussie World, located at the Glenview turnoff on th
Gold Coast, Queensland
The Gold Coast is a coastal city in the Australian state of Queensland 66 kilometres south-southeast of the state capital Brisbane and north of the border with New South Wales. With a census-estimated 2016 population of 638,090, the Gold Coast is the sixth-largest city in Australia, making it the largest non-capital city, Queensland's second-largest city; the Gold Coast region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach. The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. In 1875, Southport was surveyed and established and grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents. After the establishment of the Surfers Paradise Hotel in the late 1920s, the Gold Coast region grew significantly; the area boomed in the 1980s as a leading tourist destination and in 1994, the City of Gold Coast local government area was expanded to encompass the majority of the Gold Coast's metropolitan area, becoming the second most populous local government area in Australia after the City of Brisbane.
Today, the Gold Coast is a major tourist destination with its sunny subtropical climate and has become known for its surfing beaches, high-rise dominated skyline, theme parks and rainforest hinterland. The city is part of the nation's entertainment industry with television productions and a major film industry; the city hosted the 21st Commonwealth Games which ran from 4 to 15 April 2018. The Gold Coast is the ancestral home of a number of Indigenous clans of the Yugambeh people, including the Kombumerri and Tulgi-gi-gin clans. Lieutenant James Cook became the first European to note the region when he sailed along the coast on 16 May 1770 in HMS Endeavour. Captain Matthew Flinders, an explorer charting the continent north from the colony of New South Wales, sailed past in 1802. Escaped convicts from the Moreton Bay penal settlement hid in the region; the region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach, named after seeing a cutter named Mermaid.
The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. A number of small townships developed in the hinterland; the western suburb of Nerang was surveyed and established as a base for the industry and by 1870 a town reserve had been set aside. By 1873, the town reserve of Burleigh Heads had been surveyed and successful land sales had taken place. In 1875, the small settlement opposite the boat passage at the head of the Nerang River, known as Nerang Heads or Nerang Creek Heads, was surveyed, renamed Southport with the first land sales scheduled to take place in Beenleigh. Southport grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents; the Gold Coast was known as the South Coast. However, inflated prices for real estate and other goods and services led to the nickname of "Gold Coast" from 1950. South Coast locals considered the name "Gold Coast" derogatory. However, soon the "Gold Coast" became a convenient way to refer to the holiday strip from Southport to Coolangatta.
The Town of South Coast was formed through the amalgamation of Town of Coolangatta and Town of Southport along with the coastal areas from the Shire of Nerang on 17 June 1949 with the effect of having the present-day Gold Coast coastal strip as a single local government area. As the tourism industry grew into the 1950s, local businesses began to adopt the term Gold Coast in their names, on 23 October 1958 the Town of South Coast was renamed Town of Gold Coast; the area was proclaimed a city less than one year on 16 May 1959. In 1995, the Albert Shire was amalgamated into the City of Gold Coast. In 2007, the Gold Coast overtook the population of Newcastle, New South Wales, to become the sixth largest city in Australia and the largest non-capital city. Today the Gold Coast is known for its golden sanded surf beaches, theme parks and rainforest hinterlands; the Gold Coast hosted the 2018 Commonwealth Games. The Gold Coast is half covered by forests of various types; this includes small patches of near-pristine ancient rainforest, mangrove-covered islands, patches of coastal heathlands and farmland with areas of uncleared eucalypt forest.
Of the plantation pine forests that were planted in the 1950s and 1960s, when commercial forest planting for tax minimisation was encouraged by the Commonwealth government, tiny remnants remain. Gold Coast City lies in the southeast corner of Queensland, to the south of Brisbane, the state capital; the Albert River separates the Gold Coast from a suburban area of Brisbane. Gold Coast City stretches from Beenleigh and Russell Island to the border with New South Wales 56 km south, extends from the coast west to the foothills of the Great Dividing Range in World Heritage listed Lamington National Park; the southernmost town of Gold Coast City, includes Point Danger and its lighthouse. Coolangatta is a twin city with Tweed Heads located directly across the NSW border. At 28.1667°S 153.55°E / -28.1667. From Coolangatta forty kilometres of holiday resorts and surfing beaches stretch north to the suburb of Main Beach, further on Stradbroke Island; the suburbs of Southport and Surfers Paradise form the Gold Coast's commercial centre.
The major river in the area is the Nerang River. Much of the land between the coastal strip and the hinterland were once wetlands drained by this river, but th
Mount Barney National Park
Mount Barney National Park is a national park in Queensland, 90 km southwest of Brisbane. It amalgamated the adjacent Mount Lindesay National Park in 1980, it is part of the Scenic Rim Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance in the conservation of several species of threatened birds. Mounts Barney, Maroon and Lindesay rise majestically above the surrounding farmlands in Mount Barney National Park on the Queensland/New South Wales border; these rugged peaks are the remains of the ancient Focal Peak Shield Volcano which erupted 24 million years ago. Mount Barney is the second highest peak in south-east Queensland and has some rare and unique plants; the town of Rathdowney is 15 km to the northeast. This spectacular park became part of the World Heritage Gondwana Rainforests of Australia in 1994; the park is dominated by the grand twin peaks of Mount Barney. Surrounding these peaks are numerous mountains, steep valleys, deep rock pools and lots of woodland forest.
The park contains the peaks of Mount Ballow, Mount Ernest, Mount Maroon and Mount May. Bush camping is allowed at Mount Barney. Restrictions apply during peak holiday times; the park has varied vegetation with open forests around the foothills of the peaks, subtropical rainforest above 600m, montane heath shrublands towards the summit of the peaks, cool temperate rainforest on the summit of Mount Ballow, mallee eucalypt shrublands on Mount Maroon. Many rare and unusual plant species grow in the park including the endangered Maroon wattle, the rare mallee eucalypt Eucalyptus codonocarpa, Mount Barney bush pea and Hillgrove spotted gum. Visitors to the park may notice the abundant birdlife due to their bird songs. A few playful platypus live in the park; the rainforest on Mount Barney provides critical habitat for the plumiferus subspecies of the marbled frogmouth. This bird is listed as vulnerable. There are expansive views over the Border Ranges and Scenic Rim forests from the summit of Mount Barney.
The mountain is an old bushwalking destination by Australian standards and more than 30 routes lead to the summits of its East and West peaks. The majority of routes are not maintained by the Queensland State government and therefore navigational skills are mandatory for first time visitors; the most challenging routes up Mount Barney include Short Leaning Ridge. Peasants or South Ridge is a better choice for less experienced climbers. Allow plenty of time for the ascent and descent, which take between 8 and 10 hours, depending on the route and level of fitness. Walkers need sound physical fitness, it is not unusual to meet climbers at all hours of the day and night, however prior knowledge of the area is required. A popular alternative to going up and down South Ridge is to ascend via South East Ridge and descend via South Ridge. Navigational equipment or local knowledge are required for this route; the benefit of ascending via South East Ridge is. From the East Peak the track drops down into the saddle area at the base of the West Peak.
The West Peak can be incorporated into this walk at an additional 2 km. There are a few Class 4 walks around the base of the mountain that don't involve as much navigation over terrain. Nearby Mount Maroon is popular for rockclimbing; the first known climb to the summit of Mt Barney by a European was completed in 1828 by Captain Patrick Logan, by one of the hardest and spectacular ridges on the mountain, named in his honour. Allan Cunningham and Charles Fraser were in his company, however they did not reach the summit. Protected areas of Queensland Mount Barney National Park
Moreton Island National Park
Moreton Island National Park is a national park which covers 98% of Moreton Island in Queensland, Australia, 58 km northeast of Brisbane. It has three main townships, Cowan Cowan and Kooringal; the island is home to Queensland's oldest operating lighthouse located at Cape Moreton on the northern tip of the island. The township of Cowan was home to the Australian soldiers during WWII and many relics remain on the island. Access to the park was restricted during a clean-up of oil from the 2009 southeast Queensland oil spill. Activities such as bushwalking and watersports are popular in the park. Humpback whale can be seen in surrounding waters between late spring; the park contains heath and open forests of scribbly gum and pink bloodwood. Other areas contain mangroves and melaleuca swamps. Access to the island is via the MICAT vehicle ferry service from Lytton, near the Port of Brisbane, the Tangalooma Flyer launched from Pinkenba or the Kooringal Trader from Amity Point on North Stradbroke Island.
The Combie Trader barge service from Scarborough in Redcliffe City to Bulwer no longer operates. Camping is permitted in specified campsites as well as within zones along eastern and western beaches. Moreton Bay Marine Park Protected areas of Queensland Official website
Sunshine Coast, Queensland
Sunshine Coast is a peri-urban area and the third most populated area in the Australian state of Queensland. Located 100 km north of the state capital Brisbane in South East Queensland on the Pacific Ocean coastline, its urban area spans 60 km of coastline and hinterland from Pelican Waters to Tewantin; the estimated urban population of Sunshine Coast as at June 2015 was 302,122, making it the 9th most populous in the country. The area was first settled by Europeans in the 19th century with development progressing until tourism became an important industry; the area has several coastal hubs at Caloundra, Kawana Waters and Noosa Heads. Nambour and Maleny have developed as primary commercial centres for the hinterland, although Maleny falls outside the urban area defined by the ABS that this article refers to; the Sunshine Coast, as a term recognised by most Australians, is the district defined in 1967 as "the area contained in the Shires of Landsborough and Noosa, but excluding Bribie Island".
Its use is colloquial however. Since 2014, the Sunshine Coast district has been split into two local government areas, the Sunshine Coast Region and the Shire of Noosa, which administer the southern and northern parts of the Sunshine Coast respectively. James Cook on the deck of HM Bark Endeavour in 1770 became the first known white person to sight the Glass House Mountains, located south-west of Caloundra. In the 1820s, the Sunshine Coast saw its first white inhabitants: three castaways who shared the life of the local Aborigines for eight months. Thereafter, during the 1830s to 1840s, the district became home to numerous runaway convicts from the Moreton Bay penal colony to the south. In 1842, Governor George Gipps had the entire Sunshine Coast and hinterland from Mt Beerwah north to Eumundi declared a "Bunya Bunya Reserve" for the protection of the bunya tree after Andrew Petrie advised him of the importance of bunya groves in Aboriginal culture. However, during the 1840s and 1850s, the Bunya Bunya Reserve and its vicinity became the scene of some of the most bitter skirmishes of Australia's "Black War".
The Blackall Range, on account of the tri-annual Bunya Festival, served as both a hideout and rallying point for attacks against white settlement. By the 1850s timber cutters and cattlemen had started exploiting the area. Many of the Sunshine Coast's towns began as simple ports or jetties for the timber industry during the 1860s and 1870s, as the area once had magnificent stands of forest; the region's roads began as snigging tracks for hauling timber. Timbergetters used the region's creeks and lakes as seaways to float out their logs of cedar – the resultant wood being shipped as far afield as Europe. During the Gympie Gold Rush, prospectors scaled the Sunshine Coast mountains to develop easier roadways to and from the gold fields of Gympie. After construction of the railway line to Gympie, the coastal and river towns, being ports for the early river-trade, were bypassed. By the 1890s diverse small-farming had replaced the cattle-and-timber economy of earlier decades. Sugar cane and pineapples proved important produce for the district.
Many small hamlets and towns now emerged. Produce was taken by horse to Landsborough to Eudlo in 1891. After World War II, the Sunshine Coast grew into a favoured holiday and surfing destination; this tendency was further expanded in the development boom of the 1970s. Around the same time, various tourist/theme parks were created – the most iconic being the Big Pineapple in Woombye. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Sunshine Coast attracted persons drawn to alternative lifestyles; these newcomers developed a range of craft industries, co-operatives and spiritual centres in the hinterlands. After the 1980s, the Sunshine Coast experienced rapid population growth; as of 2016 it had become one of the fastest-growing regions in Australia. As the region becomes residential, most of the district's distinctive small farms – tropical-fruit and sugar-cane farms have disappeared, as have most of its theme parks; the Moreton sugar mills closure in 2003 removed a market for the district's 120 cane growers, harvesting cane in the region.
Instead, businesses concerned with retail and tourism have assumed increasing importance. In 2008, The Shire of Noosa, Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra merged to form the Sunshine Coast Region; the 2007 referendum conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission and leading to the merger remained controversial in Noosa Shire, where 95% of voters had rejected amalgamation. In March 2013, a second referendum resulted in 81% of residents voted to leave the amalgamated Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 November 2013 an election resulted in Noel Playford being elected to take office as mayor on 1 January 2014 with the new council; the Shire of Noosa was re-established on 1 January 2014. This resulted in two geopolitical areas occupying the area recognised as'The Sunshine Coast'; the Sunshine Coast Region, governed by the Sunshine Coast Council and the Shire of Noosa, governed by Noosa Shire Council. Major rivers of the Sunshine Coast include Noosa River, Maroochy River, Mooloolah River and the Stanley River.
The region includes several lakes such as Lake Weyba. Ewen Maddock Dam, Wappa Dam and Baroon Pocket Dam have been built for water storage. Several stretches of the Sunshine Coast are lined with unbroken beaches – from Sunshine Beach near Noosa to Coolum Beach.
Coxen's fig parrot
Coxen's fig parrot known as the blue-browed, red-faced or southern fig parrot or lorilet, is one of the smallest and least known Australian parrots. It is a endangered subspecies of the double-eyed fig parrot, it was named by John Gould after his brother-in-law Charles Coxen. Coxen's fig parrot is about 15–16 cm long, larger than the other subspecies of double-eyed fig parrot, its short tail gives it a top-heavy, big-headed appearance. It is predominantly bright yellowish-green in colour with a blue forehead surrounded by a few scattered red feathers, with orange-red cheeks bordered below by a variable mauve-blue band; the female is similar in appearance to the male, though duller in colouration. Its flight is rapid and direct above the forest canopy, it can be distinguished from little and musk lorikeets by its dumpier build, more rounded wings and tail-less silhouette. In flight its call is more staccato than that of the little lorikeet. However, because it is small, green, silent when feeding and tends to stay high in the foliage of the forest canopy, it is seldom seen.
The subspecies is restricted to south-eastern Queensland and north-eastern New South Wales, used to range from Gympie and the Blackall Range, the Maryborough district, in the north, to the Macleay River in the south, to the Bunya Mountains and Koreelah Range in the west. There are unconfirmed reports from outside its accepted former range, it inhabits lowland and foothill subtropical rainforest with fig trees visiting fruit trees in gardens and farmland. As with other subspecies of the double-eyed fig parrot, Coxen's fig parrot excavates its own nesting hollow in decaying wood of living or dead forest trees. Although signs of nest excavating have been found, no active nests have been recorded. Coxen's fig parrot feeds on figs and other fleshy fruits, it has been recorded feeding on the nectar of the silky oak. Other subspecies are known to consume insect larvae as well. Coxen's fig parrot is listed as endangered by both the Queensland and New South Wales state governments as well as under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
The main cause of the decline in range and population is the clearing of lowland rainforests for agriculture and housing, as well as logging of rainforest trees. In 2000 it was estimated that there are no more than 100 mature individuals of the subspecies left, with the population fragmented and continuing to decline; the species survival is linked to food availability and is impacted by habitat fragmentation and isolation between patches, which makes the protection and rehabilitation of this habitat outside of current protected areas critical to its survival. Blue-fronted fig parrot Coxen's Fig-Parrot Recovery Team.. Coxen’s Fig Parrot recovery plan 2001-2005. Report to Environment Australia, Canberra. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service: Brisbane. Forshaw, Joseph M.. Australian Parrots.. Lansdowne Editions: Melbourne. ISBN 0-7018-1035-1 Garnett, Stephen T.. The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. Environment Australia: Canberra. ISBN 0-642-54683-5 Gould, J.. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.
Irby, Florence M.. Coxen's Fig Parrot. Emu 29: 276-277. Birds Australia: Coxen's Fig Parrot
South East Queensland
South East Queensland is a bio-geographical and administrative region of the state of Queensland in Australia, which contains 3.5 million people out of the state's population of 4.8 million. The area covered by South East Queensland varies, depending on the definition of the region, though it tends to include Queensland's three largest cities: the capital city Brisbane, its most common use is for political purposes, covers 22,420 square kilometres and incorporates 11 local government areas, extending 240 kilometres from Noosa in the north to the Gold Coast and New South Wales border in the south, 140 kilometres west to Toowoomba. South East Queensland was the first part of Queensland to be explored by Europeans. Settlements arose in the Brisbane and Ipswich areas with activity by European immigrants spreading in all directions from there. Various industries such as timber cutting and agriculture developed at locations around the region from the 1840s onwards. Transport links have been shaped by the range of terrains found in South East Queensland.
The economy of South East Queensland supports and relies on a wide diversity of agricultural manufacturing industries and tourism. The region has TransLink. South East Queensland, classified as an interim Australian bioregion, comprises 7,804,921 hectares and includes the Moreton Basin, South Burnett, the Scenic Rim along with ten other biogeographic subregions; the term South East Queensland has no equivalent political representation. The area covers many lower house seats at the federal and state levels; as Queensland has no upper house, there are no Legislative Council provinces or regions to bear the name either. South East Queensland was home to around 20,000 Aboriginals prior to British occupation; the local tribes of the area were the Yuggurapul of the Central Brisbane area. According to history researchers the Aboriginal population declined to around 10,000 over the next 60 years. Early explorers in the area including Matthew Flinders, Allan Cunningham, John Oxley and Patrick Logan. Around 1839, European settlers were able to move into the region.
Logging was the first industry to develop. The first railway built in Queensland linked Grandchester to Ipswich in 1865 along a narrow 1067 mm gauge. Major floods were experienced in 1893, 1974 and 2011. In 2005, the region suffered its worst drought in recorded history. Queensland's third highest peak, Mount Barney, is located in the south of the region; the Cunningham Highway passes southwest to the Darling Downs via Cunninghams Gap. Several highways including the Bruce Highway, Warrego Highway and the Pacific Motorway link to the adjoining regions; the region is mountainous. McPherson Range, Teviot Range, D'Aguilar Range, Little Liverpool Range, Blackall Range as well as the Springbrook Plateau and Tamborine Mountain Plateau. Isolated volcanic peaks are found at the Glass House Mountains. Along the coast are several large islands including Bribie Island, Moreton Island and North Stradbroke Island with many smaller islands in Moreton Bay. Several major water supply and flood mitigation dams have been constructed here.
The Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme and Gold Coast Desalination Plant were built to counter the effects of drought in South East Queensland. South East Queensland consists of the following regions, each of, a local government area: Brisbane – the capital and largest city of Queensland; the Brisbane metropolitan area consists of the City of Brisbane, as well as the following local governments: Ipswich City – an outer-suburban city with an industrial and mining heritage west of Brisbane. Logan City – a residential area between Brisbane and the Gold Coast. Moreton Bay Region – a residential area between Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast. Redland City – a residential and agricultural area on the shores of Moreton Bay to the south-east of Brisbane. City of Gold Coast – a major tourist and retirement destination to the south of Brisbane, the largest non-capital city in Australia. Sunshine Coast Region – a coastal tourist and agricultural region to the north of Brisbane; the Glass House Mountains are a symbol of this region.
West Moreton, a rural area in the Great Dividing Range consisting of: Toowoomba City – the Toowoomba city is included in both the South East Queensland region and within Western Downs region due to its importance to both regions as a gateway city providing access to the west of the state. Lockyer Valley Region – an agricultural area west of Ipswich, known for its fruit and vegetable production. Scenic Rim Region – a pastoral area inland from the Gold Coast known for its scenic mountains and villages. Somerset Region – a pastoral area north west of Brisbane and location of two major dams supplying South East Queensland with water; this area is known as the Brisbane Valley. The Tweed Shire is within NSW but is included in planning processes for SEQ. While not part of the