Mount Baker known as Koma Kulshan or Kulshan, is a 10,781 ft active glaciated andesitic stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the North Cascades of Washington in the United States. Mount Baker has the second-most thermally active crater in the Cascade Range after Mount Saint Helens. About 31 miles due east of the city of Bellingham, Whatcom County, Mount Baker is the youngest volcano in the Mount Baker volcanic field. While volcanism has persisted here for some 1.5 million years, the current glaciated cone is no more than 140,000 years old, no older than 80–90,000 years. Older volcanic edifices have eroded away due to glaciation. After Mount Rainier, Mount Baker is the most glaciated of the Cascade Range volcanoes, it is one of the snowiest places in the world. Mt. Baker is the third-highest mountain in Washington and the fifth-highest in the Cascade Range, if Little Tahoma Peak, a subpeak of Mount Rainier, Shastina, a subpeak of Mount Shasta, are not counted. Located in the Mount Baker Wilderness, it is visible from much of Greater Victoria and Greater Vancouver in British Columbia, to the south, from Seattle in Washington.
Indigenous peoples have known the mountain for thousands of years, but the first written record of the mountain is from Spanish explorer Gonzalo Lopez de Haro, who mapped it in 1790 as Gran Montaña del Carmelo, "Great Mount Carmel". The explorer George Vancouver renamed the mountain for 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker of HMS Discovery, who saw it on April 30, 1792. Mount Baker was well-known to indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest. Indigenous names for the mountain include Koma Kulshan. In 1790, Manuel Quimper of the Spanish Navy set sail from Nootka, a temporary settlement on Vancouver Island, with orders to explore the newly discovered Strait of Juan de Fuca. Accompanying Quimper was first-pilot Gonzalo Lopez de Haro, who drew detailed charts during the six-week expedition. Although Quimper's journal of the voyage does not refer to the mountain, one of Haro's manuscript charts includes a sketch of Mount Baker; the Spanish named the snowy volcano La Gran Montana del Carmelo, as it reminded them of the white-clad monks of the Carmelite Monastery.
The British explorer George Vancouver left England a year later. His mission was to survey the northwest coast of America. Vancouver and his crew reached the Pacific Northwest coast in 1792. While anchored in Dungeness Bay on the south shore of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Joseph Baker made an observation of Mount Baker, which Vancouver recorded in his journal:About this time a high conspicuous craggy mountain... presented itself, towering above the clouds: as low down as they allowed it to be visible it was covered with snow. Six years the official narrative of this voyage was published, including the first printed reference to the mountain. By the mid-1850s, Mount Baker was a well-known feature on the horizon to the explorers and fur traders who traveled in the Puget Sound region. Isaac I. Stevens, the first governor of Washington Territory, wrote about Mount Baker in 1853:Mount Baker... is one of the loftiest and most conspicuous peaks of the northern Cascade range. It is visible from all the water and islands... and from the whole southeastern part of the Gulf of Georgia, from the eastern division of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
It is for this region a important landmark. Edmund Thomas Coleman, an Englishman who resided in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada and a veteran of the Alps, made the first attempt to ascend the mountain in 1866, he chose a route via the Skagit River, but was forced to turn back when local Native Americans refused him passage. That same year, Coleman recruited Whatcom County settlers Edward Eldridge, John Bennett, John Tennant to aid him in his second attempt to scale the mountain. After approaching via the North Fork of the Nooksack River, the party navigated through what is now known as Coleman Glacier and ascended to within several hundred feet of the summit before turning back in the face of an "overhanging cornice of ice" and threatening weather. Coleman returned to the mountain after two years. At 4:00 pm on August 17, 1868, Eldridge and two new companions scaled the summit via the Middle Fork Nooksack River, Marmot Ridge, Coleman Glacier, the north margin of the Roman Wall. 1948 North Ridge Fred Beckey and Dick Widrig The present-day cone of Mount Baker is young.
The volcano sits atop
Haleakalā, or the East Maui Volcano, is a massive shield volcano that forms more than 75% of the Hawaiian Island of Maui. The western 25% of the island is formed by another volcano, Mauna Kahalawai referred to as the West Maui Mountains; the tallest peak of Haleakalā, at 10,023 feet, is Puʻu ʻUlaʻula. From the summit one looks down into a massive depression some 11.25 km across, 3.2 km wide, nearly 800 m deep. The surrounding walls are steep and the interior barren-looking with a scattering of volcanic cones. Early Hawaiians applied the name Haleakalā to the general mountain. Haleakalā is the name of a peak on the southwestern edge of Kaupō Gap. In Hawaiian folklore, the depression at the summit of Haleakalā was home to the grandmother of the demigod Māui. According to the legend, Māui's grandmother helped him capture the sun and force it to slow its journey across the sky in order to lengthen the day. According to the United States Geological Survey USGS Volcano Warning Scheme for the United States, the Volcano Alert Level for Haleakala as of August 2015 was "normal".
A Normal status is used to designate typical volcanic activity in a non-eruptive phase. Haleakala has produced numerous eruptions including in the last 500 years; this volcanic activity has been along two rift zones: east. These two rift zones together form an arc that extends from La Perouse Bay on the southwest, through the Haleakalā Crater, to Hāna to the east; the east rift zone continues under the ocean beyond the east coast of Maui as Haleakalā Ridge, making the combined rift zones one of the longest in the Hawaiian Islands chain. Until East Maui Volcano was thought to have last erupted around 1790, based on comparisons of maps made during the voyages of La Perouse and George Vancouver. Recent advanced dating tests, have shown that the last eruption was more to have been in the 17th century; these last flows from the southwest rift zone of Haleakalā make up the large lava deposits of the Ahihi Kina`u/La Perouse Bay area of South Maui. Contrary to popular belief, Haleakalā crater is not volcanic in origin, nor can it be called a caldera.
Scientists believe that Haleakalā's crater was formed when the headwalls of two large erosional valleys merged at the summit of the volcano. These valleys formed the two large gaps — Koʻolau on the north side and Kaupō on the south — on either side of the depression. Macdonald, Abbott, & Peterson state it this way: Haleakalā is far smaller than many volcanic craters. On the island of Hawaiʻi, lava-flow hazards are rated on a scale of one through nine with one being the zone of highest hazard and nine being the zone of lowest hazard. For example, the summits and rift zones of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes are rated Hazard Zone 1. Using this same scale, preliminary estimates of lava-flow hazard zones on Maui made in 1983 by the U. S. Geological Survey rated the summit and southwest rift zone of Haleakala as Hazard Zone 3; the steep, downslope areas of the Kanaio and Kahikinui ahupuaʻa and the area north of Hana are rated as Hazard Zone 4. Other areas of Haleakala are rated comparable to the lava-flow hazards of Mauna Kohala.
These high hazard estimates for Haleakala are based on the frequency of its eruptions. Haleakala has erupted three times in the last 900 years. By way of comparison, both Mauna Loa and Kilauea have erupted more than a dozen times each in the last 90 years. Hualalai has an eruption rate comparable to Haleakala. All of Hualalai is rated as Hazard Zone 4. However, the frequency of eruption of a volcano is only one of the criteria on which hazards are based; the other important criterion is the lava flow coverage rate. Using the preliminary dates for Haleakala flows, only 8.7 square miles of lava flows have been emplaced in the last 900 years. In comparison 43 square miles of Hualalai are covered with flows 900 years old or younger and 104 square miles on Kilauea and 85 square miles on Mauna Loa are covered by lavas less than 200 years old. Thus, Haleakala is a distant fourth in coverage rates. Surrounding and including the crater is Haleakalā National Park, a 30,183-acre park, of which 24,719 acres are wilderness.
The park includes the summit depression, Kipahulu Valley on the southeast, ʻOheʻo Gulch, extending to the shoreline in the Kipahulu area. From the summit, there are two main trails leading into Haleakalā: Sliding Sands Trail and Halemauʻu Trail; the temperature near the summit tends to vary between about 40 °F and 60 °F and given the thin air and the possibility of dehydration at that elevation, the walking trails can be more challenging than one might expect. This is aggravated by the fact; because of this, hikers are faced with a difficult return ascent after descending 2000 ft or more to the crater floor. Despite this, Haleakalā is popular with tourists and locals alike, who venture to its summit, or to the visitor center just below the summit, to view the sunrise. There is lodging in the form of a few simple cabins, though no gas is available in the park; because of the remarkable clarity and stillness of the air, its elevation (with atmospheric pressure of 71 kilopascal
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Umnak is one of the Fox Islands of the Aleutian Islands. With 686.01 square miles of land area, it is the third largest island in the Aleutian archipelago and the 19th largest island in the United States. The island is home to a large volcanic caldera on Mount Okmok and the only field of geysers in Alaska, it is separated from Unalaska Island by Umnak Pass. In 2000, Umnak was permanently inhabited by only 39 people; the earliest known settlement on Umnak Island is 8,400 years old. Anangula was abandoned and the Sandy Beach site became occupied, along with Idaliuk and Chaluka. Most of the early settlements on Umnak were located along the streams. A major geologic event was the cutting of strand flats during the Hypsithermal period, about 8250 to 3000 years ago, which led to a greater natural food supply on the island for the settlers. Umnak Island was first reached by independent Russian fur traders in the 1750s. Abuses by the Russians led to an alliance among Aleuts in the Fox Islands. During the winter of 1761-1762, the crews of four Russian ships were massacred.
This included one entire crew on Umnak, wiped out. Russian traders responded with a scorched-earth campaign in 1764 that ended the Aleuts' independence; the modern history of Umnak Island is linked to the military bases established by the United States during World War II. The purpose of the forward air bases in the Aleutian Islands was not only to defend the Dutch Harbor, but to launch attacks against the Japanese mainland; the US Navy considered Umnak as their own. They created a camouflage in the "Blair Fish Packing Co," to build airports and bases to be used by the US Army Air Force during World War II. After getting clearance from General DeWitt, General Buckner built airbases at Umnak and at Cold Bay. By the time the Japanese attacked in the summer of 1942, the US garrison at Umnak had a combined strength of 4000, including engineer companies complemented by infantry, as well as field and antiaircraft artillery units; the Japanese planned to attack and capture the island in June to maintain aerial patrols over North Pacific waters.
Umnak was to be an outpost in a new area of dominance that would include the Samoan and Fiji Islands and New Caledonia. The Japanese were unaware of the covert preparations being made by the United States as they believed that the island was only protected by a few ships operating in Aleutian waters. Umnak, the third largest of the Aleutian Islands after Unimak and Unalaska, lies in the Fox Islands of the Aleutian Islands of the Bering Sea, to the southwest of the larger island of Unalaska, it is 70–72 miles in length and 16 miles wide on average. The island was separated in the last glacial period and now lies about 300 kilometres from North American shores, it is an active volcanic island, with a land area of 1,793.2 km2 and with a coast line extending over 330.2 kilometres. The elevation of the island is 2,132 metres; the island is mountainous with a low level of vegetation. The island does not have a harbor, although a sizeable bay is located in western part of the island and contains the Adugak Island.
The southern point of the island is known as Cape Sagak. The highest peak of the island, the Mount Vsevidof stratovolcano, is located in the southwestern part of the island, its symmetrical cone rises abruptly from its surroundings and forms a 1.2-kilometre-wide crater at a height of 2,149 metres. Its most recent eruption was caused by an earthquake on March 9, 1957; the mountain erupted on March 11, 1957, the eruption ended the next day. To the east of Mount Vsevidof is the Russian Bay valley and another stratovolcano, Mount Recheshnoi, deeply dissected with a height of 1,984 metres. In the southwest is the settlement of Nikolski further south and a lake, Umnak Lake, to its southeast, just over 2 kilometres in length; the ancient settlement of Chaluka is located between Nikolski. This area is known as the Samalga Pass and was the center of ancient activity on the island and is located about 15 miles off the southwestern tip of the island; the north-northeastern part of the island contains tholeittic basaltic rocks and is characterized by tension faulting, lava flows and fragmental deposits of igneous rocks.
The volcano of Mount Okmok, characterized by its 5.8 miles wide circular caldera, it located in the northwestern part of the island. This flat central basin has an average elevation of 370 m above sea level, with the rim of the caldera reaching a height of 1,073 metres. Following the formation of the caldera, numerous satellite cones and lava domes have formed on the flanks of the volcano, they include Mount Tulik on the caldera's southeastern slope, Mount Idak to the northeast, Jag Peak. A crater lake once filled much of the caldera to a depth of over 500 feet, but the lake drained through a notch eroded in the northeast rim; the prehistoric lake attained a maximum depth of about 150 metres and the upper surface reached an elevation of about 475 metres, at which point it over topped the low point of the caldera rim. Small, shallow remnants of the lake remained north of Cone D at an altitude of about 1,075 feet: a small shallow lake located between the caldera rim and Cone D. After the 2008 eruption, the hydrogeology of the caldera was changed with five separate sizable lakes now emplaced.
In addition to the caldera la
Mount Saint Elias
Mount Saint Elias designated Boundary Peak 186, is the second highest mountain in both Canada and the United States, being situated on the Yukon and Alaska border. It lies about 42 kilometres southwest of the highest mountain in Canada; the Canadian side is part of Kluane National Park and Reserve, while the U. S. side of the mountain is located within Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, its name in Tlingit is Yasʼéitʼaa Shaa, meaning "mountain behind Icy Bay", is called Shaa Tlein "Big Mountain" by the Yakutat Tlingit. It is one of the most important crests of the Kwaashkʼiḵwáan clan since they used it as a guide during their journey down the Copper River. Mount Fairweather at the apex of the British Columbia and Alaska borders at the head of the Alaska Panhandle is known as Tsalx̱aan, it is said this mountain and Yasʼéitʼaa Shaa were next to each other but had an argument and separated, their children, the mountains in between the two peaks, are called Tsalx̱aan Yátxʼi. The mountain was first sighted by European explorers on July 1741 by Vitus Bering of Russia.
While some historians contend that the mountain was named by Bering, others believe that eighteenth century mapmakers named it after Cape Saint Elias, when it was left unnamed by Bering. Mount Saint Elias is notable for its immense vertical relief, its summit rises 18,008 feet vertically in just 10 miles horizontal distance from the head of Taan Fjord, off of Icy Bay. In 2007, an Austrian documentary, Mount. St. Elias, was made about a team of skier/mountaineers determined to make "the planet's longest skiing descent" – ascending the mountain and skiing nearly all 18,000 feet down to the Gulf of Alaska; the climbers ended up summiting on the second attempt and skiing down to 13,000 ft. Mt. St. Elias was first climbed on July 31, 1897 by an Italian expedition led by famed explorer Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, included noted mountain photographer Vittorio Sella; the second ascent was not until 1946, when a group from the Harvard Mountaineering Club including noted mountain historian Dee Molenaar climbed the Southwest Ridge route.
The summit party comprised Molenaar, his brother Cornelius and Betty Kauffman, Maynard Miller, William Latady, Benjamin Ferris. William Putnam did not make the summit, they used eleven camps, eight of which were on the approach from Icy Bay, three of which were on the mountain. They were supported by multiple air drops of food; the first winter ascent was made on February 13, 1996 by David Briggs, Gardner Heaton and Joe Reichert. After being flown by pilots Steve Ranney and Gary Graham, in to 2,300 feet on the Tyndal Glacier, they climbed the southwest ridge and followed the "Milk Bowl" variation in order to avoid 2,000 feet of loose rock on the normal route; the team had planned to begin their ascent from the ocean and cross the Tyndal Glacier but the terrain was in poor condition. Mount Saint Elias is infrequently climbed today, despite its height, because it has no easy route to the summit and because of its prolonged periods of bad weather. Abruzzi Ridge Livermore Ridge List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Canada List of mountain peaks of the United States List of Boundary Peaks of the Alaska-British Columbia/Yukon border Wood, Michael.
Alaska: a climbing guide. The Mountaineers. Media related to Mount Saint Elias at Wikimedia Commons Mt. St. Elias on Peakware
Global Volcanism Program
The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program documents Earth's volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years. The GVP reports on current eruptions from around the world as well as maintaining a database repository on active volcanoes and their eruptions. In this way, a global context for the planet's active volcanism is presented. Smithsonian reporting on current volcanic activity dates back to 1968, with the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena; the GVP is housed in the Department of Mineral Sciences, part of the National Museum of Natural History, on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. During the early stages of an eruption, the GVP acts as a clearing house of reports and imagery which are accumulated from a global network of contributors; the early flow of information is managed such that the right people are contacted as well as helping to sort out vague and contradictory aspects that arise during the early days of an eruption. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the United States Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program.
Notices of volcanic activity posted on the report website are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. Detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism NetworkThe GVP documents the last 10,000 years of Earth's volcanism; the historic activity can guide perspectives on possible future events and on volcanoes showing activity. GVP's volcano and eruption databases constitute a foundation for all statistical statements concerning locations and magnitudes of Earth's volcanic eruptions during the past recent 10,000 years. Two editions of Volcanoes of the World, a regional directory... and were published based on the GVP data and interpretations. Prediction of volcanic activity Timeline of volcanism on Earth Volcanic explosivity index Volcano Number Global Volcanism Program Global Volcanism Program Facebook page