The Hopi are a Native American tribe recognized for populating the North American continent and in particular, Arizona. As of the 2010 census, there are 19,338 Hopi in the United States; the Hopi language is one of 30 in the Uto-Aztecan language family. The majority of Hopi people are enrolled in the Hopi Tribe of Arizona but some are enrolled in the Colorado River Indian Tribes; the Hopi Reservation covers a land area of 2,531.773 sq mi. The Hopi encountered Spaniards in the 16th century, are referred to as Pueblo people, because they lived in villages; the Hopi are descended from the Ancient Pueblo Peoples, who constructed large apartment-house complexes and had an advanced culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, southwestern Colorado. They lived along the Mogollon Rim from the 12th–14th century, when they disappeared; the name Hopi is a shortened form of Hopituh Shi-nu-mu. The Hopi Dictionary gives the primary meaning of the word "Hopi" as: "behaving one, one, mannered, peaceable, who adheres to the Hopi Way.
In contrast to warring tribes that subsist on plunder."Hopi is a concept rooted in the culture's religion and its view of morality and ethics. To be Hopi is to strive toward this concept, which involves a state of total reverence and respect for all things, to be at peace with these things, to live in accordance with the instructions of Maasaw, the Creator or Caretaker of Earth; the Hopi observe their traditional ceremonies for the benefit of the entire world. Traditionally, Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans; the children are born into the same clan structure as the mother. These clan organizations extend across all villages. Children are named by the women of the father's clan. After the child is introduced to the Sun, the women of the paternal clan gather, name the child in honor of the father's clan. Children can be given over forty names; the village members decide the common name. Current practice is to either use the parent's chosen Hopi name. A person may change the name upon initiation to traditional religious societies, or a major life event.
The Hopi have always viewed their land as sacred. Agriculture is a important part of their culture, their villages are spread out across the northwestern part of Arizona; the Hopi did not have a conception of land being divided. The Hopi people settled on the high mesas both for protection, irrigation in these areas; the Hopi are caretakers of the land. On December 16, 1882, President Chester A. Arthur passed an executive order creating a reservation for the Hopi, it was smaller than the surrounding land, annexed by the Navajo reservation, the largest in the country. On October 24, 1936, the Hopi people ratified a Constitution; that Constitution created a unicameral government. While there is an executive branch and judicial branch, their powers are limited under the Hopi Constitution; the traditional powers and authority of the Hopi Villages were preserved in the 1936 Constitution. Today, the Hopi Reservation is surrounded by the much larger Navajo Reservation; the two nations used to share the Navajo -- Hopi Joint Use Area.
The partition of this area known as Big Mountain, by Acts of Congress in 1974 and 1996, has resulted in long-term controversy. Old Oraibi is one of four original Hopi villages, one of the oldest continuously inhabited villages within the territory of the United States. In the 1540s the village was recorded as having 1,500–3,000 residents; the first recorded European contact with the Hopi was by the Spanish in A. D 1540. Spanish General Francisco Vásquez de Coronado went to North America to explore the land. While at the Zuni villages, he learned of the Hopi tribe. Coronado dispatched other members of their party to find the Hopi villages; the Spanish wrote. They noted that there were about 16,000 Zuni people. A few years the Spanish explorer García López de Cárdenas investigated the Rio Grande and met the Hopi, they warmly directed him on his journey. In 1582–1583 the Hopi were visited by Antonio de Espejo’s expedition, he noted that there were around 12,000 Hopi people. During that period the Spanish explored and colonized the southwestern region of the New World, but never sent many forces or settlers to the Hopi country.
Their visits to the Hopi spread out over many years. Many times the visits were from military explorations; the Spanish colonized near the Rio Grande and, because the Hopi did not live near rivers that gave access to the Rio Grande, the Spanish never left any troops on their land. The Spanish were accompanied by Catholic friars. Beginning in 1629, with the arrival of 30 friars in Hopi country, the Franciscan Period started; the Franciscans had missionaries built a church at Awatovi. Spanish Roman Catholic priests were only marginally successful in converting the Hopi and persecuted them in a draconian manner for adhering to Hopi religious practices; the Spanish occupiers in effect enslaved the Hopi populace, compelling them to endure forced labor and hand over goods and crops. Spanish oppression and attempts to convert the Hopi caused the Hopi over time to become increasing
Acoma Pueblo is a Native American pueblo 60 miles west of Albuquerque, New Mexico in the United States. Four villages make up Acoma Pueblo: Sky City, Anzac, McCartys; the Acoma Pueblo tribe is a federally recognized tribal entity. The historical land of Acoma Pueblo totaled 5,000,000 acres; the community retains only 10 % of this land. Acoma Pueblo is a National Historic Landmark. According to the 2010 United States Census, 4,989 people identified as Acoma; the Acoma have continuously occupied the area for over 2000 years, making this one of the oldest continuously inhabited communities in the United States. Acoma tribal traditions estimate that they have lived in the village for more than two thousand years; the English name Acoma was borrowed from Spanish Acóma. The Spanish name was borrowed from the Acoma word ʔáák’u̓u̓m̓é meaning'person from Acoma Pueblo'. ʔáák' u̓u̓m̓é. The name does not have any meaning in the modern Acoma language; some tribal authorities connect it to the similar word háák’u'preparedness, place of preparedness' and suggest that this might be the origin of the name.
The name does not mean'sky city'. Other tribal elders assert that it means'place that always was' while outsiders say it means'people of the white rock'. Acoma has been spelled in various other ways in historical documents. Ákuma, ákomage, Acux, Hacús, Vsacus, Acco, Acogiya, Coco, Akome, Ako, A’ku-me. The Spanish mission name was San Esteban de Acoma. Pueblo is the Spanish word for'village' or'small town'. In general usage, it is applied both to the people and to the unique architecture of the southwestern native tribes; the Acoma are called ʔáák’u in Western Keresan, Hakukya in Zuni, Haak’oh in Navajo. The Acoma language is classified in the western division of the Keresan languages. In contemporary Acoma Pueblo culture, most people speak both English. Elders were forced to speak Spanish. Pueblo people are believed to have descended from the Anasazi and other ancient peoples; these influences are seen in the architecture, farming style, artistry of the Acoma. In the 13th century, the Anasazi abandoned their canyon homelands due to climate change and social upheaval.
For upwards of two centuries, migrations occurred in the area. The Acoma Pueblo emerged by the thirteenth century. However, the Acoma themselves say the Sky City Pueblo was established in the 11th century, with brick buildings as early as 1144 on the Mesa indicating as such due to their unique lack of Adobe in their construction proving their antiquity; this early founding date makes Acoma Pueblo one of the earliest continuously inhabited communities in the United States. The Pueblo is situated on a 365-foot mesa, about 60 miles west of New Mexico; the isolation and location of the Pueblo has sheltered the community for more than 1,200 years. They sought to avoid conflict with the neighboring Apache peoples; the first mention of Acoma was in 1539. Estevanico, a slave, was the first non-Indian to visit Acoma and reported it to Marcos de Niza, who related the information to the viceroy of New Spain after the end of his expedition. Acoma was called the independent Kingdom of Hacus, he called the Acoma people encaconados, which meant that they had turquoise hanging from their ears and noses.
Captain Hernando de Alvarado of conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's expedition described the Pueblo in 1540 as "a strange place built upon solid rock" and "one of the strongest places we have seen." Upon visiting the Pueblo, the expedition "repented having gone up to the place." Further from Alvarado's report: These people were robbers, feared by the whole country round about. The village was strong, because it was up on a rock out of reach, having steep sides in every direction... There was only one entrance by a stairway built by hand... There was a broad stairway of about 200 steps a stretch of about 100 narrower steps and at the top they had to go up about three times as high as a man by means of holes in the rock, in which they put the points of their feet, holding on at the same time by their hands. There was a wall of large and small stones at the top, which they could roll down without showing themselves, so that no army could be strong enough to capture the village. On the top they had room to sow and store a large amount of corn, cisterns to collect snow and water.
It is believed. Alvarado reported that first the Acoma refused entry after persuasions but after Alvarado showed threats of an attack the Acoma guards welcomed the Spaniards peacefully noting that they and their horses were tired; the encounter shows that the Acoma had clothing made of deerskin and woven cotton as well as turquoise jewelry, domestic turkeys, pine nuts, maize. The village seemed to contain about 200 men. Acoma was next visited by the Spanish 40 years in 1581 by Fray Agustín Rodríguez and Francisco Sánchez Chamuscado with 12 soldiers, 3 other friars, 13 others including Indian servants; the Acoma at this time were reported to be somewhat fearful. This response may have been due to the knowledge of the Spanish enslavement of other Indians to work in silver mines in the area; however the Rodríguez and Chamuscado party convinced them to trade goods for food. The Spaniard reports say the pueblo had about 500 houses of either four stories high. In 1582, Acoma was visited agai
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Laguna Pueblo is a federally recognized tribe of Native American Pueblo people in west-central New Mexico, USA. The name, derives from the lake located on their reservation; this body of water was the only lake in what is now the state of New Mexico, was formed by an ancient dam, constructed by the Laguna people. After the Pueblo Revolt of 1680-1696, the Mission San José de la Laguna was erected by the Spanish at the old pueblo, finished around July 4, 1699, their reservation lies in parts of four counties: In descending order of included land area they are Cibola, Sandoval and Bernalillo Counties. It includes the six villages of Encinal, Mesita, Paguate and Seama; the reservation is 45 miles west of the city of Albuquerque. The reservation consists of 500,000 acres; the Laguna Pueblo lie in the river basin of the Rio San Jose. The laguna or lake was much larger than the present time and hosted waterfowl of many kinds, including ducks and swans; the Rio San Jose flows into the Rio Puerco near the southeast corner of the Laguna Reservation.
On the 2010 census 6,758 people in the U. S. reported being Laguna and 8,358 people reported being Laguna either or in combination with another group. The State of New Mexico says the population is 7,700; the people of Laguna have a long history of residing in and farming along the Rio San José in west-central New Mexico. Laguna history begins long before the advent of written records in the Southwest, it is a common misconception that the Pueblo of Laguna began in 1699, at the time of the construction of the Mission. However, research of 1,449 archaeological sites and an anthropological analysis of the Laguna oral history have proven that people have inhabited the area ranging from 6500 B. C. to the present. The Acoma Pueblo and Pueblo of Laguna have many ties, including location, language and a shared high school; the Pueblo of Laguna has a well-established Tribal Law system. The Pueblo of Laguna has participated as a "Seed" tribe; this Department of Justice program studied the enforcement of law and effectiveness of social programs on Native American lands.
The Irish surname Riley was adopted by many members of the Laguna tribe in the 1800s, for legal use in European-American culture, while they retained their Laguna names for tribal use. Primary and middle school education is provided by the Laguna Department of Education, which operates Early Childhood program and adult education programs; the high school is shared with nearby Acoma Pueblo. Lagunas value intellectual activity and education, so a scholarship program has led to many well-educated Lagunas. Uranium mining on Pueblo of Laguna land has contributed to this scholarship program as well as to skilled labor learning among Laguna members. Lagunas and other Pueblos enjoy baseball. Like many Pueblos, the Laguna people are skilled in pottery. Lagunas traditionally speak the Western variety of Keresan; the Laguna Development Corporation. Laguna Development is a federally chartered tribal corporation formed under Section 17 of the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act; the company develops and operates the tribe's retail-based outlets, including two travel centers, a supermarket, a convenience store, an RV park, an arcade, a Superette and three casinos on the Pueblo of Laguna reservation that spans Cibola County, Bernalillo and Sandoval counties.
Laguna Construction Company, a construction company owned by the Pueblo of Laguna, was one of the largest U. S. contractors in Iraq, with reconstruction contracts worth more than $300 million since 2004. In addition to its headquarters at the pueblo, Laguna Industries, Inc. maintains offices in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In 2007, Laguna Construction employed 75 people. Several Laguna Pueblo businesses are along tourist and truck route corridors that attract New Mexico tourists, long- and short-haul truck drivers, residents of nearby Albuquerque. Other Laguna Development businesses provide basic services to local tribal communities. Frank Hudson, football player, coach Michael Kanteena, potter Lee Marmon, photographer Leslie Marmon Silko, author Paula Gunn Allen, author and scholar Deb Haaland, U. S. Representative, former chair of the Democratic Party of New Mexico, nominee for lieutenant governor in 2014 Laguna, New Mexico – Laguna Pueblo community and historic adobe pueblo. Anaconda, New Mexico Anton Docher "The Padre of Isleta" – served as a priest at Laguna Pueblo during his long period in Isleta Pueblo.
Keresan languages Pueblo people National Register of Historic Places listings in Cibola County, New Mexico Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Laguna Pueblo and Off-Reservation Trust Land, New Mexico United States Census Bureau Notable Native Americans Keleher, Julia M.. The Padre of Isleta: The Story of Father Anton Docher. Sunstone press Publishing. ISBN 978-0-86534-714-4. Official Pueblo of Laguna website Pueblo of Laguna Website Laguna Public Library Library of Congress: Laguna Pueblo gallery – historic photographs of Pueblo of Laguna. HABS: San Jose de la Laguna Mission Church & Convento gallery – historic photos from the federal HABS—Historic American Buildings Survey project
Cibola County, New Mexico
Cibola County is a county in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,213, its county seat is Grants. It is New Mexico's youngest county, the third youngest county in the United States, created on June 19, 1981, from the westernmost four-fifths of the much larger Valencia County. Cibola County comprises the Grants, NM Micropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Albuquerque-Santa Fe-Las Vegas, NM Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,542 square miles, of which 4,539 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. McKinley County - north Sandoval County - northeast Bernalillo County - east Valencia County - east Socorro County - southeast Catron County - south Apache County, Arizona - west Cibola National Forest El Malpais National Conservation Area El Malpais National Monument El Morro National Monument As of the 2000 census, there were 25,595 people, 8,327 households, 6,278 families residing in the county.
The population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 10,328 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 39.61% White, 0.96% Black or African American, 40.32% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 15.44% from other races, 3.24% from two or more races. 33.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,327 households out of which 38.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.60% were married couples living together, 18.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 21.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.41. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.70% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 10.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years.
For every 100 females there were 95.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,774, the median income for a family was $30,714. Males had a median income of $27,652 versus $20,078 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,731. About 21.50% of families and 24.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.00% of those under age 18 and 17.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 27,213 people, 8,860 households, 6,274 families residing in the county; the population density was 6.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,101 housing units at an average density of 2.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 41.8% white, 41.0% American Indian, 1.0% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 12.4% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 36.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 5.4% were Irish, 1.5% were American.
Of the 8,860 households, 38.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 20.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families, 24.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.30. The median age was 36.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,361 and the median income for a family was $41,187. Males had a median income of $36,027 versus $25,318 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,712. About 20.1% of families and 24.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.7% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over. All public schools in the county are operated by Grants/Cibola County Schools. Cibola County is home to three prisons: the Cibola County Correctional Center, operated by Corrections Corporation of America, housing 1129 federal inmates under a contract with the Federal Bureau of Prisons and the United States Marshal Service the New Mexico Women's Correctional Facility, run by CCA for the state of New Mexico, Western New Mexico Correctional Facility and operated by the state, with about 440 male inmatesIn November 2018, following a private autopsy, a unit of the Cibola County Correctional Center was named in the abuse and wrongful death on May 25, 2018 of Roxsana Hernández Rodriguez.
Rodriguez was a 33yo transgender immigrant from Honduras. The CCCC is operated under contract by CoreCivic. Grants Milan National Register of Historic Places listings in Cibola County, New Mexico Specific GeneralCounty status and boundary changes United States Census Bureau Baldwin, J. A. and D. R. Rankin.. Hydrogeology of Cibola County, New Mexico. Albuquerque: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Maxwell, C. H.. Mineral resources of the Petaca Pinta wilderness study area, Cibola County, New Mexico. Denver: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Media related to Cibola County, New Mexico at Wikimedia Commons
The canvasback is a species of diving duck, the largest found in North America. It ranges from 48–56 cm in length and weighs 862–1,600 g, with a wingspan of 79–89 cm, it is the largest species in the genus Aythya, being similar in size to a mallard but with a heavier and more compact build than it. 191 males wintering in western New York 54 females there averaged 1,154 g. The canvasback has long graceful neck; the adult male has a black bill, a chestnut red head and neck, a black breast, a grayish back, black rump, a blackish brown tail. The drake's sides and belly are white with fine vermiculation resembling the weave of a canvas, which gave rise to the bird's common name; the bill is blackish and the legs and feet are bluish-gray. The iris is duller in the winter; the adult female has a black bill, a light brown head and neck, grading into a darker brown chest and foreback. The sides and back are grayish brown; the bill is blackish and the legs and feet are bluish-gray. Its sloping profile distinguishes it from other ducks.
The genus name is derived from Greek aithuia, an unidentified seabird mentioned by authors, including Hesychius and Aristotle. The species name valisineria comes from the wild celery Vallisneria americana, whose winter buds and rhizomes are the canvasback's preferred food during the nonbreeding period; the celery genus is itself named for seventeenth century Italian botanist Antonio Vallisneri. The duck's common name is based on early European inhabitants of North America's assertion that its back was a canvas-like color. In other languages it is just a white-backed duck. In Mexico it is called pato coacoxtle; the breeding habitat of the canvasback is in North America prairie potholes. The bulky nest is lined with down. Loss of nesting habitat has caused populations to decline; the canvasback takes a new mate each year, pairing in late winter on ocean bays. It prefers to nest over water on permanent prairie marshes surrounded by emergent vegetation, such as cattails and bulrushes, which provide protective cover.
Other important breeding areas are the subarctic river deltas in Saskatchewan and the interior of Alaska. It has a clutch size of 5–11 eggs, which are greenish drab; the chicks are covered in down at able to leave the nest soon after. The canvasback sometimes lays its eggs in other canvasback nests and redheads parasitize canvasback nests; the canvasback migrates through the Mississippi Flyway to wintering grounds in the mid-Atlantic United States and the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, or the Pacific Flyway to wintering grounds along the coast of California. The Chesapeake Bay wintered the majority of canvasbacks, but with the recent loss of submerged aquatic vegetation in the bay, their range has shifted south towards the LMAV. Brackish estuarine bays and marshes with abundant submergent vegetation and invertebrates are ideal wintering habitat for canvasbacks. A small number of birds are known to have crossed the Atlantic, with several sightings being recorded in the United Kingdom. In December 1996, a canvasback was observed in a quarry in Kent, followed by an additional sighting in Norfolk in January 1997.
At least five more sightings have since been confirmed in England. The canvasback feeds by diving, sometimes dabbling eating seeds, leaves, roots and insect larvae. Besides its namesake, wild celery, the canvasback shows a preference for the tubers of sago pondweed, which can make up 100% of its diet at times; the canvasback has large webbed feet adapted for diving and its bill helps it dig tubers from the substrate. In the late 1930s, studies showed that four-fifths of the food eaten by canvasbacks was plant material. Wild canvasback was a popular table delicacy in fashionable society in the nineteenth century. In the early 1950s it was estimated that there were 225,000 canvasbacks wintering in the Chesapeake Bay. By 1985, there were only 50,000 ducks wintering one-tenth of the population. Canvasbacks were extensively hunted around the start of the 20th century, but federal hunting regulations now restrict their harvest, so hunting is ruled out as a cause for the decline. Scientists have now concluded that the decline in duck populations was due to the decline in SAV acreage.
Today the population has stabilized and is increasing although it is nowhere near previous levels. Studies have now shown that by the 1970s four-fifths of the ducks' diet was made up of Baltic Clams, which are common in the Chesapeake Bay: the ducks have been able to adapt to the decline in SAV by changing their diet. Redheads, which feed on SAV tubers, have not been able to adapt, their population remains low. Populations have fluctuated widely. Low levels in 1980s put the canvasback on lists of special concern, but numbers increased in the 1990s; the canvasback is vulnerable to drought and wetland drainage on the prairies of North America. Many species of ducks, including the canvasback, are migratory, but are conserved by protecting the places where they nest though they may be hunted away from their breeding grounds. Protecting key feeding and breeding grounds is key for conserving many types of migratory birds. Canvasback - Aythya valisineria - USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter "Canvasback media".
Internet Bird Collection. Canvasback photo gallery at VIREO Intera
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh