The Charleston Gazette-Mail is the only daily morning newspaper in Charleston, West Virginia. It is the product of a July 2015 merger between the Charleston Gazette and the Charleston Daily Mail; the Gazette traces its roots to 1873. At the time, it was a weekly newspaper known as the Kanawha Chronicle, it was renamed The Kanawha Gazette and the Daily Gazette—before its name was changed to The Charleston Gazette in 1907. In 1912 it came under the control of the Chilton family, who have owned it until its bankruptcy in 2018. William E. Chilton, a U. S. senator, was publisher of The Gazette, as were his son, William E. Chilton II, grandson, W. E. "Ned" Chilton III, Yale graduate and classmate/protégé of conservative columnist William F. Buckley, Jr.. The paper's opinion page on the left, carried Buckley's column until Buckley's death. In 1918 a fire destroyed the Gazette building at 909 Virginia St; the newspaper was moved to 227 Hale St. where it remained for 42 years. Ned Chilton used to claim that the job of a newspaper was to "comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable."
The newspaper's liberal reputation was enhanced by principal editorial writer and columnist L. T. Anderson, associate editor and two-time runner-up for the Pulitzer Prize. Anderson moved to the rival Daily Mail as a columnist after he was passed over for an editorial position at the Gazette, used his Daily Mail column to snipe at his former employer; the Daily Mail was founded in 1914 by former Alaska Governor Walter Eli Clark and remained the property of his heirs until 1987. Governor Clark described the newspaper as an "independent Republican" publication. In 1987, the Clark heirs sold the paper to the Toronto-based Thomson Newspapers; the new owners moderated the political views of the paper to some degree. In 1998, Thomson sold the Daily Mail to the Denver-based MediaNews Group. Editorial writer Jack Maurice won the Pulitzer Prize for editorials in 1975 for a series of editorials he wrote the year before amid a battle over textbooks in Kanawha County, it was the first Pulitzer won by a newspaper in West Virginia.
The newspaper published in the afternoons, Monday-Saturday, with a Sunday morning edition, until 1961. Under a Joint Operating Agreement the two newspapers merged their production and distribution from 1961, while maintaining separate editorial operations. A combined Gazette-Mail was published on Sundays from 1961 to 1991, produced by both papers' staffs, from 1991 - 2015, produced by the Gazette staff alone. A similar combined Saturday edition was produced from 2005 to 2015, it was produced by the Gazette staff, but featured two editorial pages, one produced by each paper's staff. Eric Eyre, a Gazette-Mail reporter, won the 2017 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting for his documentation of the 780 million prescription painkillers that multibillion-dollar drug companies poured into small West Virginia towns via pharmacies. Ken Ward Jr. a Gazette-Mail reporter, received a 2018 fellowship from the MacArthur Foundation. Ward was one of the first reporters chosen for ProPublica's Local Reporting Network, which began in 2018.
The newspaper has won the top award for general editorial excellence from the West Virginia Press Association each year since the Gazette and Daily Mail were combined. In 2004, the Gazette purchased the Daily Mail. In May 2007, the U. S. Department of Justice filed a lawsuit, alleging that the Daily Mail had been operated in an uncompetitive manner; the newspaper settled without trial and agreed a federal injunction prohibiting it from shutting down the Daily Mail until July 20, 2015. The previous owner was to be paid a fee to produce the paper during that era, controlled its editorial content. On July 20, 2015, owners merged the Daily Mail and Gazette without prior notice and renamed the paper the Charleston Gazette-Mail; the entire staff of both papers was given two-weeks notice and told to "reapply" for jobs at the new paper. The combined paper includes both former Gazette and Daily Mail staff members, includes two separate editorial pages that are intended to represent the Daily Mail's more conservative views, Gazette's more liberal views, on current topics.
On July 23, 2015, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation filed a $1.3 million lien on the company because of "years of unpaid pension deposits". On October 6, 2015, the previous owner of the Daily Mail, the MediaNews Group, filed suit in the Delaware Court of Chancery against the Gazette's owners, they alleged that: In the event the Daily Mail was shut down, the intellectual property of the Daily Mail, including the domain name dailymail.com and the trademark "Charleston Daily Mail", were to pass to the previous owner. Instead, the domain name dailymail.com was sold to the London paper, without MediaNews' permission, the proceeds were spent by the Gazette's owners. The "merged" paper was named the Gazette-Mail, continues to use the "Daily Mail" trademarks for its editorials, thus depriving MediaNews of the trademark's reverted value; the merger of the papers was announced unilaterally and subjected the MediaNews Group to possible anti-trust liability. The MediaNews Group had not been paid its production fee for over two years, amounting to over $450,000.
The merger required a "super-majority" of the combined papers' board, 4 of the 5 board members, with 2 of the members having been appointed by the MediaNews Group. No board meeting was held; the matter was taken to arbitration and the Gazette was found liable on all counts. A judgment was awarded for $4,000,000; the Gazette appealed to the United States District Co
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Laurel Fork North Wilderness
Laurel Fork North Wilderness is a U. S. Wilderness Area located in the Greenbrier Ranger District of Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia; the Wilderness protects high-elevation lands along Laurel Fork and is bordered by Middle Mountain to the west. It is a companion to Laurel Fork South Wilderness, the two being split by Randolph County Route 40. Laurel Fork North contains 9.5 miles of hiking trails. The land that now comprises Laurel Fork North Wilderness was once private forestland owned by the Laurel River Lumber Company; the area was first logged by floating the logs down the Laurel Fork, by railroad. By 1921, the virgin forestland was logged; the U. S. Forest Service acquired the area soon thereafter. Laurel Fork South and Laurel Fork North Wildernesses were designated in 1983 by the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia, Land Designations law. Laurel Fork South Wilderness Laurel Fork Monongahela National Forest
Otter Creek Wilderness
The Otter Creek Wilderness is a U. S. Wilderness area located in the Cheat-Potomac Ranger District of Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, USA; the Wilderness sits in a bowl-shaped valley formed by Otter Creek, between McGowan Mountain and Shavers Mountain in Tucker and Randolph Counties. It is crossed by 42 miles of hiking trails. Otter Creek Trail is the longest, at 11 miles. By 1914 all of the virgin forest in the Otter Creek watershed had been timbered by the Otter Creek Boom and Lumber Company, but by the owners of several small farms and homesteads. In 1917 key land purchases were made by the U. S. Forest Service as part of the formation of the national forest system; the Otter Creek area was managed as a multiple use forest, including some second growth logging, until the passage of the Eastern Wilderness Act in 1975. The last private in-holding was acquired the same year; the Omnibus Public Lands Management Act of 2009 added 698 acres to the original 20,000 acres of the Otter Creek Wilderness.
This addition is situated on the northern and eastern flanks of McGowan Mountain leading down to Dry Fork. It provides much of the scenic view for this popular river which contains excellent whitewater paddling and trout fishing; the Shavers Mountain Spruce-Hemlock Stand, a 68-acre red spruce-hemlock stand of old growth forest, is within the Otter Creek Wilderness. Otter Creek Wilderness at American Byways
Black Fork (Cheat River tributary)
The Black Fork is a principal tributary of the Cheat River in the Allegheny Mountains of eastern West Virginia, USA. It is a short stream, about four miles in length, formed by the confluence of two other streams not far above its mouth, it was traditionally considered one of the five Forks of Cheat. Via the Cheat and Ohio Rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, draining an area of 500 square miles; the Black Fork flows for its entire length in Tucker County. It is formed at the town of Hendricks by the confluence of the Dry Fork and the Blackwater River, flows northwestwardly through Hambleton to Parsons, where it joins the Shavers Fork to form the Cheat River; the U. S. Board on Geographic Names settled on "Black Fork" as the stream's name in 1930. According to the Geographic Names Information System, it has been known as "Blackwater Fork" and as the Blackwater River. List of West Virginia rivers Blackwater Canyon Julian, Norman. 2006. "Cheat River." The West Virginia Encyclopedia.
Ken Sullivan, editor. Charleston, WV: West Virginia Humanities Council. ISBN 0-9778498-0-5
Picea rubens known as red spruce, is a species of spruce native to eastern North America, ranging from eastern Quebec and Nova Scotia, west to the Adirondack Mountains and south through New England along the Appalachians to western North Carolina. This species is known as yellow spruce, West Virginia spruce, eastern spruce, he-balsam. Red spruce is a perennial, shade-tolerant, late successional coniferous tree that under optimal conditions grows to 18–40 m tall with a trunk diameter of about 60 cm, though exceptional specimens can reach 46 m tall and 100 cm in diameter, it has a narrow conical crown. The leaves are needle-like, yellow-green, 12–15 mm long, four-sided, with a sharp point, extend from all sides of the twig; the bark is gray-brown on the surface and red-brown on the inside and scaly. The wood is light, has narrow rings, has a slight red tinge; the cones are 3 -- 5 cm long, with a glossy red-brown color and stiff scales. The cones hang down from branches. Red spruce grows at a slow to moderate rate, lives for 250 to 450+ years, is shade-tolerant when young.
It is found in pure stands or forests mixed with eastern white pine, balsam fir, or black spruce. Along with Fraser fir, red spruce is one of two primary tree types in the southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest, a distinct ecosystem found only in the highest elevations of the Southern Appalachian Mountains, its habitat is moist but well-drained sandy loam at high altitudes. Red spruce can be damaged by windthrow and acid rain. Notable red spruce forests can be seen at Gaudineer Scenic Area, a virgin red spruce forest located in West Virginia, the Canaan Valley, Roaring Plains West Wilderness, Dolly Sods Wilderness, Spruce Mountain and Spruce Knob all in West Virginia and all sites of former extensive red spruce forest; some areas of this forest in Roaring Plains West Wilderness, Dolly Sods Wilderness as well as areas of Spruce Mountain are making a rather substantial recovery. It is related to black spruce, hybrids between the two are frequent where their ranges meet. Genetic data suggests that the red spruce peripatrically speciated from the black spruce during the Pleistocene due to glaciation.
Red spruce is an important wood used in making paper pulp. It is an excellent tonewood, is used in many higher-end acoustic guitars and violins, as well as musical soundboard; the sap can be used to make spruce gum. Leafy red spruce twigs are boiled as a part of making spruce beer, it can be made into spruce pudding. It can be used as construction lumber and is good for millwork and for crates. Red spruce is the provincial tree of Nova Scotia. Like most trees, red spruce is subject to insect parasitism, their insect enemy is the spruce budworm, although it is a bigger problem for white spruce and balsam fir. Other issues that have been damaging red spruce has been the increase in acid rain and current climate change; the Central Appalachian Spruce Restoration Initiative seeks to unite diverse partners with the goal of restoring historic red spruce ecosystems across the high-elevation landscapes of central Appalachians. The partners that make up this diverse group are Appalachian Mountain Joint Venture, Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge, Natural Resources Conservation Service, The Mountain Institute, The Nature Conservancy, Trout Unlimited, U.
S. Forest Service Northern Research Station, U. S. Forest Service Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, West Virginia Division of Forestry, West Virginia Highlands Conservancy, West Virginia State Parks, West Virginia University. Prior to the late 1800s, 600,000 hectares of red spruce were in West Virginia. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, a vast amount of logging began in the state and the number of red spruce dwindled to 12,000 hectares. Silviculture is being used to help restore the population of the lost red spruce. Significant efforts have been made to increase the growth of red spruce trees in western North Carolina. Most notably by Molly Tartt on behalf of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Tartt, a resident of Brevard North Carolina, embarked on a mission to find the lost red spruce Pisgah Forest, planted by the DAR as a memorial to the lives lost during the American Revolution; the forest, consisting of 50,000 trees was dedicated in 1940 and had until been forgotten until Tartt located and identified the forest