Iztaccíhuatl, is a 5,230 m dormant volcanic mountain in Mexico located on the border between the State of Mexico and Puebla. It is the nation's third highest, after Popocatépetl 5,426 m; the name "Iztaccíhuatl" is Nahuatl for "White woman", reflecting the four individual snow-capped peaks which depict the head, chest and feet of a sleeping female when seen from east or west. Iztaccíhuatl is to the north of Popocatépetl, to which it is connected by the high altitude Paso de Cortés. Depending on atmospheric conditions Iztaccíhuatl is visible much of the year from Mexico City some 70 km to the northwest; the first recorded ascent was made in 1889, though archaeological evidence suggests the Aztecs and previous cultures climbed it previously. It is the lowest peak containing permanent snow and glaciers in Mexico; the summit ridge of the massive 450 km3 volcano is a series of overlapping cones constructed along a NNW-SSE line to the south of the Pleistocene Llano Grande caldera. There have been andesitic and dacitic Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions from vents at or near the summit.
Areas near the El Pecho summit vent are covered in flows and tuff beds post-dating glaciation 11,000 years ago. The most recent vents are at El Pecho and a depression at 5,100 m along the summit ridge midway between El Pecho and Los Pies. In Aztec mythology, Iztaccíhuatl was a princess who fell in love with one of her father's warriors, Popocatépetl; the emperor sent Popocatépetl to war in Oaxaca, promising him Iztaccíhuatl as his wife when he returned. Iztaccíhuatl was falsely told that Popocatépetl had died in battle, believing the news, she died of grief; when Popocatépetl returned to find his love dead, he took her body to a spot outside Tenochtitlan and kneeled by her grave. The gods changed them into mountains. Iztaccíhuatl's mountain is called "White Woman" because it resembles a woman lying on her back, is covered with snow — the peak is sometimes nicknamed La Mujer Dormida, "The Sleeping Woman". Popocatépetl became an active volcano, raining fire on Earth in blind rage at the loss of his beloved.
Iztaccihuatl is listed at 5,286 m. SRTM data and the Mexican national mapping survey assert that a range of 5,220 to 5,230 m is more accurate; the Global Volcanism Program cites 5,230 m. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Mexico List of volcanoes in Mexico List of Ultras of Mexico Iztaccíhuatl - Volcano World Iztaccíhuatl - Ski Mountaineer Iztaccíhuatl - Peakware World Mountain Encyclopedia Iztaccíhuatl - Stamps Legend of The Sleeping Lady and Smoking Mountain
Southeast Alaska, sometimes referred to as the Alaska Panhandle, is the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Alaska, bordered to the east by the northern half of the Canadian province of British Columbia. The majority of Southeast Alaska's area is part of the Tongass National Forest, the United States' largest national forest. In many places, the international border runs along the crest of the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains; the region is noted for mild rainy climate. The largest cities in the region are Juneau and Ketchikan. Southeast Alaska is the northern terminus of the Inside Passage, a protected waterway of convoluted passages between islands and fjords, beginning in Puget Sound in Washington state; this was an important travel corridor for Tlingit and Haida Native peoples, as well as gold-rush era steamships. In modern times it is an important route for Alaska Marine Highway ferries as well as cruise ships. Southeast Alaska has a land area of 35,138 square miles comprising seven entire boroughs and two census areas, in addition to the portion of the Yakutat Borough lying east of 141° West longitude.
Although it has only 6.14 percent of Alaska's land area, it is larger than the state of Maine, as large as the state of Indiana. The Southeast Alaskan coast is as long as the west coast of Canada; the 2010 census population of Southeast was 71,616 inhabitants, about 45 percent of whom were concentrated in the city of Juneau. Haines Borough Hoonah-Angoon Census Area Juneau Borough Ketchikan Gateway Borough Petersburg Borough Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area Sitka Borough Skagway Borough Wrangell Borough Yakutat Borough It includes the Tongass National Forest, Glacier Bay National Park, Sitka National Historical Park, Alaska's Inside Passage, myriad large and small islands; the largest islands are, from North to South, Chichagof Island, Admiralty Island, Baranof Island, Kupreanof Island, Revillagigedo Island and Prince of Wales Island. Major bodies of water of Southeast Alaska include Glacier Bay, Lynn Canal, Icy Strait, Chatham Strait, Stephens Passage, Frederick Sound, Sumner Strait, Clarence Strait.
On August 20, 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt established the Alexander Archipelago Forest Reserve, which formed the heart of the Tongass National Forest that covers most of the region. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park Sitka National Historical Park Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Admiralty Island National Monument Misty Fjords National Monument Southeast Alaska is a temperate rain forest within the Pacific temperate rain forest zone, as classified by the World Wildlife Fund's ecoregion system, which extends from northern California to Prince William Sound; the most common tree species are western hemlock. Wildlife includes brown bears, black bears, the endemic Alexander Archipelago wolf, Sitka black-tailed deer, humpback whales, five species of salmon, bald eagles, harlequin ducks and marbled murrelets; the Ecological Atlas of Southeast Alaska, published by Audubon Alaska in 2016, offers an overview of the region's landscape, wildlife, human uses, climate change, more, synthesizing data from agencies and a variety of other sources.
Major cities are Juneau and Sitka. Other towns are Petersburg, Metlakatla, Hoonah, Kake, Klawock, Thorne Bay, Yakutat and Gustavus. There are many towns and villages with around 100 people, such as Baranof Warm Springs, Edna Bay, Elfin Cove, Excursion Inlet, Funter Bay, Meyers Chuck, Port Alexander, Port Frederick, Port Protection, Tenakee Springs; this region is home to the easternmost town in Alaska, Hyder. This area is the traditional homeland of the Tlingit, home of a historic settling of Haida as well as a modern settlement of Tsimshian; the region is connected to Seattle and the American Pacific Northwest economically and culturally. Major industries in Southeast Alaska include commercial tourism. Logging has been an important industry in the past, but has been declining with competition from other areas and the closure of the region's major pulp mills, its members include Alcan Forest Products and Viking Lumber, founded in Maine. Debates over whether to expand logging in the federally owned Tongass are not uncommon.
Mining remains important in the northern area with the Juneau mining district and Admiralty mining district hosting active mines as of 2015. Gold played an important part in the early history of the region. In the 2010s, mines begun to be explored and completed in neighboring British Columbia, upstream of important rivers such as the Unuk and the Stikine, which became known as the transboundary mining issue. In 2014, the Mount Polley Mine disaster focused attention on the issue, an agreement between Canada and Alaska was drafted in 2015; the proposed Kerr Sulphurets Mitchell exploration is upstream of the Unuk. Mines upstream of the Stikine include the Red Chris, owned by the same company as the Mount Polley mine; the border between the Canadian province of British Columbia and Alaska was the subject of the Alaska boundary dispute, where the United States and the United Kingdom and Brit
Pico de Orizaba
Pico de Orizaba known as Citlaltépetl, is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America, after Denali of Alaska in the United States and Mount Logan of Canada. It rises 5,636 metres above sea level in the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, on the border between the states of Veracruz and Puebla; the volcano is dormant but not extinct, with the last eruption taking place during the 19th century. It is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Pico de Orizaba overlooks the city of Orizaba, from which it gets its name; the name Citlaltépetl is not used by Nahuatl speakers of the Orizaba area, who instead call it Istaktepetl, or'White Mountain'. Citlaltépetl comes from the Náhuatl citlalli and tepētl and thus means "Star Mountain"; this name is thought to be based on the fact that the snow-covered peak can be seen year round for hundreds of kilometers throughout the region. During the colonial era, the volcano was known as Cerro de San Andrés due to the nearby settlement of San Andrés Chalchicomula at its base.
A third name, which means "the one that colors or illuminates", has been recorded. This name was given by the Tlaxcaltecs in memory of their lost country; the peak of Citlaltépetl rises to an elevation of 5,636 m above sea level. Regionally dominant, Pico de Orizaba is the highest peak in Mexico and the highest volcano in North America. Orizaba is ranked 7th in the world in topographic prominence, it is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro, the volcano is ranked 16th in the world for topographic isolation. About 110 km to the west of the port of Veracruz, its peak is visible to ships approaching the port in the Gulf of Mexico, at dawn rays of sunlight strike the Pico while Veracruz still lies in shadow; the topography of Pico de Orizaba is asymmetrical from the center of the crater. The gradual slopes of the northwestern face of the volcano allows for the presence of large glaciers and is the most traveled route to take for hikers traveling to the summit.
Pico de Orizaba is one of only three volcanoes in México that continue to support glaciers and is home to the largest glacier in Mexico, Gran Glaciar Norte. Orizaba has nine known glaciers: Gran Glaciar Norte, Lengua del Chichimeco, Toro, Glaciar de la Barba, Occidental and Oriental; the equilibrium line altitude is not known for Orizaba. Snow on the south and southeast sides of the volcano melts because of solar radiation, but lower temperatures on the northwest and north sides allow for glaciers; the insolation angle and wind redeposition on the northwest and north sides allow for constant accumulation of snow providing a source for the outlet glaciers. On the north side of Orizaba, the Gran Glaciar Norte fills the elongated highland basin and is the source for seven outlet glaciers; the main glacier extends 3.5 km north of the crater rim, has a surface area of about 9.08 km2 descending from 5,650 m to about 5,000 m. It has a irregular and stepped profile, caused in part by the configuration of the bedrock.
Most crevasses show an ice thickness of 50 m. Below the 5,000 m in elevation on the north side of the volcano, the outlet glaciers Lengua del Chichimeco and Jamapa extend north and northwest another 1.5 km and 2 km, respectively. The terminal lobe of Lengua del Chichimeco at 4,740 m, having a gradient of only 140 m/km, is a low, broad ice fan that has a convex-upward profile, a front typical of all Mexican glaciers; the most distinct glacier is Glaciar de Jamapa, which leaves Gran Glaciar Norte at about 4,975 m and, after 2 km with a gradient of 145 m/km, divides into two small tongues that end at 4,650 m and 4,640 m. Both tongues terminate in broad convex-upward ice fans thinning along their edges; the retreat of these tongues prior to 1994 produced much erosion downstream and buried their edges by ablation rock debris. The west side of Gran Glaciar Norte generates five outlet glaciers. From north to south, the first two, Glaciar del Toro and Glaciar de la Barba, are hanging cliff or icefall glaciers, reaching the tops of giant lava steps at 4,930 m and 5,090 m, respectively.
They descend 200 to 300 m farther down into the heads of stream valleys as huge ice blocks but are not regenerated there. About 1 km, Glaciar Noroccidental, a small outlet glacier 300 m long, drains away from the side of Gran Glaciar Norte at about 5,100 m and draws down the ice surface a few tens of meters over a distance of 500 m, descending to 4,920 m with a gradient of 255 m/km. Another 1 km still farther south, Glaciar Occidental breaks away from Gran Glaciar Norte west of the summit crater at about 5,175 m as a steep, 1 km long glacier having a gradient of 270 m/km that ends at 4,930 m. From the southwest corner of the mountain, another outlet glacier, Glaciar Suroccidental, 1.6 km long, flows from Gran Glaciar Norte at 5,250 m with a gradient of 200 m/km, which en
Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories. It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories. Whitehorse is Yukon's only city. Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory; the federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. Though bilingual, the Yukon government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent. Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by brief warm summers; the Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon River, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers.
The territory is named after the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America; the sites safeguard the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in 800 AD in what is now the U. S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries.
By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897; the increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U. S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of the Yukon River; the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Vuntut National Park in the north. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of severe climate; the capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population.
British Columbia Northwest Territories Alaska, United States While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C three times, 1947, 1954, 1968; the most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C. Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July and September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C three times; the first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C. 14 years this record was beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C in May 1983. The old record was broken 21 years in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C. The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2, it had a population de
Mount Bona is one of the major mountains of the Saint Elias Mountains in eastern Alaska, is the fifth-highest independent peak in the United States. Mount Bona and its adjacent neighbor Mount Churchill are both large ice-covered stratovolcanoes. Bona has the distinction of being the highest volcano in the United States and the fourth-highest in North America, outranked only by the three highest Mexican volcanoes, Pico de Orizaba, Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl, its summit is a small stratovolcano on top of a high platform of sedimentary rocks. The mountain's massif is covered entirely by icefields and glaciers, it is the principal source of ice for the Klutlan Glacier, which flows east for over 40 miles into the Yukon Territory of Canada; the mountain contributes a large volume of ice to the north-flowing Russell Glacier system. Mount Bona was named by Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi in 1897, who saw the peak while making the first ascent of Mount Saint Elias about 80 miles to the southeast.
He named it after his racing yacht. The mountain was first climbed in 1930 by Allen Carpé, Terris Moore, Andrew Taylor, from the Russell Glacier on the west of the peak; the current standard route is the East Ridge. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska Mount Bona at the Alaska Volcano Observatory "Mount Bona". Bivouac.com. Retrieved 2009-01-06. "Churchill". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-01-06
Mount Hunter (Alaska)
Mount Hunter or Begguya is a mountain in Denali National Park in Alaska. It is eight miles south of Denali, the highest peak in North America. "Begguya" means child in the Dena'ina language. Mount Hunter is the third-highest major peak in the Alaska Range. Mount Hunter has a complex structure: it is topped by a large, low-angled glacier plateau, connecting the North Summit and the South Summit. Long, corniced ridges extend in various directions; the native name for the mountain is Begguya, meaning "Denali's Child". Early prospectors referred to the mountain as Mount Roosevelt. In 1903, Robert Dunn, a reporter for the New York Commercial Advertiser, visited the area as part of Frederick Cook's attempt to climb Mount McKinley, he bestowed the name of his aunt Anna Falconnet Hunter, who financed his trip, on a high nearby mountain, prominent from the northwest. This was, in a different peak, now known as Kahiltna Dome; the name Hunter was mistakenly applied to the present-day Mount Hunter by a government surveyor in 1906.
In October 2010, the South Summit was named Mount Stevens, after Ted Stevens, a former senator of Alaska. Despite being much lower in elevation than Denali, Mount Hunter is a more difficult climb, due to its steep faces and corniced ridges. Fred Beckey, Heinrich Harrer and Henry Meybohm completed the first ascent in 1954, via the long West Ridge. Beginning in 1977, with Michael Kennedy and George Lowe's climb of a route on the northwest face of Mount Hunter, this steep rock and ice face has been the scene of many landmark hard climbs. 1954 West Ridge - first ascent of peak by Fred Beckey, Heinrich Harrer and Henry Meybohm 1977 Lowe-Kennedy, on the north face. 1979 South Spur by John Mallon Waterman 1981 Moonflower Buttress first ascent to last rock band by Mugs Stump and Paul Aubry. 1983 Moonflower Buttress to summit, first complete ascent by Todd Bibler and Doug Klewin. 1985 "Diamond Arete" first ascent by Jack Tackle and Jim Donini 1989 Northwest Face first ascent by Conrad Anker and Seth'S.
T.' Shaw, summit attained July 3, 1989. 1994 Deprivation, first ascent by Scott Backes and Mark Francis Twight. 1994 Wall of Shadows, first ascent by Greg Child and Michael Kennedy. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States ^ This is excluding the North Peak and other sub-summits of Denali
Popocatépetl is an active stratovolcano, located in the states of Puebla and Morelos, in central Mexico, lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. At 5,426 m it is the second highest peak in Mexico, after Citlaltépetl at 5,636 m, it is linked to the Iztaccihuatl volcano to the north by the high saddle known as the Paso de Cortés. Popocatépetl is 70 km southeast of Mexico City, from where it can be seen depending on atmospheric conditions; until the volcano was one of three tall peaks in Mexico to contain glaciers, the others being Iztaccihuatl and Pico de Orizaba. In the 1990s, the glaciers such as Glaciar Norte decreased in size due to warmer temperatures but due to increased volcanic activity. By early 2001, Popocatépetl's glaciers were gone. Lava erupting from Popocatépetl has been predominantly andesitic, but it has erupted large volumes of dacite. Magma produced in the current cycle of activity tends to be a mixture of the two; the name Popocatépetl comes from the Nahuatl words popōca "it smokes" and tepētl "mountain", meaning Smoking Mountain.
The volcano is referred to by Mexicans as El Popo. The alternate nickname Don Goyo comes from the mountain's association in the lore of the region with, "Goyo" being a nickname-like short form of Gregorio; the stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 m × 600 m wide crater. The symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano; the modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. According to paleomagnetic studies, the volcano is about 730,000 years old, it is cone shaped with a diameter of 25 km with a peak elevation of 5,450 m.
The crater is elliptical with an orientation northeast-southwest. The walls of the crater vary from 600 to 840 m in height. Popocatépetl is active after being dormant for about half of last century, its activity increased in 1991 and smoke has been seen emanating from the crater since 1993. The volcano is monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project; the geological history of Popocatépetl began with the formation of the ancestral volcano Nexpayantla. About 200,000 years ago, Nexpayantly collapsed in an eruption, leaving a caldera, in which the next volcano, known as El Fraile, began to form. Another eruption about 50,000 years ago caused that to collapse, Popocatépetl rose from that. Around 23,000 years ago, a lateral eruption destroyed the volcano's ancient cone and created an avalanche that reached up to 70 kilometres from the summit; the debris field from, one of four around the volcano, it is the youngest. Three Plinian eruptions are known to have taken place: 3,000 years ago, 2,150 years ago, 1,100 years ago.
The latter two buried the nearby village of Tetimpa. The first known ascent of the volcano was made by an expedition led by Diego de Ordaz in 1519; the early-16th-century monasteries on the slopes of the mountain are a World Heritage Site. Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and the most famous, having had more than 15 major eruptions since the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. Timeline: Mid-to late first century: A violent VEI-6 eruption may have caused the large migrations that settled Teotihuacan, according to DNA analysis of teeth and bones. Eruptions were observed in 1363, 1509, 1512, 1519–1528, 1530, 1539, 1540, 1548, 1562–1570, 1571, 1592, 1642, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1697, 1720, 1802, 1919, 1923, 1925, 1933. 1947: A major eruption. 21 December 1994: The volcano spewed gas and ash, carried as far as 25 km away by prevailing winds. The activity prompted the evacuation of nearby towns and scientists to begin monitoring for an eruption. December 2000: Tens of thousands of people were evacuated by the government, based on the warnings of scientists.
The volcano made its largest display in 1,200 years. 25 December 2005: The volcano's crater produced an explosion which ejected a large column of smoke and ash about 3 km into the atmosphere and expulsion of lava. January and February 2012: Scientists observed increased volcanic activity at Popocatépetl. On January 25, 2012, an ash explosion occurred on the mountain, causing much dust and ash to contaminate the atmosphere around it. 15 April 2012: Reports of superheated rock fragments being hurled into the air by the volcano. Ash and water vapor plumes were reported 15 times over 24 hours. Wednesday 8 May 2013, at 7:28 p.m. local time: Popocatépetl erupted again with a high amplitude tremor that lasted and was recorded for 3.5 hours. It began with plumes of ash that rose 3 km into the air and began drifting west at first, but began to drift east-southeast, covering areas of the villages of San Juan Tianguismanalco, San Pedro Benito Juárez and the City of Puebla in smoke and ash. Explosions from the