A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Alaska Peninsula is a peninsula extending about 800 km to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska and ending in the Aleutian Islands. The peninsula separates the Pacific Ocean from an arm of the Bering Sea. In literature the term ‘Alaska Peninsula’ was used to denote the entire northwestern protrusion of the North American continent, or all of what is now the state of Alaska, exclusive of its panhandle and islands; the Lake and Peninsula borough, the Alaskan equivalent of a county, is named after the peninsula. The Aleutian Range is a active volcanic mountain range which runs along the entire length of the Peninsula. Within it lie Wildlife Refuges, including the Katmai National Park and Preserve, the Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve and the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge, the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge; the southern side of the Alaska Peninsula is rugged and mountainous, created by the uplifting tectonic activity of the North Pacific Plate subsiding under a western section of the North American Plate.
The northern and southern shores are quite different. The northern Bristol Bay coastal side is turbid and muddy, experiences tidal extremes, is shallow. All of the Peninsula is organized as a part of four adjacent boroughs; the Lake and Peninsula Borough includes most of the peninsula's territory. Average annual precipitation ranges from 24 to 65 in. Coastal areas are subject to intense storms and rain. Winter temperatures average between −11°C and 1°C, in summer between 6°C and 15°. Frosts can occur any day of the year at higher elevations; the climate can be compared to that of the Aleutian Islands and Tierra del Fuego. The Alaska Peninsula is home to some of the largest populations of native and undisturbed wildlife in the United States. Besides the famous McNeil River and Katmai Alaskan brown bear populations, large herds of caribou, moose and waterfowl inhabit the area; the bears of the peninsula and Bristol Bay are so numerous because they feed on the world's largest sockeye salmon runs, which occur here in large part because the many large lakes of the peninsula are an important element in their lifecycle.
These salmon, after returning from their short life at sea, swim into the lakes and their contributing streams to spawn. Their offspring, or fry, overwinter in the deep and food-abundant depths of these lakes until their migration to the sea in one or two years. Exceptionally large seabird colonies exist along the coast; the rugged southern half of the peninsula, the Kodiak Archipelago which lie off the south coast of the peninsula and are home to more bears, constitute the Alaska Peninsula montane taiga ecoregion and contain a number of protected areas such as Katmai National Park. Besides the communities on the coast, the Alaska Peninsula is home to several well-known villages: Cold Bay, King Cove, Chignik, Chignik Lake, Chignik Lagoon, Port Moller; each is inhabited by Alaska Natives and each is dependent on the fishing industry for sustenance. The village of Sand Point should be included here, despite its location on Popof Island, an island of the Sumagin Islands, just off the southern coast of the Peninsula.
Ugashik Area website Lake & Peninsula Borough Lake and Peninsula School District Alaska Peninsula Trek Trawl survey of shrimp and forage fish in Alaska's Westward region, 2006 / by David R. Jackson. Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program
Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge
The Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Alaska whose use is regulated as an ecological-protection measure. It stretches along the southern coast of the Alaska Peninsula, between the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge on its east and the end of the peninsula at False Pass in the west. In between, however, it is broken into sections by lands of the Aniakchak National Monument and Izembek National Wildlife Refuge; the refuge is administered from offices in King Salmon and was established to conserve Alaska Peninsula brown bears, moose, marine mammals, other migratory birds and fish, to comply with treaty obligations. The refuge was established on December 2, 1980, by the Alaska National Interest Land Conservation Act following designation as a national wildlife monument in 1978 by the President Jimmy Carter. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In 1983, the Fish and Wildlife Service undertook the responsibility to manage the Becharof Refuge, along with the Ugashik and Chignik units of the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge.
In 1989 the park area was affected by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill which devastated the Alaska Peninsula. In an effort to determine species presence, habitat use, migratory patterns, extensive studies have been conducted in the refuge. Biologists have studied extensively in the biologically rich Naknek River basin which provides an important habitat for thousands of ducks and swans. From mid-March through mid-May, refuge biologists monitor waterfowl from established points from Naknek Lake to Kvichak Bay in Naknek. Biologists have been working in the area since 1992 to count waterfowl by species four times a week. Species common to the refuge include common merganser, common goldeneye, tundra swan, greater white-fronted goose, northern pintail and Eurasian wigeon, American green-winged teal, Canada goose, greater scaup, northern shoveler, red-breasted merganser, black scoter, long-tailed duck. Working with Boreal Partners in Flight, the Institute for Bird Populations, Earthwatch, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service undertook comprehensive landbird studies at Mother Goose Lake from 1994 through to 2001.
Between 1994 and 1999 over 110 Earthwatch volunteers used the scheme to educate themselves in bird biology. In conjunction with the National Audubon Society, the park has hosted an annual Christmas Bird Count between December 14 and January 5 annually since 1986 to register birds in the corridor from the Kvichak Bay beach at Naknek to Lake Camp at the mouth of Naknek Lake; the refuge has sponsored a North American Migration Count on the second Saturday in May since 1998. The refuge lies in the Alaska Peninsula, it spans Kodiak Island and Lake and Peninsula Borough. The Alaska Peninsula Refuge contains a number of geologic and scenic features, with a mixture of volcanic activity juxtaposed alongside glacial valleys and coasts under erosion; the refuge contains the Chiginagak and Veniaminof volcanoes, the latter of, one of Alaska’s active volcanoes, last erupted in 1995. The crater, 5.2 miles in diameter contains a 25-square-mile ice field, making it the most extensive crater glacier in North America.
In 1967, Mount Veniaminof was designated as a National Natural Landmark. The Upper Sandy River has its source at Mount Veniaminof and flows down to form a delta above Sandy Lake. In contrast to the volcanic landscape of the refuge, the Pacific coast of the protected area is characterised by rugged cliffs, bays and streams. In particular the Castle Cape Fjords in the Chignik area is an pronounced feature, with a strong erosion by the sea, with rocks shaded in contrasting dark and light tones. Notable streams drain into Agripina Bay and Port Wrangell from the glaciers and through the valleys of the refuge; the park supports a diversity of fish and wildlife and are an important nesting site for seabirds such as puffins, cormorants and guillemots, emperor geese, harlequin ducks, Steller's eider, notably the bald eagle. All five species of Pacific salmon spawn including the commercially productive sockeye salmon run into the Chignik system. Sea lions, gray whales, harbor seals and sea otters can all be found along the coast.
Alaskan brown bears are a common sight in the coastal meadows in spring and summer when they come to feed on the spawning salmon. As many as 500 bears may inhabit the Black Lake-Chignik Lake Area during August, making it one of the most dense seasonal concentrations of grizzly bears in North America. Caribou and moose are under protection in the park; the moose in particular inhabit the Mother Goose Lake and the lines of the King Salmon River supporting populations of wolf packs, wolverine, river otter, two species of fox, snowshoe hare and Canadian lynx. Alaska Peninsula NWR official website Thumbnail and links for a dramatic public-domain high-elevation photo
Mount Baker known as Koma Kulshan or Kulshan, is a 10,781 ft active glaciated andesitic stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the North Cascades of Washington in the United States. Mount Baker has the second-most thermally active crater in the Cascade Range after Mount Saint Helens. About 31 miles due east of the city of Bellingham, Whatcom County, Mount Baker is the youngest volcano in the Mount Baker volcanic field. While volcanism has persisted here for some 1.5 million years, the current glaciated cone is no more than 140,000 years old, no older than 80–90,000 years. Older volcanic edifices have eroded away due to glaciation. After Mount Rainier, Mount Baker is the most glaciated of the Cascade Range volcanoes, it is one of the snowiest places in the world. Mt. Baker is the third-highest mountain in Washington and the fifth-highest in the Cascade Range, if Little Tahoma Peak, a subpeak of Mount Rainier, Shastina, a subpeak of Mount Shasta, are not counted. Located in the Mount Baker Wilderness, it is visible from much of Greater Victoria and Greater Vancouver in British Columbia, to the south, from Seattle in Washington.
Indigenous peoples have known the mountain for thousands of years, but the first written record of the mountain is from Spanish explorer Gonzalo Lopez de Haro, who mapped it in 1790 as Gran Montaña del Carmelo, "Great Mount Carmel". The explorer George Vancouver renamed the mountain for 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker of HMS Discovery, who saw it on April 30, 1792. Mount Baker was well-known to indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest. Indigenous names for the mountain include Koma Kulshan. In 1790, Manuel Quimper of the Spanish Navy set sail from Nootka, a temporary settlement on Vancouver Island, with orders to explore the newly discovered Strait of Juan de Fuca. Accompanying Quimper was first-pilot Gonzalo Lopez de Haro, who drew detailed charts during the six-week expedition. Although Quimper's journal of the voyage does not refer to the mountain, one of Haro's manuscript charts includes a sketch of Mount Baker; the Spanish named the snowy volcano La Gran Montana del Carmelo, as it reminded them of the white-clad monks of the Carmelite Monastery.
The British explorer George Vancouver left England a year later. His mission was to survey the northwest coast of America. Vancouver and his crew reached the Pacific Northwest coast in 1792. While anchored in Dungeness Bay on the south shore of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Joseph Baker made an observation of Mount Baker, which Vancouver recorded in his journal:About this time a high conspicuous craggy mountain... presented itself, towering above the clouds: as low down as they allowed it to be visible it was covered with snow. Six years the official narrative of this voyage was published, including the first printed reference to the mountain. By the mid-1850s, Mount Baker was a well-known feature on the horizon to the explorers and fur traders who traveled in the Puget Sound region. Isaac I. Stevens, the first governor of Washington Territory, wrote about Mount Baker in 1853:Mount Baker... is one of the loftiest and most conspicuous peaks of the northern Cascade range. It is visible from all the water and islands... and from the whole southeastern part of the Gulf of Georgia, from the eastern division of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
It is for this region a important landmark. Edmund Thomas Coleman, an Englishman who resided in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada and a veteran of the Alps, made the first attempt to ascend the mountain in 1866, he chose a route via the Skagit River, but was forced to turn back when local Native Americans refused him passage. That same year, Coleman recruited Whatcom County settlers Edward Eldridge, John Bennett, John Tennant to aid him in his second attempt to scale the mountain. After approaching via the North Fork of the Nooksack River, the party navigated through what is now known as Coleman Glacier and ascended to within several hundred feet of the summit before turning back in the face of an "overhanging cornice of ice" and threatening weather. Coleman returned to the mountain after two years. At 4:00 pm on August 17, 1868, Eldridge and two new companions scaled the summit via the Middle Fork Nooksack River, Marmot Ridge, Coleman Glacier, the north margin of the Roman Wall. 1948 North Ridge Fred Beckey and Dick Widrig The present-day cone of Mount Baker is young.
The volcano sits atop
Global Volcanism Program
The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program documents Earth's volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years. The GVP reports on current eruptions from around the world as well as maintaining a database repository on active volcanoes and their eruptions. In this way, a global context for the planet's active volcanism is presented. Smithsonian reporting on current volcanic activity dates back to 1968, with the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena; the GVP is housed in the Department of Mineral Sciences, part of the National Museum of Natural History, on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. During the early stages of an eruption, the GVP acts as a clearing house of reports and imagery which are accumulated from a global network of contributors; the early flow of information is managed such that the right people are contacted as well as helping to sort out vague and contradictory aspects that arise during the early days of an eruption. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the United States Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program.
Notices of volcanic activity posted on the report website are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. Detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism NetworkThe GVP documents the last 10,000 years of Earth's volcanism; the historic activity can guide perspectives on possible future events and on volcanoes showing activity. GVP's volcano and eruption databases constitute a foundation for all statistical statements concerning locations and magnitudes of Earth's volcanic eruptions during the past recent 10,000 years. Two editions of Volcanoes of the World, a regional directory... and were published based on the GVP data and interpretations. Prediction of volcanic activity Timeline of volcanism on Earth Volcanic explosivity index Volcano Number Global Volcanism Program Global Volcanism Program Facebook page
The Aleutian Range is a major mountain range located in southwest Alaska. It extends from Chakachamna Lake to Unimak Island, at the tip of the Alaska Peninsula, it includes all of the mountains of the Peninsula. The Aleutian Range is special because of its large number of active volcanoes, which are part of the larger Aleutian Arc; the mainland part of the range is about 600 miles long. The Aleutian Islands are a submerged western extension of the range that stretches for another 1,600 km; however the official designation "Aleutian Range" includes only the mainland peaks and the peaks on Unimak Island. The range is entirely roadless wilderness. Katmai National Park and Preserve, a large national park within the range, must be reached by boat or plane; the core Aleutian Range can be divided into three mountain groups. Listed from southwest to northeast, they are: Mountains of the Alaska Peninsula and Unimak Island Chigmit Mountains Neacola MountainsSee Aleutian Islands for the continuation of the range to the west of Unimak Island.
Just to the north of the Aleutian Range are the Tordrillo Mountains, the southeasternmost extent of the Alaska Range. Selected mountains: Mount Redoubt, Chigmit Mountains Iliamna Volcano, Chigmit Mountains Mount Neacola, Neacola Mountains Mount Shishaldin, Unimak Island Mount Pavlof, Alaska Peninsula Mount Veniaminof, Alaska Peninsula Isanotski Peaks, Unimak Island Mount Denison, Alaska Peninsula Mount Griggs, Alaska Peninsula Mount Douglas, Alaska Peninsula Mount Chiginagak, Alaska Peninsula Double Peak, Chigmit Mountains Mount Katmai, Alaska Peninsula Pogromni Volcano, Unimak Island Mount Okmok, Fox Islands Two volcanoes erupted during the summer of 2008 on the eastern Aleutian Islands. On July 12, 2008, Mount Okmok erupted, it continued to erupt for a month. A giant moving ash and gas cloud shot up to a height of 15,240 m as a result of this eruption. Mount Kasatochi was home to the other eruption, which occurred on August 7 and 8; this eruption sent up a gas cloud about 15,000 high. Together, these two power volcanic eruptions deposited emissions of trace gases an aerosols into the atmosphere.
These emissions formed a sulfate aerosol layer that totaled a transfer of 1.6 Tg of SO2 into the stratosphere and disturbed flights over this area for a short period following the eruptions. The 7.9 Mw Aleutian Islands earthquake occurred in June 2014 at an intermediate depth of 107 km. The quake was caused by oblique normal faulting along the Aleutian Trench, a convergent boundary where the Pacific plate is subducting underneath the North American plate at around 59 mm/year. List of earthquakes in Alaska U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Aleutian Range
Glacial lake outburst flood
A glacial lake outburst flood is a type of outburst flood that occurs when the dam containing a glacial lake fails. An event similar to a GLOF, where a body of water contained by a glacier melts or overflows the glacier, is called a Jökulhlaup; the dam can consist of a terminal moraine. Failure can happen due to erosion, a buildup of water pressure, an avalanche of rock or heavy snow, an earthquake or cryoseism, volcanic eruptions under the ice, or if a large enough portion of a glacier breaks off and massively displaces the waters in a glacial lake at its base. A glacial lake outburst flood is a type of outburst flood occurring when water dammed by a glacier or a moraine is released. A water body, dammed by the front of a glacier is called a marginal lake, a water body, capped by the glacier is called a sub-glacial lake; when a marginal lake bursts, it may be called a marginal lake drainage. When a sub-glacial lake bursts, it may be called a jökulhlaup. A jökulhlaup is thus a sub-glacial outburst flood.
Jökulhlaup is an Icelandic term, adopted into the English language referring only to glacial outburst floods from Vatnajökull, which are triggered by volcanic eruptions, but now is accepted to describe any abrupt and large release of sub-glacial water. Glacial lake volumes may hold millions to hundreds of millions of cubic metres of water. Catastrophic failure of the containing ice or glacial sediment can release this water over periods of minutes to days. Peak flows as high as 15,000 cubic metres per second have been recorded in such events, suggesting that the v-shaped canyon of a small mountain stream could develop an turbulent and fast-moving torrent some 50 metres deep. Glacial Lake Outburst Floods are compounded by a massive river bed erosion in the steep moraine valleys, as a result, the flood peaks increase as they flow downstream until the river reaches, where the sediment deposits. On a downstream floodplain, it suggests a somewhat slower inundation spreading as much as 10 kilometres wide.
Both scenarios are significant threats to life and infrastructure. The United Nations has a series of monitoring efforts to help prevent death and destruction in regions that are to experience these events; the importance of this situation has magnified over the past century due to increased populations, the increasing number of glacial lakes that have developed due to glacier retreat. While all countries with glaciers are susceptible to this problem, central Asia, the Andes regions of South America and those countries in Europe that have glaciers in the Alps, have been identified as the regions at greatest risk. There are a number of imminent deadly GLOFs situations; the Tsho Rolpa glacier lake is located in the Rolwaling Valley, about 110 kilometres northeast of Kathmandu, Nepal, at an altitude of 4,580 metres. The lake is dammed by a 150 metres high unconsolidated terminal moraine dam; the lake is growing larger every year due to the melting and retreat of the Trakarding Glacier, has become the largest and most dangerous glacier lake in Nepal, with 90 to 100 million m3 of water stored.
The most famous are the immense jökulhlaup released from the Vatnajökull Ice Cap in Iceland. It is not by chance that the term jökulhlaup comes from Icelandic, as the south of Iceland has often been the victim of such catastrophes; this was the case in 1996, when the volcano under the Grímsvötn lakes belonging to the Vatnajökull glacier erupted, the river Skeiðará flooded the land in front of Skaftafell, now part of Vatnajökull National Park. The jökulhlaup reached a flow rate of 50,000 cubic metres per second, destroyed parts of the Hringvegur; the flood carried ice floes that weighed up to 5000 tons with icebergs between 100–200 tons striking the Gigjukvisl Bridge of the Ring Road. The tsunami released was up to 4 metres 600 metres wide; the flood carried with it 185 million tons of silt. The jökulhlaup flow made it for several days the 2nd largest river after the Amazon. After the flooding, some icebergs 10 metres high could be seen on the banks of the river where the glacier run had left them behind.
The peak water release from a lake that develops around the Grímsvötn Volcanic Crater in the center of the Vatnajökull ice cap generates flows that exceed the volume of the Mississippi River. The outbursts have occurred in 1954, 1960, 1965, 1972, 1976, 1982, 1983, 1986, 1991 and 1996. In 1996, the eruption melted 3 cubic kilometres of ice and yielded an outburst of 6,000 cubic metres per second at peak flow. During the late Quaternary, ancient Lake Atna in the Copper River Basin may have generated a number of glacial outburst floods; some jökulhlaups release annually. Lake George near the Knik River had large annual outbreaks from 1918 to 1966. Since 1966 the Knik Glacier has retreated and an ice-dam is no longer created. Lake George might resume annual floods if the glacier blocks the valley; every year, GLOFs occur in two locations in southeastern Alaska, one of, Abyss Lake. The releases associated with the Tulsequah Glacier near Juneau inundate a nearby airstrip. About 40 cabins could be affected and a few have been damaged by the larger floods.
Events from Salmon Glacier near Hyder have damaged roads near the Salmon River. Immense prehistoric GLOFs, known as the Missoula Floods or Spok