The cornerstone is the first stone set in the construction of a masonry foundation, important since all other stones will be set in reference to this stone, thus determining the position of the entire structure. Over time a cornerstone became a ceremonial masonry stone, or replica, set in a prominent location on the outside of a building, with an inscription on the stone indicating the construction dates of the building and the names of architect and other significant individuals; the rite of laying a cornerstone is an important cultural component of eastern architecture and metaphorically in sacred architecture generally. Some cornerstones include time capsules from, or engravings commemorating, the time a particular building was built; the ceremony involved the placing of offerings of grain and oil on or under the stone. These were the people of the land and the means of their subsistence; this in turn derived from the practice in still more ancient times of making an animal or human sacrifice, laid in the foundations.
Frazer in The Golden Bough charts the various propitiary sacrifices and effigy substitution such as the shadow, states that: Nowhere does the equivalence of the shadow to the life or soul come out more than in some customs practised to this day in South-eastern Europe. In modern Greece, when the foundation of a new building is being laid, it is the custom to kill a cock, a ram, or a lamb, to let its blood flow on the foundation-stone, under which the animal is afterwards buried; the object of the sacrifice is to give stability to the building. But sometimes, instead of killing an animal, the builder entices a man to the foundation-stone, secretly measures his body, or a part of it, or his shadow, buries the measure under the foundation-stone, it is believed. The Roumanians of Transylvania think that he whose shadow is thus immured will die within forty days. Not long ago there were still shadow-traders whose business it was to provide architects with the shadows necessary for securing their walls.
In these cases the measure of the shadow is looked on as equivalent to the shadow itself, to bury it is to bury the life or soul of the man, deprived of it, must die. Thus the custom is a substitute for the old practice of immuring a living person in the walls, or crushing him under the foundation-stone of a new building, in order to give strength and durability to the structure, or more in order that the angry ghost may haunt the place and guard it against the intrusion of enemies. Ancient Japan legends talk about Hitobashira, in which maidens were buried alive at the base or near some constructions as a prayer to ensure the buildings against disasters or enemy attacks. A VIP of the organization, or a local celebrity or community leader, will be invited to conduct the ceremony of figuratively beginning the foundations of the building, with the person's name and official position and the date being recorded on the stone; this person is asked to place their hand on the stone or otherwise signify its laying.
Still, until the 1970s, most ceremonies involved the use of a specially manufactured and engraved trowel that had a formal use in laying mortar under the stone. A special hammer was used to ceremonially tap the stone into place; the foundation stone has a cavity into, placed a time capsule containing newspapers of the day or week of the ceremony plus other artifacts that are typical of the period of the construction: coins of the year may be immured in the cavity or time capsule. Freemasons sometimes perform the public cornerstone laying ceremony for notable buildings; this ceremony was described by The Cork Examiner of 13 January 1865 as follows:... The Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Munster, applying the golden square and level to the stone said. After this, Bishop Gregg spread cement over the stone with a trowel specially made for the occasion by John Hawkesworth, a silversmith and a jeweller, he gave the stone three knocks with a mallet and declared the stone to be'duly and laid'. The Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Munster poured offerings of corn and wine over the stone after Bishop Gregg had declared it to be'duly and laid'.
The Provincial Grand Chaplain of the Masonic Order in Munster read out the following prayer:'May the Great Architect of the universe enable us as to carry out and finish this work. May He protect the workmen from danger and accident, long preserve the structure from decay. So mote it be.' The choir and congregation sang the Hundredth Psalm. In Freemasonry, which grew from the practice of stonemasons, the initiate is placed in the north-east corner of the Lodge as a figurative foundation stone; this is intended to signify the unity of the North associated with darkness and the East associated with light. A cornerstone will sometimes be referred to as a "foundation-stone", is symbolic of Christ, whom the Apostle Paul referred to as the "head of the corner" and is the "Chief Cornerstone of the Church". A chief or head cornerstone is placed above two wall
Lapu-Lapu was a ruler of Mactan in the Visayas. Modern Philippine society regards him as the first Filipino hero because he was the first native to resist Imperial Spanish colonization, he is best known for the Battle of Mactan that happened at dawn on April 27, 1521, where he and his soldiers defeated Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, killed in the battle. Magellan's death ended his voyage of circumnavigation, this delayed the Spanish occupation of the islands by over forty years until the expedition of Miguel López de Legazpi in 1564. Monuments to Lapu-Lapu have been built in Cebu and Manila, while the Philippine National Police and the Bureau of Fire Protection use his image as part of their official seals. Besides being a rival of Rajah Humabon of neighbouring Indianized Cebu little is known about the life of Lapu-Lapu; the only existing documents about his life are those written by Antonio Pigafetta. His name, origins and fate are still a matter of controversy. Lapu-Lapu is known under the names Çilapulapu, Si Lapulapu, Salip Pulaka, Cali Pulaco, Lapulapu Dimantag.
The historical name of Lapu-Lapu is debated. The earliest record of his name comes from Italian diarist Antonio Pigafetta who accompanied Magellan's expedition. Pigafetta notes the names of two chiefs of the island of "Matan", the chiefs "Zula" and "Çilapulapu"; the honorific Çi or Si is a corruption of the Sanskrit title Sri. In an annotation of the 1890 edition of Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de las islas Filipinas, José Rizal spells this name as "Si Lapulapu"; the Aginid chronicle calls him "Lapulapu Dimantag". The title Salip is used as an honorific for Lapu-lapu and other Visayan datus. Despite common misconception, it is not derived from the Islamic title Khalīfah. Like the cognate Si, it was derived from the Sanskrit title Sri Paduka, denoting "His Highness"; the title is still used today in Malaysia as Seri Paduka. The 17th century mestizo de sangley poet Carlos Calao mentions Lapu-Lapu under the name of "Cali Pulaco" in his poem Que Dios le perdone; the name, spelled "Kalipulako", was adopted as one of the pseudonyms of the Philippine hero, Mariano Ponce, during the Philippine Revolution.
The 1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence of Cavite II el Viejo mentions Lapu-Lapu under the name "Rey Kalipulako de Manktan ". There had been many folk accounts surrounding Lapu-Lapu’s origin. One oral tradition is that the Sugbuanons of Opong was once ruled by datu named Mangal and succeeded by his son named Lapu-Lapu. Another is from oral chronicles from the reign of the last king of Rajah Tupas; this was compiled and written in Baybayin in the book Aginid, Bayok sa Atong Tawarik in 1952 by Jovito Abellana. The chronicle records the founding of the Rajahnate of Cebu by a certain Sri Lumay, a prince from the Hindu Chola dynasty of Sumatra, his sons, Sri Alho and Sri Ukob, ruled the neighboring communities of Sialo and Nahalin, respectively. The islands they were in were collectively known as Kangdaya. Sri Lumay was noted for his strict policies in defending against Moro raiders and slavers from Mindanao, his use of scorched earth tactics to repel invaders gave rise to the name Kang Sri Lumayng Sugbo to the town, shortened to Sugbo.
Upon his death in a battle against the raiders, Sri Lumay was succeeded by his youngest son, Sri Bantug, who ruled from the region of Singhapala, now Mabolo in modern Cebu City. Sri Bantug was succeeded by his son Rajah Humabon. During Humabon's reign, the region had become an important trading center; the harbors of Sugbo became known colloquially as sinibuayng hingpit, shortened to sibu or sibo, from which the modern name "Cebu" originates. According to the epic Aginid, this was the period in which Lapu-Lapu was first recorded as arriving from Borneo, he asked Humabon for a place to settle, the king offered him the region of Mandawili, including the island known as Opong, hoping that Lapu-Lapu's people would cultivate the land. They were successful in this, the influx of farm produce from Mandawili enriched the trade port of Sugbo further; the relationship between Lapu-Lapu and Humabon deteriorated when Lapu-Lapu turned to piracy. He began raiding merchant ships passing the island of Opong; the island thus earned the name Mangatang evolving to "Mactan".
Lapu-Lapu was one of the two datus of Mactan before the Spanish arrived in the archipelago, the other being a certain Zula, both of whom belong to the Maginoo class. When Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines in the service of Spain, Zula was one of those who gave tribute to the Spanish king while Lapu-Lapu refused. In the midnight of April 27, 1521, Magellan led a force of around sixty Spaniards and twenty to thirty war boats of Humabon's warriors from Cebu, they arrived in Mactan three hours before dawn. However, because of the presence of rock outcroppings and coral reefs, Magellan's ships could not land on the shores of Mactan, their ships were forced to anchor "two crossbow flights" away from the beach. According to Antonio Pigafetta, they faced around 1,500 warriors of Lapu-Lapu armed w
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
A parapet is a barrier, an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, balcony, walkway or other structure. The word comes from the Italian parapetto; the German equivalent Brüstung has the same meaning. Where extending above a roof, a parapet may be the portion of an exterior wall that continues above the edge line of the roof surface, or may be a continuation of a vertical feature beneath the roof such as a fire wall or party wall. Parapets were used to defend buildings from military attack, but today they are used as guard rails and to prevent the spread of fires. Parapets may be plain, perforated or panelled, which are not mutually exclusive terms. Plain parapets are upward extensions of the wall, sometimes with a coping at the top and corbel below. Embattled parapets may be panelled, but are pierced, if not purely as stylistic device, for the discharge of defensive projectiles. Perforated parapets are pierced in various designs such as trefoils, or quatrefoils. Panelled parapets are ornamented by a series of panels, either oblong or square, more or less enriched, but not perforated.
These are common in the Perpendicular periods. The teachings of Moses prescribed parapets on roof edges for newly constructed houses as a safety measure; the Mirror Wall at Sigiriya, Sri Lanka built between 477 and 495 AD is one of the few surviving protective parapet walls from antiquity. Built onto the side of Sigiriya Rock it ran for a distance of 250 meters and provided protection from inclement weather. Only about one hundred meters of this wall exists today, but brick debris and grooves on the rock face along the western side of the rock show where the rest of this wall once stood. Parapets surrounding roofs are common in London; this dates from the Building Act of 1707 which banned projecting wooden eaves in the cities of Westminster and London as a fire risk. Instead an 18-inch brick parapet was required, with the roof set behind; this was continued in many Georgian houses, as it gave the appearance of a flat roof which accorded with the desire for classical proportions. Many firewalls are required to have a portion of the wall extending above the roof.
The parapet is required to be as fire resistant as the lower wall, extend a distance prescribed by building code. Parapets on bridges and other highway structures prevent users from falling off where there is a drop, they may be meant to restrict views, to prevent rubbish passing below, to act as noise barriers. Bridge parapets may be made from any material, but structural steel, aluminium and reinforced concrete are common, they may be of framed construction. In European standards, parapets are defined as a sub-category of "vehicle restraint systems" or "pedestrian restraint systems". In terms of fortification, a parapet is a wall of stone, wood or earth on the outer edge of a defensive wall or trench, which shelters the defenders. In medieval castles, they were crenellated. In artillery forts, parapets tend to be higher and thicker, they could be provided with embrasures for the fort's guns to fire through, a banquette or fire-step so that defending infantry could shoot over the top. The top of the parapet slopes towards the enemy to enable the defenders to shoot downwards.
In śilpaśāstra, the ancient Indian science of sculpture, a parapet is known as hāra. It is optionally added while constructing a temple; the hāra can be decorated according to the Kāmikāgama. Attic style Breastwork Merlon Redoubt Senani Ponnamperuma; the Story of Sigiriya, Panique Pty Ltd, 2013 pp 124–127, 179. ISBN 978-0987345141. Victorian Forts glossary Parapet What is a Parapet
José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Realonda was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain, he was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was not involved in its planning or conduct, he approved of its goals which led to Philippine independence, he is considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines and has been recommended to be so honored by an empaneled National Heroes Committee. However, no law, executive order or proclamation has been enacted or issued proclaiming any Filipino historical figure as a national hero, he was the author of the novels Noli Me Tángere and El filibusterismo, a number of poems and essays. José Rizal was born in 1861 to Francisco Rizal Mercado y Alejandro and Teodora Alonso Realonda y Quintos in the town of Calamba in Laguna province.
He had one brother. His parents were leaseholders of an accompanying rice farm by the Dominicans. Both their families had adopted the additional surnames of Rizal and Realonda in 1849, after Governor General Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa decreed the adoption of Spanish surnames among the Filipinos for census purposes. Like many families in the Philippines, the Rizals were of mixed origin. José's patrilineal lineage could be traced back to Fujian in China through his father's ancestor Lam-Co, a Chinese merchant who immigrated to the Philippines in the late 17th century. Lam-Co traveled to Manila from Amoy, China to avoid the famine or plague in his home district, more to escape the Manchu invasion during the Transition from Ming to Qing, he decided to stay in the islands as a farmer. In 1697, to escape the bitter anti-Chinese prejudice that existed in the Philippines, he converted to Catholicism, changed his name to Domingo Mercado and married the daughter of Chinese friend Augustin Chin-co. On his mother's side, Rizal's ancestry included Chinese and Tagalog blood.
His mother's lineage can be traced to the affluent Florentina family of Chinese mestizo families originating in Baliuag, Bulacan. José Rizal had Spanish ancestry, his grandfather was a half Spaniard engineer named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo. From an early age, José showed a precocious intellect, he learned the alphabet from his mother at 3, could read and write at age 5. Upon enrolling at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, he dropped the last three names that made up his full name, on the advice of his brother and the Mercado family, thus rendering his name as "José Protasio Rizal". Of this, he wrote: "My family never paid much attention, but now I had to use it, thus giving me the appearance of an illegitimate child!" This was to enable him to travel and disassociate him from his brother, who had gained notoriety with his earlier links to Filipino priests Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora, accused and executed for treason. Despite the name change, José, as "Rizal" soon distinguished himself in poetry writing contests, impressing his professors with his facility with Castilian and other foreign languages, in writing essays that were critical of the Spanish historical accounts of the pre-colonial Philippine societies.
Indeed, by 1891, the year he finished his El Filibusterismo, this second surname had become so well known that, as he writes to another friend, "All my family now carry the name Rizal instead of Mercado because the name Rizal means persecution! Good! I too want to join them and be worthy of this family name..." Rizal first studied under Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Biñan, before he was sent to Manila. As to his father's request, he took the entrance examination in Colegio de San Juan de Letran but he enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and graduated as one of the nine students in his class declared sobresaliente or outstanding, he continued his education at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila to obtain a land surveyor and assessor's degree, at the same time at the University of Santo Tomas where he did take up a preparatory course in law. Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he decided to switch to medicine at the medical school of Santo Tomas specializing in ophthalmology. Without his parents' knowledge and consent, but secretly supported by his brother Paciano, he traveled alone to Madrid, Spain in May 1882 and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid where he earned the degree, Licentiate in Medicine.
He attended medical lectures at the University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg. In Berlin, he was inducted as a member of the Berlin Ethnological Society and the Berlin Anthropological Society under the patronage of the famous pathologist Rudolf Virchow. Following custom, he delivered an address in German in April 1887 before the Anthropological Society on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language, he left Heidelberg a poem, "A las flores del Heidelberg", both an evocation and a prayer for the welfare of his native land and the unification of common values between East and West. At Heidelberg, the 25-year-old Rizal, completed in 1887 his eye specialization under the renowned professor, Otto Becker. There he used the newly invented ophthalmoscope to operate on his own mother's eye. From Heidelberg, Rizal wrote his parents: "I
North Luzon Expressway
The North Luzon Expressway known as the North Diversion Road and Manila North Expressway, is a 4 to 8-lane limited-access toll expressway that connects Metro Manila to the provinces of the Central Luzon region in the Philippines. It is a component of Expressway 1 of the Philippine expressway network, Circumferential Road 5 and Radial Road 8 of Manila's arterial road network, it was built in the 1960s. The expressway begins in Quezon City at the Balintawak Interchange with EDSA as a continuation of Andres Bonifacio Avenue, it passes through Caloocan and Valenzuela in Metro Manila, the provinces of Bulacan and Pampanga in Central Luzon. It ends at Mabalacat and merges with the MacArthur Highway, which continues northward into the rest of Central and Northern Luzon; the segment between Santa Rita Exit in Guiguinto and the Balintawak Interchange in Quezon City is a part of the new alignment of the N1. The expressway, including Andres Bonifacio Avenue, has total length of 88 kilometers; the expressway segment has a length of 84 kilometres.
Controlled by the Philippine National Construction Corporation and maintenance of the NLEx was transferred in 2005 to NLEX Corporation, a subsidiary of Metro Pacific Investments Corporation. A major upgrade and rehabilitation was completed in February 2005 with road now having similar qualities to a modern French tollway; the original stretch of the expressway, from Balintawak Interchange up to Guiguinto Exit in Bulacan, was completed on August 4, 1968. It is a fenced limited-access highway that consisted of a four-lane rural divided roadway, nine twin bridges, one railroad overpass, seven underpasses and three interchanges. A project of the Department of Public Works and Highways, the completion of the major portion of the job fell on the Construction Development Corporation of the Philippines to pioneer the toll concept of funding infrastructure, it was carried out under the private financing scheme provided by Republic Act 3741. Additional work required by the government included the construction of the Balintawak – Novaliches Interchange Complex, the Tabang Interchange, the approach road of the underpasses.
In 1976, the NLT extension, consisting of 50.9 kilometres of concrete road, was built as part of a highways program of the International Bank for Reconstruction Development linking major urban centers to the production centers in the north. The project features a 4-lane limited-access highway with a five-kilometer Candaba Viaduct, a construction innovation utilizing precast beam system, 6 interchanges, 12 bridges, overpass/underpass structures. In 1989, under the Corazon Aquino administration, the expressway was extended by another 5 km from its terminus at Dau Exit to Sta. Ines Exit in Pampanga. From 2003 to February 2005, the expressway underwent a major rehabilitation. Works included the widening of the Balintawak – Tabang segment from 6 to 8 lanes and the Tabang – Sta. Rita segment from 4 to 6 lanes, asphalt overlay, the demolition of old tollbooths; the main contractor of the rehabilitation work was Leighton Contractors Pty. Ltd with Egis Projects, a company belonging to the French Groupe Egis as the main subcontractor for the toll, telecommunication and traffic management systems.
To help maintain the safety and quality of the expressway, various rules are in effect, such as restricting the left lane to passing vehicles only and banning overloaded trucks. After the rehabilitation, the operation and maintenance of the expressway was transferred from the state-owned Philippine National Construction Corporation to the Manila North Tollways Corporation. On June 5, 2010, the NLEx Segment 8.1 or the NLEX Mindanao Avenue Link, a four lane, 2.34 kilometres spur road that runs from Mindanao Avenue to the SMART Connect Interchange in Valenzuela City was opened. The spur road is a part of the C-5 Road North Extension and is built to provide another entry point to the expressway from Metro Manila and decongest the Balintawak Interchange. On March 18, 2015, NLEX Segment 9 or the NLEX Karuhatan Link was opened, a 4.06 kilometer long continuation of Segment 8.1 that runs from the other side of the SMART Connect Interchange to MacArthur Highway. The North Luzon Tollway or NLEX Main cuts northwards from Manila to the provinces of Bulacan and Pampanga.
The expressway parallels MacArthur Highway from Quezon City to Mabalacat in Pampanga. It has 8 lanes from Balintawak Interchange to Balagtas Interchange, 6 lanes from Balagtas Interchange to San Fernando Exit, 4 lanes from San Fernando to Sta. Ines Exit; the expressways has bridges. Some portions of the expressway are lined with billboards, including its viaduct portion. Various high voltage overhead power lines, most notably the Hermosa-Duhat-Balintawak transmission line and maintained by National Grid Corporation of the Philippines, utilize the significant portion of the expressway route as the densely populated areas hinder acquisition of dedicated right of way; the expressway starts at Balintawak Interchange as a physical continuation of Bonifacio Avenue. A few meters after the cloverleaf is the Quirino Highway, with a northbound exit ascends into the flyover; the Reparo Road will parallel the expressway from Novaliches Exit to Eternal Gardens Memorial Park. A Libis Baesa Exit can be seen near the memorial park but it only serves a southbound lane.
The road approaches to Balintawak toll plaza. The offices of NLEX Corporation is located near the toll plaza. A new toll gate was built between a northbound