Mount Fairweather, is the highest mountain in the Canadian province of British Columbia, with an elevation of 4,671 metres. It is located 20 km east of the Pacific Ocean on the border of Alaska, United States and western British Columbia, Canada. Most of the mountain lies within Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in the City and Borough of Yakutat, though the summit borders Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Park, British Columbia, it is designated as Boundary Peak 164 or as US/Canada Boundary Point #164. The mountain was named on May 3, 1778 by Captain James Cook for the unusually good weather encountered at the time; the name has been translated into many languages. It was called "Mt. Beautemps" by La Perouse, "Mte. Buen-tiempo" by Galiano, "Gor-Khoroshy-pogody" on Russian Hydrographic Dept. Chart 1378 in 1847, "G Fayerveder" by Captain Tebenkov, Imperial Russian Navy, it was called "Schönwetterberg" by Constantin Grewingk in 1850 and "Schönwetter Berg" by Justus Perthes in 1882. Fairweather was first climbed in 1931 by Allen Carpé and Terris Moore.
Mount Fairweather is located right above Glacier Bay in the Fairweather Range of the Saint Elias Mountains. Mount Fairweather marks the northwest extremity of the Alaska Panhandle. Like many peaks in the St. Elias Mountains, Mount Fairweather has great vertical relief due to its dramatic rise from Glacier Bay. However, due to poor weather in the area, this effect is obscured with the clouds which hides the summit from view. Known in the Tlingit language as Tsalxhaan, it is said this mountain and Yaas'éit'aa Shaa were next to each other but had an argument and separated, their children, the mountains in between the two peaks, are called Tsalxhaan Yatx'i Despite its name, Mount Fairweather has harsh weather conditions. It receives over 100 inches of precipitation each year and sees temperatures of around -50 °F. 1926 Allen Carpe, Andy Taylor and W. S. Ladd reached 2,890 m on the West Ridge, but were forced back due to a steep notch in the ridge that made ferrying supplies difficult. 1930 Bradford Washburn made an attempt on the West Ridge but traveling conditions forced a retreat at 2,040 metres.
1931 Allen Carpe and Terris Moore summited via the Southeast Ridge on June 8, 1931 1958 Paddy Sherman and 7 other Canadians reached the summit via the SE Ridge on June 26, 1958. 1968 West Ridge, Loren Adkins, Walter Gove, Paul Myhre, John Neal and Kent Stokes - summit reached June 12, 1968 1973 Southwest Ridge, Peter Metcalf, Henry Florschutz, Toby O'Brien and Lincoln Stoller. Summit reached on July 10, 1973. After failing to reach the summit in 1926 due to terrain difficulty on their chosen route, Allen Carpe, W. S. Ladd, Andy Taylor returned in 1931 along with a new member Terry Moore. In early April the group began their approach by boat but stormy weather delayed them rounding Cape Fairweather until April 17, they unloaded their supplies on the beach. Backtracking 21 kilometres along the coast, they made their way to the Fairweather Glacier. From base camp in a spot they called Paradise Valley, they decided to attempt the mountain from the south rather than via the west ridge. Due to deep snow, they realized that skis and snowshoes would be of great help so Carpe and Moore made the 80 km round trip to fetch them from Lituya Bay.
They ascended the glacier from base setup camp at 1,520 m on the mountain's south face. On May 25, they established high camp at 2,740 m after making significant progress up a ridge on a rare day of good weather. However, the weather turned and they were forced to descend after an overnight coating of snow. After waiting out the snowstorm for six days at lower camp, they made their way back up to high camp on June 2, they left for the summit at 1:30 am on June 3 and having reached the southeast shoulder by mid-morning, they were feeling so confident that they left the willow wands behind. However, higher altitude and the weeks of hard effort slowed their progress and the weather changed. By 1 pm not far from the summit, they decided to retreat and had to descend without the wands to guide them, they managed to reach the tents by 4 pm. Ladd and Taylor volunteered to descend due to dwindling supplies at high camp with the hope that Carpe and Moore would be able to make another attempt in good weather.
The storm raged for four days before it cleared in the evening on June 7. At 10 pm, Carpe and Moore set out for the summit and with no further difficulties made it to the top. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Canada List of mountain peaks of the United States List of Boundary Peaks of the Alaska-British Columbia/Yukon border NOAA Ship Fairweather Sherman, Paddy. Cloud Walkers. MacMillan. ISBN 0-916890-79-1
Mount Evans is the highest summit of the Chicago Peaks in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The prominent 14,271-foot fourteener is located in the Mount Evans Wilderness, 13.4 miles southwest by south of the City of Idaho Springs in Clear Creek County, United States, on the drainage divide between Arapaho National Forest and Pike National Forest. The peak is one of the characteristic Front Range peaks, dominating the western skyline of the Great Plains along with Pikes Peak, Longs Peak, nearby Mount Bierstadt. Mount Evans can be seen from over 100 miles away to the east, many miles in other directions. Mount Evans dominates rising over 9,000 feet above the area. Mount Evans can be seen from points south of Castle Rock, up to and as far north as Fort Collins, from areas near Limon. In the early days of Colorado tourism, Mount Evans and Denver were in competition with Pikes Peak and Colorado Springs. Mount Evans is the highest peak in a massif known as the Chicago Peaks; the peak is 35 miles west of Denver, "as the crow flies", 51 miles by road, via Idaho Springs.
The other peaks in the massif are: Mount Spalding, 1.1 mi northwest Gray Wolf Mountain, 2.2 mi north-northwest The Sawtooth, 1.2 mi west Mount Bierstadt, 1.5 mi west-southwest Mount Warren, 1.2 mi north-northeast Rogers Peak, 2.33 mi northeast. At least 7 deep glacial cirques cut into the Chicago Range; the cirques around Mount Evans are the deepest cirques in the Colorado Rockies. The bottoms of many of these contain tarns, the most notable being: Summit Lake at the head of Bear Creek, 0.5 miles north the Chicago Lakes at the head of Chicago Creek, 2 miles north Abyss Lake at the head of Lake Fork, 1 mile west-southwestThe Mount Evans Scenic Byway consists of State Highway 103 from Idaho Springs, Colorado on I-70 about 13 miles to Echo Lake, Colorado 5 from Echo Lake 15 miles, ending at a parking area and turnaround just below the summit. The latter is only open in the summer. Colorado 103 continues east from Echo Lake to Squaw Pass, from which it connects, via Clear Creek County Road 103 and Jefferson County Road 66, to Bergen Park from which Colorado 74 leads to Evergreen Colorado.
The Guanella Pass Scenic Byway passes within 4 miles west of Mount Evans, linking Georgetown and I-70 with Grant and US 285, 22 miles to the south. A marked hiking trail parallels the highway from Echo Lake to the summit, a second marked trail links Guanella Pass to Mount Bierstadt. A difficult side route of the latter climbs to the northeastern peak of The Sawtooth, from which an easy ridge leads to the summit of Mount Evans. Most of the Mount Evans massif is now part of the Mount Evans Wilderness area in Arapaho National Forest and Pike National Forest; the exception is a narrow corridor along the highway from Echo Lake, excluded from the wilderness. Summit Lake Park and Echo Lake Park, are part of the historic Denver Mountain Parks system. Mount Evans was known as Mount Rosa or Mount Rosalie. Albert Bierstadt named it for the wife of Fitz Hugh Ludlow, whom he married; the name is a reference to Monte Rosa, the highest peak in Switzerland. Bierstadt and his guide, William Newton Byers, approached the mountain along Chicago Creek from Idaho Springs in 1863, spent several days painting sketches of the mountain from the Chicago Lakes before climbing to Summit Lake and onward to the summit.
Bierstadt's sketch, Mountain Lake portrays the view of Mount Spalding over the Chicago Lakes. His painting, A Storm in the Rocky Mountains, Mt. Rosalie, is based on other sketches. A second claim to be the first to ascend is attributed to Judge Lunt and a friend in 1872. William Henry Jackson, attached to the Hayden Survey, visited the Chicago Lakes in 1873, where he took numerous photographs; the Hayden survey reported that Mount Rosalie was 14,330 feet above sea level, measured by triangulation. In 1895, 30 years after he was forced to resign as governor because of his part in the infamous Sand Creek Massacre and its subsequent cover-up, Colorado's legislature renamed the peak in honor of John Evans, second governor of the Colorado Territory from 1862 to 1865; the history of the Mount Evans Scenic Byway is part of a larger story of the Denver Mountain Parks system. It began when the City and County of Denver initiated the construction of a series of automobile "scenic loops" to allow Denverites to explore the mountains.
One road circuit, Circle G, was to traverse the ridge to Squaw Pass on to Echo Lake, culminate in a climb up Mt. Evans, loop down to Idaho Springs. In order to achieve this goal, Denver Mountain Parks acquired a series of land parcels, including the acquisition of Bergen Park in 1915; the Bear Creek segment from the Genesee saddle to Bergen Park was finished in 1915, while the Denver Mountain Parks committee worked to make Mt. Evans a National Park, going as far as getting support in Congress for the construction of a "cement road" to the mountain; the first mile was paid for by Denver with the understanding that the State Highway Commission would do the rest. The Denver Mountain Parks committee was not without disagreement and setbacks, however. $30,000
Mount Sanford (Alaska)
Mount Sanford is a shield volcano in the Wrangell Volcanic Field, in eastern Alaska near the Copper River. It is the sixth highest mountain in the United States and the third highest volcano behind Mount Bona and Mount Blackburn; the south face of the volcano, at the head of the Sanford Glacier, rises 8,000 feet in 1 mile resulting in one of the steepest gradients in North America. Mount Sanford is composed of andesite, is an ancient peak, being Pleistocene, although some of the upper parts of the mountain may be Holocene; the mountain first began developing 900,000 years ago, when it began growing on top of three smaller shield volcanoes that had coalesced. Although obscured by icefields, the uppermost 2,000 feet of the mountain appear to be a lava dome filling a larger summit crater. Two notable events in the mountain's history include a large rhyolite flow which traveled some 11 miles to the north east of the peak and has a volume of about 5 cubic miles, another flow which erupted from a rift zone on the flank of the volcano some 320,000 years ago.
The second flow marks the most recent activity of the volcano. The flow was dated using radiometric methods. Observers have reported minor activity at Sanford vapor clouds or plumes from ice and rockfalls; some reported incidents may have been orographic clouds, while others have been interpreted as avalanches. The majority of Mount Sanford above 8,000 feet is covered by icefields, merging to the south with that surrounding Mount Wrangell; the largest glacier on Sanford is the Sanford Glacier, whose source lies at the steep cirque that cuts into the south side of the mountain. The mountain was named in 1885 by Lieutenant Henry T. Allen of the U. S. Army, a descendant of Reuben Sanford. Mount Sanford was first climbed on July 21, 1938 by noted mountaineers Terris Moore and Bradford Washburn, via the still standard North Ramp route up the Sheep Glacier; this route "offers little technical difficulty" and "is a glacier hike all the way to the summit" but is still a serious mountaineering challenge due to the altitude and latitude of the peak.
The base of the route is accessed by air, but landing near the mountain is not straightforward. On March 12, 1948, Northwest Airlines Flight 4422 crashed into Mount Sanford. All 24 passengers and 6 crew members were killed; the wreckage was covered by snow and was not found again until 1999. The first solo ascent of Sanford was achieved on September 19, 1968, by Japanese mountaineer Naomi Uemura, who died just after making the first solo winter ascent of Denali. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States Richter, Donald H.. Guide to the Volcanoes of the Western Wrangell Mountains, Alaska. USGS Bulletin 2072. Richter, Donald H.. Geologic Map of the Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. USGS Scientific Investigations Map 2877.
Winkler, Gary R.. A Geologic Guide to Wrangell—Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Tectonic Collage of Northbound Terranes. USGS Professional Paper 1616. ISBN 0-607-92676-7. Wood, Charles A.. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43811-X. Mount Sanford at the Alaska Volcano Observatory"Sanford Trip Report". Mt. Sanford Expedition via the Sheep Glacier, 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-14
Mount Antero is the highest summit of the southern Sawatch Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The prominent 14,276-foot fourteener is located in San Isabel National Forest, 12.2 miles southwest by south of the Town of Buena Vista in Chaffee County, United States. The mountain is named in honor of Chief Antero of the Uintah band of the Ute people. Mount Antero is prized for its gemstone deposits and has one of the highest concentrations of aquamarine in the country. There are several active private mining claims being exploited on Mount Antero and surrounding peaks; the peak is located due south of the more visually prominent Mount Princeton. Mount Antero is one of the most prominent peaks of the Sawatch Range, rising an impressive 7,200 feet above the town of Salida, Colorado to the southeast. There are two popular climbing routes on Mount Antero; the accepted hiking route is from the east starting at the Browns Creek Trailhead and paralleling Little Browns Creek to its upper reaches where it crosses Forest Road 1A following the road near to the summit.
The other route, which begins near the ghost town of St. Elmo, follows the same forest road from the north up Baldwin Creek; this route has heavy tourist traffic in fair weather during the summer months. The peak was surveyed by the Pike Expedition in 1806. A forest service sign at the Browns Creek trailhead commemorates the expedition camp at the eastern base of the peak. On July 20, 2018, 5-time World Champion Joseph Gray ran the fastest known time up Mount Antero from the bottom of FS road 277 to the top of Mount Antero in 1:23:10, he used a running power meter during the attempt. Antero Peak Mount Antero List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado fourteeners San Isabel National Forest Map, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Mount Antero at 14ers.com Mount Antero at Colorado Fourteeners Initiative Mount Antero at Distantpeak.com Mount Antero at ListsofJohn.com Mount Antero at Peakbagger.com Mount Antero at Peakery.com Mount Antero at USDA Forest Service Various Photos of Mt. Antero Video of Mount Antero
Nevado de Toluca
Nevado de Toluca is a stratovolcano in central Mexico, located about 80 kilometres west of Mexico City near the city of Toluca. It is cited as the fourth highest of Mexico's peaks, after Pico de Orizaba, Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl, although by some measurements, Sierra Negra is higher; the volcano and the area around it is now a national park. It is called by the Nahuatl name Xinantecatl, translated as The Naked Lord, Señor Desnudo in Spanish, although other etymologies have been suggested such as "Lord of the Corn Stalks", Tzinacantecatl or Zinacantepec. Further evidence regarding the etymologies of this mountain has surfaced after many archeology discoveries in and around the area, it has been concluded that its correct etymology is Chicnauhtecatl meaning "nine lakes" as the top of the cone has various deep lakes. The volcano has a 1.5-kilometre wide summit caldera, open to the east. The highest summit, 4,680-metre Pico del Fraile, is on the southwest side of the crater and the second highest, 4,640-metre Pico del Aguila, is on the northwest.
There are two crater lakes on the floor of the basin at about 4,200 m, the larger Lago del Sol and the smaller, but deeper, Lago de la Luna. A road ran into the caldera to the lakes, but is now gated 2 km before the lakes. From the southeast, Nevado de Toluca looks like shoulders without a head. A Nahuatl legend provides a mythical explanation, it is believed that Nevado de Toluca may once have been as tall as Popocatépetl, until an enormous eruption nearly 25,000 years ago blasted the top of the cone off and reduced its height by as much as 900 m. The same eruption generated mudflows, which coated the sides of the mountains. An eruption 500 years deposited layers of pumice on the mountain's east and northeast slopes; the last major eruption of Nevado de Toluca occurred about 10,500 years ago, as the volcano erupted a total estimated volume of 14 km3 for a VEI strength of 6. The eruption emplaced 1.5 m of pebble-sized pumice in the City of Toluca region and ~50 cm of medium to fine sand in the Mexico City region.
Distal lahar deposits derived from the Upper Toluca Pumice event incorporated mammoth bones and other mammals in the basin of Mexico. The volcano became inactive after a volcanic plug formed in the volcano's vent; the plug became known as El Ombligo. Near the summit, Nevado de Toluca has a cold alpine climate with cold temperatures year round. There is little variation in the temperatures and frost and snow can occur in any month; the dry season covers from November to March and precipitation is low, averaging 12.4 millimetres in March, the driest month. Temperatures during this time are cold; the wet season spans from May to October and precipitation is high, averaging 243.5 millimetres in July. The summit is foggy, averaging 110 days with fog, most of it during the rainy season; the wettest record month was July 2008 when 513.5 millimetres of precipitation fell and the wettest recorded day was July 16, 1999 when 90.5 millimetres of precipitation fell. The highest temperature recorded was 23 °C on August 16, 1993 and the lowest temperature recorded was −10 °C on February 2, 2004.
There are 18 registered archeological sites in the park, as this was a ritual center during pre-Hispanic periods. Bernardino de Sahagún wrote about the lakes as a place where the indigenous held ceremonies and sacrifices; the lakes themselves are considered to be two sites, as a large number of offerings copal, were deposited in the lakes. These deposits can be found all over the lakebed as the burning copal was set adrift on the lakes’ waters until it sank. Other objects have been found such as sculpted stones. Divers used to sack many of the pieces found here but now authorities monitor those who dive. Most of the other sites are found on the crater's peaks. One of the sites is called Xicotepec, at the top of a rocky dome known as the Cerro de Ombligo. Principally green obsidian blades and multicolored ceramic has been found here. On the north side of the crater is Pico Sahagun, with ceramic pieces, Picos Heilprin North and South in which various types of objects have been found, El Mirador, thought to be related the marking of the zenith of the sun.
A stele found. The site at the highest altitude is Pico Noreste at 4,130 meters above sea level, it is a small platform with drainage on, found deteriorated ceramic pieces. On the west side is the Cerro Prieto Cave, a rock shelter, more than 60 meters high. Not only does it contain evidence of pre-Hispanic visits but has been a shrine to the Archangel Michael since the colonial period. There have been intermittent archeological excavations here with the most recent occurring in 2010 sponsored by INAH which found artifacts dating from the Epi-Classic and Post-Classic periods and showed that the crater was a meeting place for astronomer priests to predict the growing season. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Mexico List of volcanoes in Mexico List of Ultras of Mexico Nevado de Toluca National Park Arqueologia Mexicana Global Volcanism Program: Nevado de Toluca Arce, J. L..
Crestone Peak is the seventh-highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14,300-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Crestones and the second-highest summit in the Sangre de Cristo Range after Blanca Peak; the summit is located in the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness of Rio Grande National Forest, 5.0 miles east by south of the Town of Crestone in Saguache County, United States. Crestone Peak rises 7,000 feet above the east side of the San Luis Valley, it shares its name with another fourteener of the Crestones. The Crestones are a cluster of high summits in the Sangre de Cristo Range, comprising Crestone Peak, Crestone Needle, Kit Carson Peak, Challenger Point, Humboldt Peak, Columbia Point, they are accessed from common trailheads. Climbs of Crestone Peak or Crestone Needle start from a base camp at South Colony Lakes, east of the peak, accessed from the Wet Mountain Valley on the northeast side of the range; this route involves nearly 6,000 ft of elevation gain, ascends to a large flat area called "The Pool Table" or the "Bears' Playground."
It ascends a long gully on the northwest side of Crestone Peak, which involves some rockfall danger. Crestone Peak is one of the more dangerous fourteener. Alternatively, the Cottonwood Creek route begins in the San Luis Valley and approaches the Crestones from the west; the route follows Cottonwood Creek to Cottonwood Lake. The trail starts out well defined, but after passing a south eastern tributary at 11,1000ft it becomes faint, poorly maintained, hard to follow for much of the upper route prior to rejoining the standard route from South Colony Lakes. From there, the South Face route of Crestone Peak is accessible. From Crestone Peak, it is a mildly technical ridge scramble to the summit of Crestone Needle in the other direction. However, Crestone Peak and Crestone Needle are more climbed separately. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners Crestone Peak statistics at 14ers.com
Popocatépetl is an active stratovolcano, located in the states of Puebla and Morelos, in central Mexico, lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. At 5,426 m it is the second highest peak in Mexico, after Citlaltépetl at 5,636 m, it is linked to the Iztaccihuatl volcano to the north by the high saddle known as the Paso de Cortés. Popocatépetl is 70 km southeast of Mexico City, from where it can be seen depending on atmospheric conditions; until the volcano was one of three tall peaks in Mexico to contain glaciers, the others being Iztaccihuatl and Pico de Orizaba. In the 1990s, the glaciers such as Glaciar Norte decreased in size due to warmer temperatures but due to increased volcanic activity. By early 2001, Popocatépetl's glaciers were gone. Lava erupting from Popocatépetl has been predominantly andesitic, but it has erupted large volumes of dacite. Magma produced in the current cycle of activity tends to be a mixture of the two; the name Popocatépetl comes from the Nahuatl words popōca "it smokes" and tepētl "mountain", meaning Smoking Mountain.
The volcano is referred to by Mexicans as El Popo. The alternate nickname Don Goyo comes from the mountain's association in the lore of the region with, "Goyo" being a nickname-like short form of Gregorio; the stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 m × 600 m wide crater. The symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano; the modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. According to paleomagnetic studies, the volcano is about 730,000 years old, it is cone shaped with a diameter of 25 km with a peak elevation of 5,450 m.
The crater is elliptical with an orientation northeast-southwest. The walls of the crater vary from 600 to 840 m in height. Popocatépetl is active after being dormant for about half of last century, its activity increased in 1991 and smoke has been seen emanating from the crater since 1993. The volcano is monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project; the geological history of Popocatépetl began with the formation of the ancestral volcano Nexpayantla. About 200,000 years ago, Nexpayantly collapsed in an eruption, leaving a caldera, in which the next volcano, known as El Fraile, began to form. Another eruption about 50,000 years ago caused that to collapse, Popocatépetl rose from that. Around 23,000 years ago, a lateral eruption destroyed the volcano's ancient cone and created an avalanche that reached up to 70 kilometres from the summit; the debris field from, one of four around the volcano, it is the youngest. Three Plinian eruptions are known to have taken place: 3,000 years ago, 2,150 years ago, 1,100 years ago.
The latter two buried the nearby village of Tetimpa. The first known ascent of the volcano was made by an expedition led by Diego de Ordaz in 1519; the early-16th-century monasteries on the slopes of the mountain are a World Heritage Site. Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and the most famous, having had more than 15 major eruptions since the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. Timeline: Mid-to late first century: A violent VEI-6 eruption may have caused the large migrations that settled Teotihuacan, according to DNA analysis of teeth and bones. Eruptions were observed in 1363, 1509, 1512, 1519–1528, 1530, 1539, 1540, 1548, 1562–1570, 1571, 1592, 1642, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1697, 1720, 1802, 1919, 1923, 1925, 1933. 1947: A major eruption. 21 December 1994: The volcano spewed gas and ash, carried as far as 25 km away by prevailing winds. The activity prompted the evacuation of nearby towns and scientists to begin monitoring for an eruption. December 2000: Tens of thousands of people were evacuated by the government, based on the warnings of scientists.
The volcano made its largest display in 1,200 years. 25 December 2005: The volcano's crater produced an explosion which ejected a large column of smoke and ash about 3 km into the atmosphere and expulsion of lava. January and February 2012: Scientists observed increased volcanic activity at Popocatépetl. On January 25, 2012, an ash explosion occurred on the mountain, causing much dust and ash to contaminate the atmosphere around it. 15 April 2012: Reports of superheated rock fragments being hurled into the air by the volcano. Ash and water vapor plumes were reported 15 times over 24 hours. Wednesday 8 May 2013, at 7:28 p.m. local time: Popocatépetl erupted again with a high amplitude tremor that lasted and was recorded for 3.5 hours. It began with plumes of ash that rose 3 km into the air and began drifting west at first, but began to drift east-southeast, covering areas of the villages of San Juan Tianguismanalco, San Pedro Benito Juárez and the City of Puebla in smoke and ash. Explosions from the