The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, can be calculated for submarine summits; the following sortable table lists the Earth's 40 most topographically isolated summits. The nearest peak to Germany's highest mountain, the 2,962-metre-high Zugspitze, that has a 2962-metre-contour is the Zwölferkogel in Austria's Stubai Alps; the distance between the Zugspitze and this contour is 25.8 km. Its isolation is thus 25.8 km. Because there are no higher mountains than Mount Everest, it has no definitive isolation. Many sources list its isolation as the circumference of the earth over the poles or – questionably, because there is no agreed definition – as half the earth's circumference. After Mount Everest, the highest mountain of the American continents, has the greatest isolation of all mountains.
There is no higher land for 16,534 kilometres when its height is first exceeded by Tirich Mir in the Hindu Kush. Mont Blanc is the highest mountain of the Alps; the geographically nearest higher mountains are all in the Caucasus. Kukurtlu, which rises near Mount Elbrus, is the reference peak for Mont Blanc. Musala is the highest peak in Rila mountain, in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m it is the 4th most topographically isolated peak in Continental Europe.. Rila is the 6th highest mountain in Europe. With a topographic prominence of 2473 m, Musala is the 6th highest peak by topographic prominence in mainland Europe. Table of the most isolated major summits of North America Table of the most isolated major summits of the United States Most isolated mountain peaks of Canada Most isolated mountain peaks of Mexico geodesy physical geography summit topographic elevation topographic prominence topography bivouac.com Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia peakbagger.com peaklist.org peakware.com World Mountain Encyclopedia summitpost.org^ ^ "Europe Ultra-Prominences".
Peaklist. Retrieved 26 February 2015
The Book Cliffs are a series of desert mountains and cliffs in western Colorado and eastern Utah, in the western United States. They are so named because the cliffs of Cretaceous sandstone that cap many of the south-facing buttes appear similar to a shelf of books. Stretching nearly 200 miles from east to west, the Book Cliffs begin where the Colorado River descends south through De Beque Canyon into the Grand Valley to Price Canyon; the Book Cliffs appear along the southern and western edge of the Tavaputs Plateau. The cliffs are composed of sedimentary materials; the Book Cliffs are within the Colorado Plateau geologic province. In the Colorado stretch of the Book Cliffs, abandoned coal mines are present, as significant coal resources were present in the region; these mines are now capped for safety, but several fatalities of recreational hikers have occurred at these mines since 1989. In some places, "wild" horses can be found in the Book Cliffs, for example, a band of four was spotted near the abandoned Gearhart coal mine in Mesa County, Colorado.
The Book Cliffs are one of the world's best places to study sequence stratigraphy. In the 1980s, Exxon scientists used the Cretaceous strata of the Book Cliffs to develop the science of sequence stratigraphy; the Book Cliffs have preserved excellent strata of the foreland basin of the ancient Western Interior Seaway that stretched north from the Gulf of Mexico to the Yukon in the Cretaceous time. Components of deltaic and shallow marine reservoirs are well preserved in the Book Cliffs. Large mammals found in the Book Cliffs include coyotes, mountain lions, mule deer, black bears, American bison as an extension of the Henry Mountains bison herd and bighorn sheep. In January, 2009, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources officials transplanted 31 bison from the Henry Mountains bison herd to the Book Cliffs; the new group joined 14 animals released in August, 2008 from a private herd on the nearby Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. Since this herd is located 100 miles north of the Henry Mountains, across harsh, desert terrain, it should be considered as a separate herd, the Book Cliffs bison herd.
List of mountains in Colorado List of mountains in Utah "Book Cliffs". SummitPost.org. Cretaceous Paleogeography - Showing Western Interior Seaway The Soils of Western Colorado Mesa and Montrose Counties
Eagle County, Colorado
Eagle County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 52,197; the county seat is the Town of Eagle. The county is named for the Eagle River. Eagle County comprises CO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Eagle County was created by the Colorado legislature on February 11, 1883, from portions of Summit County, it was named after the Eagle River. The county seat was set in Red Cliff, but was moved to the town of Eagle in 1921; the Ground Hog Mine, near Red Cliff, produced gold and silver in two vertical veins in 1887. One vein, or "chimney", contained gold in crystalline form, cemented by iron, while the other contained wire gold in the form of "ram's horns". One of these ram's horns is now on display in the Harvard Mineralogical Museum; the highest elevation in the county is the Mount of the Holy Cross which rises to 14,011 feet above sea level. The lowest elevation is on the Colorado River at 6,128 feet. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,692 square miles, of which 1,685 square miles is land and 7.3 square miles is water.
Much of the county is taken up by White River National Forest, much of the rest is managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Interstate 70 crosses the county from east to west; the Eagle River rises in the southeastern part of the county. It receives Gore Creek at Dowds Junction, joins the Colorado River in the west. Fryingpan River and the Roaring Fork River intersect the southwest corner of the county. Grand County – northeast Summit County – east Lake County – south Pitkin County – southwest Garfield County – west Routt County – northwest I-70 US 6 US 24 SH 82 SH 131 White River National Forest Eagles Nest Wilderness Flat Tops Wilderness Holy Cross Wilderness Sylvan Lake State Park Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Two Elk National Recreation Trail Vail Pass National Recreation Trail Colorado River Headwaters National Scenic Byway Top of the Rockies National Scenic Byway As of the census of 2000, there were 41,659 people, 15,148 households, 9,013 families residing in the county.
The population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 22,111 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 85.35% White, 0.34% Black or African American, 0.71% Native American, 0.82% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 10.80% from other races, 1.90% from two or more races. 23.24% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,148 households out of which 32.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.00% were married couples living together, 5.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.50% were non-families. 20.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 42.10% from 25 to 44, 20.00% from 45 to 64, 3.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years.
For every 100 females there were 121.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 125.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $62,682, the median income for a family was $68,226. Males had a median income of $37,603 versus $30,579 for females; the per capita income for the county was $32,011. About 3.90% of families and 7.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.80% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. According to a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association, residents of EAGLE County had a life expectancy from birth of 85.94 years in 2014, the third longest in the United States. Men live 84.4 years on women live 87.6 years. Two contiguous counties and Pitkin counties, rank numbers one and two in the nation in life expectancy. Factors contributing to the high life expectancy of the three Colorado counties are "high education, high income, high access to medical care, the people are physically active, obesity is lower than anywhere else — so you’re doing it right.”
Said Dr. Ali Mokdad, one of the study’s co-authors. Avon Basalt Eagle Gypsum Minturn Red Cliff Vail Dotsero Edwards El Jebel Fulford McCoy Wolcott Bond Gilman Eagle-Vail Sweetwater Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Colorado census statistical areas Flight of Craig D. Button National Register of Historic Places listings in Eagle County, Colorado Eagle County Government website Eagle County Transportation Service, Vail Taxi Vail Valley Partnership – The Chamber and Tourism Bureau Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society
Mount Sopris is a twin-summit mountain in the northwestern Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 12,965-foot mountain is located in the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness of White River National Forest, 6.6 miles north by northeast of the community of Redstone in Pitkin County, United States. Mount Sopris is located in western Pitkin County, south of Carbondale and southwest of the confluence of the Crystal and Roaring Fork rivers. Mount Sopris is notable for having two summits, East Sopris and West Sopris, that are one-half mile apart and have the same elevation of 12,965 feet, it is named for Richard Sopris, a former mayor of Denver and part of the first European expedition in the Roaring Fork Valley. In 2011 J. P. McDaniels petitioned to rename East Sopris "Mount John Denver" after the Colorado singer. A local poll in Aspen and Carbondale said. Mount Sopris is believed to have been formed by an igneous intrusion 10,000 feet below the earth's surface, geologically referred to as a pluton, that occurred around 30 million years ago, after the initial uplift of the modern Rocky Mountains.
Mount Sopris is not a volcano, but it is possible that an ancient volcano sat above it, with the current rock forming the magma chamber far below. Due to subsequent continued erosion, any evidence is now gone. In either case, the rock that makes up Sopris never reached the surface and crystallizing in situ, becoming exposed due to erosion. Nearby prominent peaks Mount Gunnison and Crested Butte are believed to have formed similarly. Mount Sopris dominates the skyline of Carbondale and the lower Roaring Fork Valley, serving as an unofficial symbol of the area, it is prominently visible from State Highway 82 in the vicinity of Carbondale. In terms of local relief, it is one of the largest peaks in the state of Colorado. For example, West Sopris rises 6,400 ft above the valley to the west in only 2.7 mi. In fact a vertical rise of over 6,000 feet in less than 3 miles is rare and impressive anywhere in the contiguous United States; the Mount Sopris Trail ascends to East Sopris via its east ridge. It starts near Dinkle Lake, on the northeast side of the mountain, passes between the two Thomas Lakes just before reaching timberline.
The ascent involves 12 mi of hiking. Mount Sopris Sopris Peak List of Colorado mountain ranges List of Colorado mountain summits List of Colorado fourteeners List of Colorado 4000 meter prominent summits List of the most prominent summits of Colorado List of Colorado county high points Live Mount Sopris webcam. Mount Sopris on Summitpost, an excellent article with many further links Rock Glacier on Mount Sopris at NASA Earth Observatory
The Maroon Bells are two peaks in the Elk Mountains, Maroon Peak and North Maroon Peak, separated by about half a kilometer. The mountains are on the border between Pitkin County and Gunnison County, United States, about 12 miles southwest of Aspen. Both peaks are fourteeners. Maroon Peak, at 14,163 feet, is the 27th highest peak in Colorado. North Maroon Peak, at 14,019 feet, is the 50th highest; the view of the Maroon Bells to the southwest from the Maroon Creek valley is photographed. The peaks are located in the Maroon Bells–Snowmass Wilderness of White River National Forest. Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness was one of five areas in Colorado designated as wilderness in the original Wilderness Act of 1964; the Wilderness area surrounds the popular Maroon Bells Scenic Area, a major access point for Wilderness travel. Unlike other mountains in the Rockies that are composed of granite and limestone, the Bells are composed of metamorphic sedimentary mudstone that has hardened into rock over millions of years.
Mudstone is weak and fractures giving rise to dangerously loose rock along any route. A US Forest Service sign on the access trail warns would-be climbers of "downsloping, loose and unstable" rock that "kills without warning"; the mudstone is responsible for the Bells' distinctive maroon color. The Bells got their "deadly" reputation in 1965. Maroon Lake elevation 9,580 ft occupies a basin, sculpted by Ice-Age glaciers and dammed by a landslide and rockfall debris from the steep slopes above the valley floor; the Maroon Bells are an popular destination for the day and overnight visitors. Due to the volume of people, a bus service runs everyday from 8am-5pm from mid-June through the first weekend in October. During these times, with just a few exceptions, personal vehicle access is limited to those with handicap placards or disability license plates; the bus runs from Aspen Highlands to Maroon Lake every 20 minutes. The Maroon Bells scenic area features several hiking trails ranging from short hikes near Maroon Lake to longer hikes into the Maroon-Snowmass Wilderness.
Not only is the use of trails and other outdoor recreational space growing, the overall population of Colorado is growing as well. It is expected. By 2050,the population of Colorado is expected to increase from 5.5 million to 8.5 million,and with this population growth recreational tourism will continue to grow. In 2017, 1 in 4 of Colorado’s 86 million visitors spent most of their trip in mountain towns and resorts; this rapid growth poses challenges for Forest Services to properly maintain natural areas, if changes are not made to how the recreational space is utilized, wilderness areas like the Maroon Bells–Snowmass Wilderness trails will feel the impacts of human traffic. Because the Maroon Bells area receives such high levels of visitor use, the USFS has established a long-term plan to protect and preserve the scenic area and larger wilderness areas. Solutions include the required use of bear canisters for backcountry campers, management of day and overnight use, leashed dog education and ticketing, reduction of heavy horse use in high use areas, prohibiting overnight camping and excessive day use at particular sites.
The US Forest Service has come up with a paid permit plan to aid preservation efforts. The permit system was created to allow visitors to stay overnight while mitigating environmental damage and preserving the visited area. A permit is required year-round, limits campers to stay in the Conundrum Creek Valley area from Silver Dollar Pond to Triangle Pass. Campsite limits range depending on the campsite location; the USFS limits the number of permits to 2 permits per person per calendar year and the maximum stay from June 1- September 1 is 3 nights. The Conundrum Hot Springs alone can attract up to 300 people a night. Specific environmental impacts can occur due to the high number of visitors the Maroon Bells experiences each year. See below for more information; the Maroon Bells Recreation area is surrounded by Maroon Creek, which feeds into Crater Lake and Maroon Lake. These natural freshwater ecosystems fill from snowmelt from the surrounding peaks and precipitation, are major sources of water for the city of Aspen,CO.
According to the study Environmental Impacts of Tourism on Lakes, water pollution can occur through indirect and direct methods. Direct pollution to these natural bodies of water occurs when visitors choose to wade or throw items into these bodies of water, disrupting the fragile biodiversity. An increase in human-traffic,such as the increase in the number of visitors who drive up Maroon Creek Road, is an example of indirect pollution; this constant vehicular traffic releases pollutants such as nitrogen and sulfur dioxide into the water and air. U. S. Forest Service officials were concerned about the high nitrogen compound levels in the waters at the Maroon Bells in 2003. Officials mentioned that the increase in population and recreation in Colorado as well as an increase in the number of vehicles could be a cause of the elevated nitrogen compound levels, as these sources emit pollutants; when precipitation forms over peaks like the Maroon Bells, these pollutants fall back to the Earth’s surface and can travel into the river and lakes negatively impacting fish and plants due to high levels of nitrogen.
The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency further supports the relationship bet
Snowmass Mountain is a fourteen thousand foot tall mountain in the U. S. state of Colorado, is the thirty-fourth highest mountain peak in the state. Located in the Elk Mountains, within the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness of the White River National Forest, it lies along the border between the Pitkin and Gunnison counties, west of Aspen and southwest of the town of Snowmass Village. Snowmass Mountain is named for the large snowfield. Snowmass Mountain should not be confused with the Snowmass ski area, located outside Snowmass Village. Hagerman Peak sits between Snowmass Mountain and Snowmass Peak and is often mistaken for Snowmass Mountain; the route most used to climb Snowmass Mountain is the Snowmass Creek approach. The route to the summit starts at Snowmass Lake, itself an 8.1-mile hike up Snowmass Creek from the parking area. Most people hike to the lake, camp the night and proceed to the top; this route is recommended in the spring and early summer when the snowfield still covers much of the route.
In the summer there is more travel on talus and more danger from rockfall. An alternative in snow-free conditions is to hike up to the saddle between the peak and Hagerman Peak. From that point there are climbers' trails which proceed on the opposite side of the ridge to the summit. A different and much less used route climbs the west side of Snowmass Mountain from Geneva Lake, accessed from the North Fork of the Crystal River. Snowmass Mountain Snowmass Peak List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado fourteeners Snowmass Mountain on 14ers.com "Snowmass Mountain". SummitPost.org. Photo Journal from a trip up Snowmass Mountain and on to Capitol Peak Aspen Ski & Snow Report
Summit County, Colorado
Summit County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,994; the county seat is Breckenridge. Summit County comprises CO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Summit County was organized as one of the seventeen original Colorado counties by the First Territorial Legislature on November 1, 1861, it was named for the many mountain summits in the county. Until February 2, 1874, its boundaries included the area now comprising Summit County, Grand County, Routt County, Moffat County, Garfield County, Eagle County, Rio Blanco County. In 1874, the northern half of the original Summit County was split off to form Grand County. In addition, Summit County has seen two major boom eras. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 619 square miles, of which 608 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water; the terrain of the county is mountainous with elevations ranging from 7,957 feet at Green Mountain Reservoir to 14,270 feet at Grays Peak.
The elevation of the county seat of Breckenridge is 9,602 feet, making it one the highest cities in the state of Colorado and the United States. Much of the county has an Alpine characterized by tundra vegetation. Breckenridge and other similar elevations in the county have a Subarctic climate characterized by cool summers and abundant snowfall in winter. Grand County - north Clear Creek County - east Park County - southeast Lake County - southwest Eagle County - west As of the census of 2000, there were 23,548 people, 9,120 households, 4,769 families residing in the county; the population density was 39 people per square mile. There were 24,201 housing units at an average density of 40 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.84% White, 0.68% Black or African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 3.96% from other races, 2.10% from two or more races. 9.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,120 households out of which 24.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.00% were married couples living together, 4.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.70% were non-families.
21.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was spread out with 17.40% under the age of 18, 15.70% from 18 to 24, 44.30% from 25 to 44, 19.40% from 45 to 64, 3.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years; as of 2014, the life expectancy in Summit County was 86.83 years, the longest average life expectancy of any county in the United States. For every 100 females there were 139.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 144.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $56,587, the median income for a family was $66,914. Males had a median income of $33,741 versus $27,017 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,676. About 3.10% of families and 9.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.30% of those under age 18 and 3.40% of those age 65 or over.
The 2012 average real estate prices in Summit County were $708,660 for a single family home, $359,536 for a condo, townhome or duplex and $281,388 for a vacant piece of land. According to a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association, residents of Summit County had a 2014 life expectancy from birth of 86.83 years in 2014, the longest in the United States. Both men and women live longer in Summit County than in any other county in the United States: 85.5 years for men and 88.0 years for women is the life expectancy at birth. Two contiguous counties and Eagle counties, rank numbers two and three in the nation in life expectancy. Factors contributing to the high life expectancy in Summit County are "high education, high income, high access to medical care, the people are physically active, obesity is lower than anywhere else — so you’re doing it right.” Said Dr. Ali Mokdad, one of the study’s co-authors. Blue River Breckenridge Dillon Frisco Montezuma Silverthorne Copper Mountain Heeney Keystone Parkville White River National Forest Eagles Nest Wilderness Arapahoe Basin Breckenridge Copper Mountain Keystone American Discovery Trail Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Great Parks Bicycle Route Top of the Rockies National Scenic Byway TransAmerica Trail Bicycle Route Vail Pass National Recreation Trail Wheeler Ten Mile National Recreation Trail The county has two reservoirs, Lake Dillon and Green Mountain Reservoir, that are popular recreation sites.
Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Summit County, Colorado Silverthorne Micropolitan Statistical Area Official website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Kokomo and Racen ghost towns