Gospel of Luke
The Gospel According to Luke called the Gospel of Luke, or Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels. It tells of the origins, ministry, death and ascension of Jesus Christ. Luke is the longest book in the New Testament; the cornerstone of Luke–Acts' theology is "salvation history", the author's understanding that God's purpose is seen in the way he has acted, will continue to act, in history. It divides the history of first-century Christianity into three stages, with the gospel making up the first two of these – the arrival among men of Jesus the Messiah, from his birth to the beginning of his earthly mission in the meeting with John the Baptist followed by his earthly ministry, Passion and resurrection; the gospel's sources are the Gospel of Mark, the sayings collection called the Q source, a collection of material called the L source, found only in this gospel. Luke–Acts does not name its author. According to Church tradition this was Luke the Evangelist, the companion of Paul, but while this view is still put forward the scholarly consensus emphasises the many contradictions between Acts and the authentic Pauline letters.
The most probable date for its composition is around AD 80–110, there is evidence that it was still being revised well into the 2nd century. Autographs of Luke and the other Gospels have not been preserved, as is typical for ancient documents; the earliest witnesses for Luke's gospel fall into two "families" with considerable differences between them, the Western and the Alexandrian, the dominant view is that the Western text represents a process of deliberate revision, as the variations seem to form specific patterns. The fragment P 4 is cited as the oldest witness, it has been dated from the late 2nd century. The oldest complete texts are the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, both from the Alexandrian family. Codex Bezae shows comprehensively the differences between the versions which show no core theological significance; the gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles make up a two-volume work which scholars call Luke–Acts. Together they account for 27.5% of the New Testament, the largest contribution by a single author, providing the framework for both the Church's liturgical calendar and the historical outline into which generations have fitted their idea of the story of Jesus.
The author is not named in either volume. According to a Church tradition dating from the 2nd century he was the Luke named as a companion of Paul in three of the letters attributed to Paul himself, but "a critical consensus emphasizes the countless contradictions between the account in Acts and the authentic Pauline letters." An example can be seen by comparing Acts' accounts of Paul's conversion with Paul's own statement that he remained unknown to Christians in Judea after that event. Luke admired Paul, but his theology was different from Paul's on key points and he does not represent Paul's views accurately, he was educated, a man of means urban, someone who respected manual work, although not a worker himself. The eclipse of the traditional attribution to Luke the companion of Paul has meant that an early date for the gospel is now put forward; some experts date the composition of the combined work to around 80–90 AD, although some others suggest 90–110, there is evidence, both textual and from the Marcionite controversy that Luke–Acts was still being revised well into the 2nd century.
Luke–Acts is a religio-political history of the Founder of the church and his successors, in both deeds and words. The author describes his book as a "narrative", rather than as a gospel, implicitly criticises his predecessors for not giving their readers the speeches of Jesus and the Apostles, as such speeches were the mark of a "full" report, the vehicle through which ancient historians conveyed the meaning of their narratives, he seems to have taken as his model the works of two respected Classical authors, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who wrote a history of Rome, the Jewish historian Josephus, author of a history of the Jews. All three authors anchor the histories of their respective peoples by dating the births of the founders and narrate the stories of the founders' births from God, so that they are sons of God; each founder taught authoritatively, appeared to witnesses after death, ascended to heaven. Crucial aspects of the teaching of all three concerned the relationship between rich and poor and the question
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Skhul and Qafzeh hominins
The Skhul/Qafzeh hominins or Qafzeh–Skhul early modern humans are hominin fossils discovered in the Qafzeh and Es Skhul Caves in Israel. They are today classified among the earliest of their species in Eurasia. Skhul Cave is on the slopes of Mount Carmel; the remains found at Es Skhul, together with those found at the Wadi el-Mughara Caves and Mugharet el-Zuttiyeh, were classified in 1939 by Arthur Keith and Theodore D. McCown as Palaeoanthropus palestinensis, a descendent of Homo heidelbergensis; the remains exhibit a mix of traits found in anatomically modern humans. They have been tentatively dated at about 80,000-120,000 years old using electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence dating techniques; the brain case is similar to modern humans, but they possess brow ridges and a projecting facial profile like Neandertals. They were regarded as transitional from Neandertals to anatomically modern humans, or as hybrids between Neandertals and modern humans. Neandertal remains have been found nearby at Kebara Cave that date to 61,000-48,000 years ago, but it has been hypothesised that the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids had died out by 80,000 years ago because of drying and cooling conditions, favouring a return of a Neandertal population suggesting that the two types of hominids never made contact in the region.
A more recent hypothesis is that Skhul/Qafzeh hominids represent the first exodus of modern humans from Africa around 125,000 years ago via the Sinai Peninsula, that the robust features exhibited by the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids represent archaic sapiens features rather than Neandertal features. The discovery of modern human made tools from about 125,000 years ago at Jebel Faya, United Arab Emirates, in the Arabian Peninsula, may be from an earlier exit of modern humans from Africa. In January 2018 it was announced that modern human finds at Misliya Cave, Israel, in 2002, had been dated to around 185,000 years ago, giving an earlier date for an out of Africa migration. Ian Wallace and John Shea have devised a methodology for examining the various Middle paleolithic core assemblages present at the Levant site in order to test whether the different hominid populations had distinct mobility patterns, they use a ratio of "formal" and "expedient" cores within assemblages to demonstrate either early Homo sapiens or Neandertal mobility patterns, thus categorize site occupations.
In 2005, a set of 7 teeth from Tabun Cave in Israel were studied and found to most belong to a Neandertal that may have lived around 90,000 years ago, another Neandertal from Tabun was estimated to be ~122,000 years old. If the dates are correct for these individuals it is possible that Neandertals and early moderns did make contact in the region and it may be possible that the Skhul and Qafzeh hominids are of Neandertal descent. Non-African modern humans contain 1-4% Neandertal genetic material, with hybridization having taken place in the Middle East, it has been suggested, that the Skhul/Qafzeh hominids represent an extinct lineage. If this is the case, modern humans would have re-exited Africa around 70,000 years ago, crossing the narrow Bab-el-Mandeb strait between Eritrea and the Arabian Peninsula; this is the same route proposed to have been taken by the people who made the modern tools at Jebel Faya. The Skhul remains were discovered between 1929 and 1935 at a cave located in Es Skhul in Mount Carmel.
The remains of seven adults and three children were found, some of which are claimed to have been burials. Assemblages of perforated Nassarius shells different from local fauna have been recovered from the area, suggesting that these people may have collected and employed the shells as beads, as they are unlikely to have been used as food. Skhul Layer B has been dated to an average of 81,000-101,000 years ago with the electron spin resonance method, to an average of 119,000 years ago with the thermoluminescence method. Skhul 5 had the mandible of a wild boar on its chest; the skull displays prominent supraorbital ridges and jutting jaw, but the rounded braincase of modern humans. When found, it was assumed to be an advanced Neanderthal, but is today assumed to be a modern human, if a robust one. Qafzeh cave opens onto a wall of Wadi el Hadj in the flank of Mount Precipice. Excavation of the cave by René Neuville began in 1934 and resulted in the discovery of the remains of 5 individuals in the Mousterian stratigraphic levels, called the Levalloiso-Mousterian.
The lower layers of the cave were dated to 92,000 years ago, a series of hearths, several human bodies, flint artifacts, animal bones, a collection of sea shells, lumps of red ochre, an incised cortical flake were found. The remains of 15 hominids, 8 of them children, were recovered in total from Qafzeh within a Mousterian archaeological context and dated to ca. 95,000 years ago. Remains of Qafzeh 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 and 15 were burials; the marine shells were brought from Mediterranean Sea shore some 35 km away, were recovered from layers earlier than most of the bodies save one. The shells were complete perforated, several showed traces of having been strung, a few had ochre stains on them; the various layers at Qafzeh were dated to an average of 96,000-115,000 years ago with the electron spin resonance method and 92,000 years ago with the thermoluminescence method. The most well preserved skull. From the skull and teeth structure, the remains are believed to be of a young male. Two bodies were found in 1969 c
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Rejection of Jesus
The New Testament includes a number of incidents of the rejection of Jesus during his lifetime, by local communities and individuals. In the sixth chapter of the Gospel of Mark there is an account of a visit by Jesus to his hometown with his followers. On the Sabbath, he begins to teach, it says that many who heard were'astounded', that they were offended, asking "is this not the carpenter, the son of Mary?". It adds. Amazed at the community's lack of belief in him, Jesus observes that "Prophets are not without honour, except in their hometown, among their own kin, in their own house." The account given in the Gospel of Matthew differs from this account by having those in the synagogue describe Jesus as the "son of the carpenter" and stating that he could not do many deeds of power. The Gospel of Luke moves this story to the beginning of Jesus' preaching in Galilee, to introduce what follows. In this version, Jesus is described as performing a public reading of scripture. In Matthew and Mark the crowd is described as referring to Jesus as being the brother of James, Simon and Judas in a manner suggesting that the crowd regards them as just ordinary people, criticising Jesus' quite different behaviour.
Luke adds that Jesus recounted stories about how, during the time of Elijah, only a Sidonian woman was saved, how, during the time of Elisha, though there were many lepers in Israel, only a Syrian was cleansed. This, according to Luke, caused the people to attack Jesus and chase him to the top of a hill in order to try to throw Jesus off, though Jesus slips away; some scholars conclude that the historical accuracy of Luke's version is questionable, in this particular case citing that there is no cliff face in Nazareth. There are, several sharp precipices in the vicinity; the negative view of Jesus' family may be related to the conflict between Paul the Apostle and Jewish Christians. A. N. Wilson suggests that the negative relationship between Jesus and his family was placed in the Gospels to dissuade early Christians from following the Jesus cult, administered by Jesus’ family: "…it would not be surprising if other parts of the church the Gentiles, liked telling stories about Jesus as a man who had no sympathy or support from his family."
Jeffrey Bütz is more succinct: "…by the time Mark was writing in the late 60s, the Gentile churches outside of Israel were beginning to resent the authority wielded by Jerusalem where James and the apostles were leaders, thus providing the motive for Mark’s antifamily stance…." Other prominent scholars agree. Matthew 21:42, Acts 4:11 and Mark 12:10 talk of Jesus as the stone. 1 Peter 2:7 discusses this rejection of Jesus. This references similar wording from Psalms 118:22. According to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke the Galilean cities of Chorazin, Bethsaida and Decapolis did not repent in response to Jesus's teaching, so Jesus declared the wicked cities of Tyre, Sidon and Gomorrah would have repented, but it will be more bearable for them in the Judgement Day, that they would sink down to Hades. According to Luke 9:51-56, when Jesus entered a Samaritan village, he was not welcomed, because he was going on to Jerusalem, his disciples wanted to call down fire from heaven on the village but Jesus reprimanded them and they continued on to another village.
John 6:60-6:66 records "many disciples" leaving Jesus after he said that those who eat his body and drink his blood will remain in him and have eternal life. In John 6:67-71 Jesus asks the Twelve Apostles if they want to leave, but St. Peter responds that they have become believers. Jesus is rejected in Judaism as a failed Jewish Messiah claimant and a false prophet by most Jewish denominations. However, Messianic Jewish congregations like Jews for Jesus have made the case that he is the Messiah promised by the Torah and the Prophets. Jews believe the Messiah will be a direct descendant of King David through Solomon on his father's side and will be born to a husband and wife, but according to Christians, his father is God not David thereby ruling him out as a Messianic candidate. The Torah says "God is not a man that He should lie, nor is He a mortal that He should relent. Would He say and not do, speak and not fulfill?". However, the above quotation from the Torah could be referring to God not having attributes of men such as bearing sin or lying rather than not being able to take on flesh.
Zechariah 9:9 refers to a King who would come into Jerusalem on a donkey and Zechariah 14:17 says that this King is the LORD Almighty. In addition, Isaiah 53 is disputed but is referring to a Messiah who would come and die. Many Jews argue that it is referring to Israel but the problem is that the "suffering servant" described in it is innocent and has committed no sin whereas in the Hebrew Bible, Israel has committed sin. In addition, it talks about the Suffering Servant dying meaning that it cannot be the Nation of Israel since God made an eternal pact with them and in doing so promised that they would never die; the Hebrew Bible talks about the Messiah coming
Afula is a city in the Northern District of Israel known as the "Capital of the Valley" due to its strategic location in the Jezreel Valley. In 2017 the city had a population of 49,169. Afula is mentioned first around 19th century BC as "Ofel" in the Execration texts. During the Ottoman era, in the 18th century, there was a small Arab village el-'Afuleh or Affule, in this region; the modern name may be derived from the name of this village originating in the Canaanite-Hebrew root ofel, or the Arab word for "ruptured". Afula is the place Ophlah, mentioned in the lists of Pharaoh Thutmose III. Afula has been identified with the ancient Israelite town of Ofel mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. With the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel, the area continued to be inhabited, excavations have revealed artifacts from the periods of Persian and Roman rule. Conder suggested that Afula was identical with Kirjath Ophlathah, a place inhabited by Samaritans in the 7th century. An ancient mound or tell known as Tel'Afula, located in the heart of modern Afula, suggests continuous habitation from the late Chalcolithic period to the Ayyubid period in the 13th century.
It contains the remains of a fortress from the Mamluk periods. A fortified Crusader tower, 19 meters square, stands in the center; the lower four courses are made of rough boulders, while the top remaining layer is made of reused Roman sarcophagi. The wall is a total of 5.5 meters tall. Pottery remains indicate that it was occupied in the thirteenth century. For older finds from Tel'Afula see the Archaeology paragraph. In 1321, Afula was mentioned under the name of Afel by Marino Sanuto. A map by Pierre Jacotin from Napoleon's invasion of 1799 showed this place, named as Afouleh in a French transliteration of the Arabic. In 1816, James Silk Buckingham passed by and described Affouli as being built on rising ground, containing only a few dwellings, he noted several other nearby settlements in all populated by Muslims. In 1838, Edward Robinson described both Afuleh and the adjacent El Fuleh as "deserted". William McClure Thomson, in a book published in 1859, noted that Afuleh and the adjacent El Fuleh, were "both now deserted, though both were inhabited twenty-five years ago when I first passed this way."
Thomson blamed their desertion on the bedouin. In 1875 Victor Guérin described Afula as a village on a small hill overlooking a little plain; the houses were built of adobe and various other materials. Around the well, which Guérin thought was ancient, he noticed several tubs of broken sarcophagi serving as troughs. In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described El Afuleh as a small adobe village in the plain, supplied by two wells. A population list from about 1887 showed. Gottlieb Schumacher, as part of surveying for the construction of the Jezreel Valley railway, noted in 1900 that it consisted of 50-55 huts and had 200 inhabitants. North of the village was a grain stop. In 1909 or 1910, Yehoshua Hankin completed his first major purchase in the Jezreel Valley, he bought some 10,000 dunams of land in Al-Fuleh, which became the home of two moshav settlements and Tel Adashim. During the First World War, Afulah was a major communications hub. In 1917, when Colonel Richard Meinertzhagen of British intelligence established contact with the Nili Jewish spy network in Palestine, a German Jewish doctor stationed at el-Afulah railway junction provided the British with valuable reconnaissance reports on Ottoman and German troop movements southwards.
With the advance of General Edmund Allenby's British forces into Ottoman Palestine, el-Afulah was captured by the 4th Cavalry Division of the Desert Mounted Corps, during the cavalry phase of the Battle of Sharon in September 1918. According to the British Mandate's 1922 census of Palestine, Affuleh had 563 inhabitants. In 1925, modern Afula was founded after the American Zionist Commonwealth completed a purchase of the Afula valley from the Sursuk family of Beirut. A quarter of the one hundred Arab families who had lived in the area accepted compensation for their land and left voluntarily. Jews began settling in Afula shortly after as the town developed. By the 1931 census, the population had increased to 874. In the 1945 census the population of Afula was recorded as 10 Muslims; the town had a total of 18,277 dunams of land, according to an official population survey. Of this, 145 dunams of land was used to cultivate citrus and bananas, 347 dunams were for plantations and irrigable land, 15,103 for cereals, while 992 dunams were built-up land.
During this time, the community was served by the Jezreel Valley Railway, part of the larger Hejaz Railway. Since 1913 it had been the terminus station of the branch connecting it to Jenin and also to Nablus. Sabotage actions of Jewish underground militias in 1945, 1946 and shortly before the 1948 Arab–Israeli War rendered first the connection to Jenin progressively the entire Valley Railway, inoperable. Repairs to the Jezreel Valley Railway after 1948 restored service to Haifa, but only until 1949 when it was abandoned. In 2011 construction began on a large-scale project to build a new standard gauge railway from Haifa to Beit She'an with stations in Afula and other towns, along the same route as the historic valley railway. Israel Railways began passenger service on the new railway on October 16, 201
Nazareth is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel. Nazareth is known as "the Arab capital of Israel". In 2017 its population was 76,551; the inhabitants are predominantly Arab citizens of Israel, of whom 69% are Muslim and 30.9% Christian. Nazareth Illit, declared a separate city in June 1974, is built alongside old Nazareth, had a Jewish population of 40,312 in 2014. In the New Testament, the town is described as the childhood home of Jesus, as such is a center of Christian pilgrimage, with many shrines commemorating biblical events. One view holds that "Nazareth" is derived from one of the Hebrew words for'branch', namely ne·ṣer, נֵ֫צֶר, alludes to the prophetic, messianic words in Book of Isaiah 11:1,'from roots a Branch will bear fruit'. One view suggests this toponym might be an example of a tribal name used by resettling groups on their return from exile. Alternatively, the name may derive from the verb na·ṣar, נָצַר, "watch, keep," and understood either in the sense of "watchtower" or "guard place", implying the early town was perched on or near the brow of the hill, or, in the passive sense as'preserved, protected' in reference to its secluded position.
The negative references to Nazareth in the Gospel of John suggest that ancient Jews did not connect the town's name to prophecy. Another theory holds that the Greek form Nazara, used in Matthew and Luke, may derive from an earlier Aramaic form of the name, or from another Semitic language form. If there were a tsade in the original Semitic form, as in the Hebrew forms, it would have been transcribed in Greek with a sigma instead of a zeta; this has led some scholars to question whether "Nazareth" and its cognates in the New Testament refer to the settlement known traditionally as Nazareth in Lower Galilee. Such linguistic discrepancies may be explained, however, by "a peculiarity of the'Palestinian' Aramaic dialect wherein a sade between two voiced consonants tended to be assimilated by taking on a zayin sound." The Arabic name for Nazareth is an-Nāṣira, Jesus is called an-Nāṣirī, reflecting the Arab tradition of according people an attribution, a name denoting whence a person comes in either geographical or tribal terms.
In the Qur'an, Christians are referred to as naṣārā, meaning "followers of an-Nāṣirī", or "those who follow Jesus of Nazareth". In Luke's Gospel, Nazareth is first described as home of Mary. Following the birth and early epiphanial events of chapter 2 of Luke's Gospel, Mary and Jesus "returned to Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth". In English translations of the New Testament, the phrase "Jesus of Nazareth" appears seventeen times whereas the Greek has the form "Jesus the Nazarēnos" or "Jesus the Nazōraios." One plausible view is that Nazōraean is a normal Greek adaptation of a reconstructed, hypothetical term in Jewish Aramaic for the word used in Rabbinical sources to refer to Jesus. "Nazaréth" is named twelve times in surviving Greek manuscript versions of the New Testament, 10 times as Nazaréth or Nazarét, twice as Nazará. The former two may retain the'feminine' endings common in Galilean toponyms; the minor variants and Nazarath are attested. Nazara might be the earliest form of the name in Greek.
It is found in Matthew 4:13 and Luke 4:16. However, the Textus Receptus translates all passages as Nazara leaving little room for debate there. Many scholars have questioned a link between "Nazareth" and the terms "Nazarene" and "Nazoraean" on linguistic grounds, while some affirm the possibility of etymological relation "given the idiosyncrasies of Galilean Aramaic." The form Nazara is found in the earliest non-scriptural reference to the town, a citation by Sextus Julius Africanus dated about 221 AD. The Church Father Origen knows Nazarét. Eusebius in his Onomasticon refers to the settlement as Nazara; the nașirutha of the scriptures of the Mandeans refers to "priestly craft", not to Nazareth, which they identified with Qom. The first non-Christian reference to Nazareth is an inscription on a marble fragment from a synagogue found in Caesarea Maritima in 1962; this fragment gives the town's name in Hebrew as נצרת. The inscription dates to c. AD 300 and chronicles the assignment of priests that took place at some time after the Bar Kokhba revolt, AD 132-35.
An 8th-century AD Hebrew inscription, the earliest known Hebrew reference to Nazareth prior to the discovery of the inscription above, uses the same form. Around 331, Eusebius records that from the name Nazareth Christ was called a Nazoraean, that in earlier centuries Christians, were once called Nazarenes. Tertullian records that "for this reason the Jews call us'Nazarenes'." In the New Testament Christians are called "Christians" three times by Paul in Romans, "Nazarenes" once by Tertullus, a Jewish lawyer. The Rabbinic and modern Hebrew name for Christians, notzrim, is thought to derive from Nazareth, be connected with Tertullus' charge against Paul of being a member of the sect of the Nazarenes, Nazoraioi, "men of Nazareth" in Acts. Against this some medieval Jewish polemical texts connect notzrim with the netsarim "watchmen" of Ephraim in Jeremiah 31:6. In Syriac Aramaic Nasrath is used for Nazareth, while "Nazarenes" and "of Nazareth" are both Nasrani or Nasraya an adjectival form. Nasrani