La Malinche mountain known as Matlalcueye or Malintzin, is an inactive volcano located in Tlaxcala and Puebla states, in Mexico. Its summit reaches 4,461 metres above sea level, though it is considered to be closer to 4,440 metres, using GPS measurements, its height makes it the highest peak in Tlaxcala, the fifth-highest in Puebla, the sixth-highest in Mexico, the 23rd-highest in North America, the 252nd-highest in the world. Its height above nearby cities varies from 1,908 metres above Huamantla, 2,461 metres above Villa Vicente Guerrero, 2,221 metres above Tlaxcala to 2,299 metres above Puebla; the summit is 22.4 kilometres from Tlaxcala, 28.3 kilometres from Puebla, 118 kilometres from Mexico City. The climate is mild on its lower slopes; the Tlaxcaltecs named it Matlalcueitl, which translates to " Blue Skirt", a goddess of rain and song, believed to be the local equivalent of Chalchiuhtlicue. The Spanish named it Sierra de Tlaxcala; the current name Malinche or Malintzin, in honor of the woman who helped Hernán Cortés as an interpreter during the conquest of the Aztec Empire, became popular during the 17th century.
Located within the Parque Nacional La Malinche at the border of Tlaxcala and Puebla states, this volcano is part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The park is the fifth largest of the 85 peaks in México, it covers an area of 458.52 square kilometres, of which two thirds belong to Tlaxcala and one third to Puebla. The diameter of the park is 24 kilometres. La Malinche is an inactive stratovolcano which began to form in the middle of the Paleogene period, 30–35 million years ago. Since that time it has grown through eruptions, the last of, believed to have occurred ca. 3,100 years ago. It is not a typical volcanic cone, but instead has a number of side peaks like Tlachichihuatzi or La Chichita and Chicomecanoa. La Malinche is isolated from the surrounding ranges. On lower slopes are farmlands which grow field "dent" corn and forests which transition from alders and various types of oak to Montezuma pines and sacred firs with increasing elevation; the upper slopes are zacatonal. The summit is covered by snow part of the year and is considered to be the coldest location in Tlaxcala.
On the lower slopes the climate is mild year round, but rainy during the summer months. The soils consist of crushed volcanic rock and sand with an underlying layer of clay and sand called tepetate at an average depth of about a meter; the dark and porous forest soils were formed from volcanic ash. From La Malinche streams flow in all directions forming small gorges in places which fill and run when torrential rains occur. At the base of the mountain emerge many springs, some of drinkable water, others of thermal water heated in the volcano's interior. La Malinche shares, like Iztaccíhuatl, legends about its formation. According to the most famous legend, Matlalcueye was a virgin girl engaged to Cuatlapanga, a warrior who had to go to battle in a remote place. Time went by, the lover took so long to come back that the girl died of sorrow; when the warrior came back, badly hurt on the head, he received the bad news. He went to cry at her grave and died, turning into a small mountain. Matlalcueye turned with the smaller Cuatlapanga at her side.
Another legend about the mountain concerns a reptilian monster that lived in the mountain and that would come down during the rainy season to abduct children and take them up the mountain to be devoured. The beast was killed, according to legend, its head was mounted above the entrance to a house in Puebla that still stands at 201 East Third Street in the historical district of that town; the park offers a resort area at 3,080 metres —"Centro Vacacional Malintzin"—with comfortable cabins and camping. It is an ideal location to start an ascent of the volcano. There are sporting a restaurant and a gift shop. Outside the resort, there is a convenience store and a little "antojitos" restaurant, as well as horses and llamas for riding on the weekends; the access road passes the resort area and continues partway up the mountain, switchbacking most of the way. A hiking trail to the summit begins at the resort area, cutting across the road switchbacks for the first section; the trail leads into a conifer section at around 3,400 metres.
The tree line, from where the "false" summit is visible for the first time, is at 3,900 metres. After that, a steep grassland section begins; the ridge starts at 4,200 metres and leads to the summit, just behind the false summit. The last 100-or-so metres involve a bit of scrambling, it is cold and windy above the tree line, so proper clothing is recommended. Crampons and an ice axe are necessary whenever it has snowed – which happens a few times each year from December to March. Other than that, the ascent is challenging but not technical. Fit hikers can reach the summit from the resort area in 3–4 hours, but it
Mount Lincoln (Colorado)
Mount Lincoln is the eighth-highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14,293-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Mosquito Range and the eleventh-highest summit in the contiguous United States. Mount Lincoln is located in Pike National Forest, 5.2 miles north-northwest of the Town of Alma in Park County, United States. The summit of Mount Lincoln is the highest point in Park County and the entire drainage basin of the Missouri River; the mountain was named in honor of Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States. Mount Lincoln is climbed from the east, starting at the Roberts Road Trailhead off of Colorado Highway 9. Multiple routes ascend from this trailhead; the shortest route climbs 3,000 ft in 3.5 mi, with the upper part of the route involving hiking on broken granite and shale. Many climbers attempt to combine the summit of Lincoln with those of Bross and Democrat in one climb. Silver was discovered here in 1874. Mount Lincoln, along with its neighbors Cameron and Bross, are pockmarked with old mines, much of the land is owned by mining companies.
In the summer of 2005, these landowners denied access to the peaks by hikers and climbers, fearing liability in the case of injury, citing the particular dangers due to the presence of old mine workings. On August 1, 2006, the town of Alma signed a deal to lease the peaks for a nominal fee, to reduce the potential liability to the owners and free up the peaks for recreational access; the opening of these peaks excludes the summit of Mount Bross since not all of the landowners have given permission for access to the area. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners Mount Cameron on 14ers.com Mount Lincoln on Distantpeak.com Mount Lincoln on Summitpost
Mount Bona is one of the major mountains of the Saint Elias Mountains in eastern Alaska, is the fifth-highest independent peak in the United States. Mount Bona and its adjacent neighbor Mount Churchill are both large ice-covered stratovolcanoes. Bona has the distinction of being the highest volcano in the United States and the fourth-highest in North America, outranked only by the three highest Mexican volcanoes, Pico de Orizaba, Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl, its summit is a small stratovolcano on top of a high platform of sedimentary rocks. The mountain's massif is covered entirely by icefields and glaciers, it is the principal source of ice for the Klutlan Glacier, which flows east for over 40 miles into the Yukon Territory of Canada; the mountain contributes a large volume of ice to the north-flowing Russell Glacier system. Mount Bona was named by Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi in 1897, who saw the peak while making the first ascent of Mount Saint Elias about 80 miles to the southeast.
He named it after his racing yacht. The mountain was first climbed in 1930 by Allen Carpé, Terris Moore, Andrew Taylor, from the Russell Glacier on the west of the peak; the current standard route is the East Ridge. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska Mount Bona at the Alaska Volcano Observatory "Mount Bona". Bivouac.com. Retrieved 2009-01-06. "Churchill". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-01-06
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Kluane National Park and Reserve
Kluane National Park and Reserve are two units of Canada's national park system in the southwest corner of the territory of Yukon. It is near the Alaskan border. Kluane National Park Reserve was established in 1972; the Reserve includes the highest mountain in Mount Logan of the Saint Elias Mountains. Mountains and glaciers dominate the park's landscape, covering 83% of its area; the rest of the land in the park is forest and tundra—east of the largest mountains and glaciers—where the climate is colder and drier than in the western and southern parts of the park. Trees grow only at the park's lowest elevations; the primary tree species are balsam poplar and trembling aspen. A day-use area with boat launch, picnic facilities and campground is located at Kathleen Lake, is operated from mid-May to mid-September. Hiking is a popular activity on trails such as St. Elias Lake, Mush Lake Road, Shorty Creek, Rock Glacier, King's Throne, Auriol, Dezadeash River Trail, Alsek Trail, Sheep Creek Trail, Bullion Plateau Trail, Slims West or Soldiers Summit.
Rafting on the Alsek River, mountain biking on old mining roads, horseback riding through the Alsek Pass, boating on Kathleen Lake and Mush Lake as well as fishing for lake trout, Arctic grayling, rainbow trout, northern pike and sockeye salmon are among activities available in the park. The park was the subject of a short film in 2011's National Parks Project, directed by Louise Archambault and scored by Graham Van Pelt, Ian D'Sa and Mishka Stein. In August 2013, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. visited the park to see Mount Kennedy. Mammalian species that inhabit this park include northwestern wolf, coyote, lynx, river otter, moose, snowshoe hare, red fox, Dall sheep, wolverine, mountain goat, arctic ground squirrel; this park contains about 120 species of birds, including the rock ptarmigan and the golden and bald eagles. The bi-national Kluane-Wrangell-St. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek park system comprising Kluane, Wrangell-St Elias, Glacier Bay and Tatshenshini-Alsek parks, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979 for the spectacular glacier and icefield landscapes as well as for the importance of grizzly bears and Dall sheep habitat.
In a 2009 census of the Kluane herd, there were 181 northern mountain caribou, a distinct ecotype of caribou. Kluane National Park lies within the traditional territories of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations and Kluane First Nation who have a long history of living in this region. Through their respective Final Agreements with the Canadian Government, they have made into law their rights to harvest in this region. National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada List of Yukon parks List of World Heritage Sites in the Americas Lee, Douglas. "Canada's Icy Wilderness Park — Kluane". National Geographic. Vol. 168 no. 5. Pp. 630–657. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454. Canada website for Kluane NP World Heritage site Kluane — a National Film Board of Canada documentary - Kluane a Pbase Gallery - Champagne and Aishihik First Nations - Kluane First Nation
For the mountain in Antarctica, see Mount Steele. Mount Steele is the fifth-highest mountain in Canada and the eleventh-highest peak in North America reaching the height of 5,073 metres. A lower southeast peak of Mt. Steele stands at 4,300 m, it was named after Sir Sam Steele, the North-West Mounted Police officer in charge of the force in the Yukon during the Klondike Gold Rush. Walter A. Wood led a team consisting of Foresta Wood, Swiss guide Hans Fuhrer, Joseph W. Fobes, Harrison Wood and I. Pearce Hazard; the expedition approached the peak on the eastern side from Kluane Lake. Base camp was established at the foot of the Steele Glacier with horses carrying loads to Advance Base Camp further along the glacier. ABC provided good views of the mountain and the team decided on the east ridge as their line of ascent. After waiting for the weather to improve after heavy snowfalls, a four-man team consisting of Walter Wood, Harrison Wood and Forbes left Camp 8 at the base of the ridge, their plan to was to make a 2,440-meter push to the summit.
After steady upwards progress, deteriorating weather forced them to return to Camp 8 where they waited out a five-day storm which dumped over a metre of fresh snow. They started out again on August 15 and the ascent was made easier this time by windblown and hard steep snow slopes rather than steep soft snow on their earlier attempt. At 4,570 m, a plateau of wretched snow forced the team to crawl on all fours. Walter Wood commented: The humour of it impressed me. Here were four normal human beings crawling across a snow field 15,000 ft. up in the air, engaged in what they fondly believed to be a sporting venue. Alternating the lead every 100 paces, they made their way from the plateau to the top reaching the summit at 2:30 pm; the team enjoyed a blissful thirty minutes of windless conditions on top before beginning their descent. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Canada
Mount Rainier known as Tahoma or Tacoma, is a large active stratovolcano located 59 miles south-southeast of Seattle, in the Mount Rainier National Park. With a summit elevation of 14,411 ft, it is the highest mountain in the U. S. state of Washington, of the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest, it is the second topographically prominent mountain in the continental United States and the first in the Cascade Volcanic Arc. Mt. Rainier is considered one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world, it is on the Decade Volcano list; because of its large amount of glacial ice, Mt. Rainier could produce massive lahars that could threaten the entire Puyallup River valley. "About 80,000 people and their homes are at risk in Mount Rainier’s lahar-hazard zones." Mount Rainier was first known by Tacoma or Tahoma. One hypothesis of the word origin is, in the Lushootseed language spoken by the Puyallup people. Another hypothesis is that "Tacoma" means "larger than Mount Baker" in Lushootseed: "Ta", plus "Koma", Mount Baker.
Other names used include Tahoma and Pooskaus. The current name was given by George Vancouver, who named it in honor of his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier; the map of the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804-1806 refers to it as "Mt. Regniere". Although "Rainier" had been considered the official name of the mountain, Theodore Winthrop, in his posthumously published 1862 travel book The Canoe and the Saddle, referred to the mountain as "Tacoma" and for a time, both names were used interchangeably, although "Mt. Tacoma" was preferred in the city of Tacoma. In 1890, the United States Board on Geographic Names declared that the mountain would be known as "Rainier". Following this in 1897, the Pacific Forest Reserve became the Mount Rainier Forest Reserve, the national park was established three years later. Despite this, there was still a movement to change the mountain's name to "Tacoma" and Congress was still considering a resolution to change the name as late as 1924. In the lead-up to Super Bowl XLVIII, the Washington State Senate passed a resolution on Friday, January 31, 2014, temporarily renaming the mountain Mount Seattle Seahawks until the midnight after the Super Bowl, February 3, 2014, in response to the renaming of 53 mountains in Colorado after the 53 members of the Denver Broncos by Governor of Colorado John Hickenlooper.
After the 2015 restoration of the original name Denali from Mount McKinley in Alaska, debate over Mount Rainier's name intensified. Mount Rainier is the tallest mountain in the Cascade Range; this peak is located just southeast of Seattle and Tacoma. Mount Rainier is ranked third of the 128 ultra-prominent mountain peaks of the United States. Mount Rainier has a topographic prominence of 13,210 ft, greater than that of K2, the world's second-tallest mountain, at 13,189 ft. On clear days it dominates the southeastern horizon in most of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area to such an extent that locals sometimes refer to it as "the Mountain." On days of exceptional clarity, it can be seen from as far away as Corvallis and Victoria, British Columbia. With 26 major glaciers and 36 sq mi of permanent snowfields and glaciers, Mount Rainier is the most glaciated peak in the lower 48 states; the summit is topped by two volcanic craters, each more than 1,000 ft in diameter, with the larger east crater overlapping the west crater.
Geothermal heat from the volcano keeps areas of both crater rims free of snow and ice, has formed the world's largest volcanic glacier cave network within the ice-filled craters, with nearly 2 mi of passages. A small crater lake about 130 by 30 ft in size and 16 ft deep, the highest in North America with a surface elevation of 14,203 ft, occupies the lowest portion of the west crater below more than 100 ft of ice and is accessible only via the caves; the Carbon, Mowich and Cowlitz Rivers begin at eponymous glaciers of Mount Rainier. The sources of the White River are Winthrop and Fryingpan Glaciers; the White and Mowich join the Puyallup River, which discharges into Commencement Bay at Tacoma. The broad top of Mount Rainier contains three named summits; the highest is called the Columbia Crest. The second highest summit is Point Success, 14,158 ft, at the southern edge of the summit plateau, atop the ridge known as Success Cleaver, it has a topographic prominence of about 138 ft, so it is not considered a separate peak.
The lowest of the three summits is Liberty Cap, 14,112 ft, at the northwestern edge, which overlooks Liberty Ridge, the Sunset Amphitheater, the dramatic Willis Wall. Liberty Cap has a prominence of 492 ft, so would qualify as a separate peak under most prominence-based rules. A prominence cutoff of 400 ft is used in Washington state. High on the eastern flank of Mount Rainier is a peak known as Little Tahoma Peak, 11,138 ft, an eroded remnant of the earlier, much higher, Mount Rainier, it has a prominence of 858 ft, it is never climbed in direct conjunction with Columbia Crest, so it is considered a separate peak. If considered separately from Mt. Rainier, Little Tahoma Peak would be the third highest mountain peak in Washington. Mount Rainier is a stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc that consists of lava flows, debris flows, pyroclastic ejecta and flows, its early volcanic deposits are estimated