Administrative divisions of New York (state)
The administrative divisions of New York are the various units of government that provide local government services in the state of New York. The state is divided into counties, cities and villages. Cities and villages are municipal corporations with their own governments that provide most local government services. Whether a municipality is defined as a city, town, or village is dependent not on population or land area, but rather on the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the state legislature; each such government is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. New York has various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are local governments, such as school and fire districts. New York has 62 counties, which are subdivided into 62 cities. In total, the state has more than 3,400 active local governments and more than 4,200 taxing jurisdictions. Counties and incorporated municipal governments in New York State have been granted broad home rule powers enabling them to provide services to their residents and to regulate the quality of life within their jurisdictions.
They do so while adhering to the United States Constitution and the Constitution of the State of New York. Articles VIII and IX of the state constitution establish the rights and responsibilities of the municipal governments; the New York State Constitution provides for democratically elected legislative bodies for counties, cities and villages. These legislative bodies are granted the power to enact local laws as needed in order to provide services to their citizens and fulfill their various obligations; the county is the primary administrative division of New York. There are sixty-two counties in the state. Five of the counties are boroughs of the city of New York and do not have functioning county governments. While created as subdivisions of the state meant to carry out state functions, counties are now considered municipal corporations with the power and fiscal capacity to provide an array of local government services; such services include law enforcement and public safety and health services, education.
Every county outside of New York City has a county seat, the location of county government. Nineteen counties operate under county charters, while 38 operate under the general provisions of the County Law. Although all counties have a certain latitude to govern themselves, "charter counties" are afforded greater home rule powers; the charter counties are Albany, Chautauqua, Dutchess, Herkimer, Nassau, Onondaga, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk, Tompkins and Westchester. Sixteen counties are governed through an assembly with the power of a board of supervisors, composed of the supervisors of its constituent towns and cities. In most of these counties, each supervisor's vote is weighted in accordance with the town's population in order to abide by the U. S. Supreme Court mandate of "one person, one vote". Other counties have legislative districts of equal population. Most counties in New York do not use the term "Board of Supervisors." 34 counties have a County Legislature, six counties have a Board of Legislators, one county has a Board of Representatives.
The five counties, or boroughs, of New York City are governed by a 51-member City Council. In non-charter counties, the legislative body exercises executive power as well. Although the legislature can delegate certain functions and duties to a county administrator, who acts on behalf of the legislature, the legislature must maintain ultimate control over the actions of the administrator. Many, but not all, charter counties have an elected executive, independent of the legislature. In New York, each city is a autonomous incorporated area that, with the exceptions of New York City and Geneva, is contained within one county. Cities in New York are classified by the U. S. Census Bureau as incorporated places, they provide all services to their residents and have the highest degree of home rule and taxing jurisdiction over their residents. The main difference between a city and a village is that cities are organized and governed according to their charters, which can differ among cities, while most villages are subject to a uniform statewide Village Law.
Villages are part of a town, with residents who pay taxes to and receive services from the town. Cities are neither part of nor subordinate to towns except for the city of Sherrill, which for some purposes is treated as if it were a village of the town of Vernon; some cities are surrounded by a town of the same name. There are sixty-two cities in the state; as of 2000, 54.1% of state residents were living in a city. In 1686, the English colonial governor granted the cities of New York and Albany city charters, which were recognized by the first State Constitution in 1777. All other cities have been established by act of the state legislature and have been granted a charter. Cities have been granted the power to revise the
Cedar Beach (Brookhaven, New York)
Cedar Beach is a public beach on the North Shore of Long Island, located within the Town of Brookhaven in Suffolk County, New York. The beach itself spans 3,450 feet on a peninsula that divides Mount Sinai Harbor from the Long Island Sound. Cedar Beach is located in the hamlet of Mount Sinai, while the peninsula on which it sits is accessed most directly from the adjacent hamlet of Miller Place. Cedar Beach is located on a peninsula that stretches for over a mile westward, with the Long Island Sound to its north and Mount Sinai Harbor to its south; the peninsula contains two popular sections of recreational beach, Cedar Beach Main and Cedar Beach West, united along a continuous beachfront and adjacent nature preserve. Cedar Beach Main is the most lively section of Cedar Beach and is located near its eastern entrance and the main parking areas, it includes a restaurant, snack stand, lifeguard stations, volleyball courts. Live music performances take place in near the restaurant during the summer months.
Cedar Beach West is located at the peninsula's western end, overlooking the Mount Misery Point section of Port Jefferson. This sections contains a popular fishing pier. Nearer to Cedar Beach's western end is a boat launch ramp and marina, with the Mount Sinai Yacht Club located on the peninsula. Connecting these sections behind the continuous beachfront is a nature preserve, which includes a paved walkway and a wooden pavilion overlooking the beach. Within the preserve is the Cedar Beach Nature Center, an educational center focused on the local marine biome with hands-on exhibits and local wildlife. Prior in the mid-19th century, the mouth of Mount Sinai Harbor was on at its eastern side, with the peninsula on which Cedar Beach now sits being accessible from Port Jefferson; when tides and winds closed the harbor's opening, a new mouth was opened on its west side, switching the peninsula's connection from Port Jefferson to Miller Place. Dredging projects were active in Mount Sinai Harbor until the 1960s.
During the Revolutionary War, Cedar Beach was the landing site of Major Benjamin Tallmadge and his detachment of Continental Army dragoons during a successful raid on British forces. Tallmadge and his men journeyed southbound from Cedar Beach along Pipestave Hollow and went on to capture and burn Manor St. George, a British stronghold located in what is Mastic Beach; the route of Tallmadge's march from Cedar Beach to Manor St. George is commemorated as the Benjamin Tallmadge Historic Trail. Cedar Beach has been a popular recreational area since the expansion of the Long Island Rail Road to neighboring Port Jefferson in 1873. Marilyn Monroe and Arthur Miller spent time at Cedar Beach during the 1950s. In the latter half of the 20th century with the rise of suburbia, many of the summer homes near Cedar Beach were converted to full-time use. Traveling carnivals use the parking lot. Suffolk County Department of Public Works once planned to build a spur from Patchogue-Mount Sinai Road to the beach.
Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between the eastern shores of The Bronx, New York City, southern Westchester County, Connecticut to the north, the North Shore of Long Island, to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches 110 miles from the East River in New York City, along the North Shore of Long Island, to Block Island Sound. A mix of freshwater from tributaries and saltwater from the ocean, Long Island Sound is 21 miles at its widest point and varies in depth from 65 to 230 feet. Several major cities are situated along Long Island Sound and more than 8 million people live within its watershed. Major Connecticut cities on the Sound include Bridgeport, New London, Stamford and New Haven. Cities on the New York side of the Sound include Rye, Glen Cove, New Rochelle, portions of Queens and the Bronx in New York City. Mansions and wealthy neighborhoods characterize a good portion of the coast of the sound from Port Jefferson and east on Long Island. Property values in Westchester County, Long Island, southwestern Connecticut are among the highest in the nation, due to the proximity to New York City and their location on "The Sound".
About 18,000 years ago, Long Island Sound, much of Long Island were covered by a thick sheet of ice, part of the Late Wisconsin Glacier. About 3,300 feet thick in its interior and about 1,300 to 1,600 feet thick along its southern edge, it was the most recent of a series of glaciations that covered the area during the past 10 million years. Sea level at that time was about 330 feet lower than today; the continental ice sheet scraped off an average of 65 feet of surface material from the New England landscape deposited the material from the Connecticut coast into the Sound, creating what is now Long Island. When the ice sheet stopped advancing 18,000 years ago, a large amount of drift was deposited, known as the Ronkonkoma Moraine, which stretches along much of southern Long Island. Another period of equilibrium resulted in the Harbor Hill Moraine along most of northern Long Island; the next moraines to the north were created just off the Connecticut coast. These moraines, created by much smaller deposits are discontinuous and much smaller than those to the south.
The Connecticut coast moraines are in two groups: the Norwalk area and the Madison-Old Saybrook area. Sandy plains and beaches resulted from the erosion of moraines and redeposition in these areas, to the east of each, where the drift cover is thinnest, exposed bedrock creates rocky headlands with marshlands behind them; the Captain Islands off Greenwich, along with the Norwalk Islands and Falkner Island off Guilford, Connecticut are parts of a recessional moraine. Other islands, including the Thimble Islands, are for the most part exposed bedrock with a thin amount of drift not continuous. Other shoals and islands off the Connecticut coast are a mixture of these two extremes; the glacier created several sandy outwash deltas off the coast, including one off Bridgeport and another off New Haven, Connecticut. Fishers Island, New York appears to be related to the Harbor Hill Moraine. To the east of the Thimble Islands, inland moraines along the Connecticut coast include the broken Madison Moraine and the Old Saybrook Moraine.
The Long Island Sound basin existed. It had been formed by stream flows. A thick cover of sand and gravel was left in the basin from glacial meltwater streams. On the west, a ridge rising to about 65 feet below the present sea level is called the Mattatuck Sill, its lowest point is about 80 feet below sea level. Glacial meltwater formed "Lake Connecticut", a freshwater lake in the basin, until about 8,000 years ago, when the sea level rose to about 80 feet below today's level. Seawater overflowed into the basin, transforming it from a nontidal, freshwater lake to a tidal, saline arm of the sea. Numerous rivers empty into the Sound, including: Connecticut Connecticut River - Old Saybrook Housatonic River - Stratford & Milford Mianus River - Greenwich Mill River - New Haven Mill River - Fairfield Norwalk River - Norwalk Pequonnock River - Bridgeport Quinnipiac River - New Haven Rooster River/Ash Creek - Bridgeport & Fairfield Rippowam River - Stamford Saugatuck River - Westport Thames River - Groton & New London West River - West HavenNew York Byram River - Port Chester Hutchinson River-The Bronx Mamaroneck River - Mamaroneck Nissequogue River - Nissequogue & Ft SalongaRhode Island Pawcatuck River The whole watershed population is about 8.93 million as of the 2010 Census.
Due to the large chunk of New England being under the watershed, due to the Connecticut River, many riverside cities/towns are covered in the watershed, here is a list of some of the large towns and cities in the watershed from south to north, west to east: Huntington Oyster Bay Smithtown Parts of these New York City boroughs: The Bronx Queens Brooklyn Port Chester Stamford Bridgeport New Haven New London Danbury Waterbury Norwich Willimantic Torrington Hartford Westerly Springfield Worcester Pittsfield Brattleboro White River Jct. Keene West Lebanon Seaweeds in the Sound occur in greatest abundance in rocky areas between high tide and low tide as well as on rocks on the sea floor. Green seaweed populations fluctuate with the seasons. Monostroma
Suffolk County, New York
Suffolk County is a predominantly suburban county on Long Island and the easternmost county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 1,493,350, estimated to have decreased to 1,492,953 in 2017, making it the fourth-most populous county in New York, its county seat is Riverhead. The county was named after the county of Suffolk in England, from where its earliest European settlers came. Suffolk County incorporates the easternmost extreme of the New York City metropolitan area; the largest of Long Island's four counties and the second-largest of 62 counties in New York State, Suffolk measures 86 miles in length and 26 miles in width at its widest. Major scientific research facilities in Suffolk County include Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in Huntington, Plum Island Animal Disease Center on Plum Island. Suffolk County was part of the Connecticut Colony before becoming an original county of the Province of New York, one of twelve created in 1683.
From 1664 until 1683 it had been the East Riding of Yorkshire. Its boundaries were the same as at present, with only minor changes in the boundary with its western neighbor, Queens County but has been Nassau County since the separation of Nassau from Queens in 1899. According to the Suffolk County website, the county is the leading agricultural county in the state of New York, saying that: "The weather is temperate, clean water is abundant, the soil is so good that Suffolk is the leading agricultural county in New York State; that Suffolk is still number one in farming with the development that has taken place, is a tribute to thoughtful planning, along with the excellent soil, favorable weather conditions, the work of dedicated farmers in this region." According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 2,373 square miles, of which 912 square miles is land and 1,461 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county in New York by total area and occupies 66% of the land area of Long Island.
Suffolk County occupies the central and eastern part of Long Island, in the extreme east of New York State. The eastern end of the county splits into two peninsulas, known as the North Fork and the South Fork; the county is surrounded by water on three sides, including the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, with 980 miles of coastline. The eastern end contains large bays; the highest elevation in the county, on Long Island as a whole, is Jayne's Hill in West Hills, at 401 feet above sea level. Nassau County, New York - west Fairfield County, Connecticut - northwest New Haven County, Connecticut - north Middlesex County, Connecticut - north New London County, Connecticut - north Washington County, Rhode Island - northeast Amagansett National Wildlife Refuge Conscience Point National Wildlife Refuge Elizabeth A. Morton National Wildlife Refuge Fire Island National Seashore Sayville National Wildlife Refuge Seatuck National Wildlife Refuge Target Rock National Wildlife Refuge Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2010, there were 1,493,350 people and 569,985 households residing in the county.
The population of Suffolk County was estimated by the U. S. Census to have decreased to 1,492,953 in 2017, representing 7.5% of the Census-estimated New York State population of 19,849,399 and 19.0% of the Census-estimated Long Island population of 7,869,820. The population density in 2010 was 1,637 people per square mile, with 569,985 households at an average density of 625 per square mile. However, by 2012, with an estimated total population increasing moderately to 1,499,273 there were 569,359 housing units. By 2014, the racial makeup of the county was estimated at 85.2% White of any ancestry including Hispanic, 8.3% African American, 0.6% Native American, 4.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.2% of the population. Those who identified as "white alone", not being of Hispanic or Latino origin, represented 69.3% of the population. In 2006, the racial or ethnic makeup of the county was 83.6% White. African Americans were 7.4% of the population.
Asians stood at 3.4% of the population. 5.4 % were of mixed race. Latinos were 13.0% of the population. The most common ethnicities in Suffolk County in 2007 were Italian and German. In 2002, The New York Times cited a study by the non-profit group ERASE Racism, which determined Suffolk and its neighboring county, Nassau, to be the most racially segregated suburbs in the United States. In 2006, there were 469,299 households, out of which 37.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.00% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.20% were non-families. 18.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.36. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.80 males. In 2008, Forbes magazine released its American Community Survey and named Suffolk County number 4 in its list of the top 25 richest counties in America. In 2016, according to Business Insider, the 11962 zip code encompassing Sagaponack, within Southampton, was listed as the most expensive in the U. S. with a median home sale price of $8
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Manor St. George
Manor St. George or St. George's Manor was a large tract of land purchased by William "Tangier" Smith in the 17th century on Long Island, in central Suffolk County, New York. Parts of the original parcel, 64,000 acres of land, are preserved in bits and pieces: 127 acres and the main house and buildings are called the Manor of St. George and located in Shirley; the Museum Manor of St. George is in a testamentary trust set up underneath the last will and testament of the late Eugenie A. T. Smith; the management of the manor rest with the trustees. The purpose of the private trust is to promote the Smith family history dating back to 1683; the Longwood Estate is maintained by the Town of Brookhaven, the Floyd Estate is maintained by the National Park Service. The hamlet of Manorville derives its name from Manor St. George. Manor St. George stretched from Carman's River in the west to the edge of Southampton Town in the east, from the Atlantic Ocean in the south to around present-day New York State Route 25 in the north.
The patent for Manor St. George was granted to Col. William "Tangier" Smith in 1693 in recognition of Col. Smith's being mayor of Tangier in Africa. Further patents issuing more land were annexed to the first patent. Col. Smith owned a homestead in Setauket, New York, it was from there that he administered his land early on. An additional patent was issued to Col. Smith in 1697, the Moriches Patent, but not annexed to Manor St. George. In time, the northwestern section of the estate was known as "the Swamp" or "Longswamp." On Col. Wm. "Tangier" Smith's death in 1705, the Setauket estate was inherited by his eldest surviving son, Col. Henry Smith, Manor St. George was inherited by another son, Major William Henry Smith, who built the manor seat on Mastic Neck. In or around 1718, 4,000 acres of the estate on the eastern side of Mastic Neck were acquired by Richard Floyd, who gave it to his son Nicoll. In 1755 the Floyd Estate was given to son William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
On Major William Henry Smith's death in 1743, his son Judge William Smith inherited Manor St. George. See Battle of Fort St. George, for more information During the American Revolution, British soldiers occupied the manor house on Mastic Neck and built a fort there, it is possible that Judge Smith, a patriot, fled to Longswamp during the occupation, but this is not documented. In 1780, Major Benjamin Tallmadge landed his dragoons at Cedar Beach in Mt. Sinai on the north shore of Long Island and led them on a march to the manor; the raid began around 4 a.m. and the Americans under Tallmadge captured the fort quickly. A few British soldiers were killed. Major Tallmadge's march, a twenty-mile journey, is survived in the form of the Tallmadge Trail. After the Revolutionary War, the Smith family returned to the Manor. Judge Smith had a house built for his son, Gen. John Smith, in Longswamp. Gen. Smith decided not to move into the new house, staying at Manor St. George. Longswamp was given to Judge Smith's seventh son, William, in 1790.
On July 8, 1817, Longswamp was handed down to William Smith's son, William Sydney Smith, who changed the name to Longwood. Throughout the following time, Manor St. George and Longwood would be divided many times as parts were sold and parts were divided amongst children of the Smiths. In 1955, Manor St. George was set up in a testamentary trust by Eugenie Annie Tangier Smith. In the same year, the Longwood Estate was given to Elbert "Burt" Clayton Smith of Berkeley, California who moved his family to the estate immediately. Burt Smith donated 51 acres of the estate to the local board of education to build Longwood High School, 6 acres to Middle Island Presbyterian Church, 2 acres to St. Mark's Lutheran Church, several acres to Suffolk County for the greenbelt; when Burt Smith died in 1967, Longwood was bought by real estate developers and destined for destruction. After another real estate developer, Wilbur F. Breslin, proposed a huge residential and commercial complex on the site, public outcry was enough that the house and 35 acres were donated to Brookhaven Town for preservation in 1974.
The Museum Manor of St George is open to the public free of charge from May 1 to October 30. The Longwood Estate is used as parkland, open to the public, contain a museum; the Manor of St. George by John B. Deitz The Illustrated History of the Moriches Bay Area by Van and Mary Field The Longwood Estate by Jean Lauer Long Island History: Manorville from Newsday Manor St. George from a website about the Carman family Map of Col. Smith's patents Things to Do in Brookhaven Photos of the Longwood Estate