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Mount Walsh National Park

Mount Walsh is a national park in Queensland, Australia, 230 km northwest of Brisbane. A prominent landmark in the Biggenden region is the granite bluff area of Mount Walsh which rises to 703 m above sea leven in the northern part of park; the summit has three peaks. Exposed granite outcrops, rugged ridges and steep forested slopes support a range of vegetation; the "Bluff" area of Mount Walsh is located at the park’s northern end and is a prominent landmark of the Biggenden area. The park features sheltered gullies, rugged ridge lines with mountain areas with spectacular exposed granite outcrops and cliffs support a diversity of vegetation; such diversity gives a home to many endangered animal species such as the powerful owl and grey goshawk. Visitors may see peregrine falcons, wallabies, eastern grey kangaroos and lace monitors. A complex landscape has led to diverse vegetation communities which includes heath, woodland, open forest and dry forest. There are patches of hoop pines in some gullies.

The geological history of the mountain began in the late Triassic period about 215 million years ago. Violent explosions emanated from a volcanic structure referred to as the Mungore Centre. Two large bodies of magma rose close to the surface where Mount Malarga and Mount Walsh are presently situated. Erosion has left the cliffs, gorges rocky pavements and tors seen today. Picnic and barbecue facilities are available. Bush camping is allowed in the park. No facilities are provided so visitors must be self-sufficient. A 300 metre trail from the picnic area leads visitors through open eucalypt forest to a rocky creek gully fringed in rain forest on to lookouts over surrounding countryside. Experienced walkers can take the strenuous two and a half hour hike to Mount Walsh's bare granite summit. You will be rewarded with stunning views. Protected areas of Queensland Rocks and Landscape Notes: Mount Walsh, Biggenden - Geological Society of Australia: Queensland Division

Percy Allan

Percy Allan was a civil engineer who designed a large number of public works in New South Wales, including the design of 583 bridges. Allan was the son of Maxwell Rennie Allan, principal Under-Secretary of State for New South Wales, was born in Elizabeth Street, Sydney on 12 July 1861, he was educated at Calder House and joined the government Works Department in 1878 as a cadet. Between 1893 and 1896 he designed 349 bridges and punts in New South Wales, between 1896 and 1899 he designed a further 126 bridges including the Pyrmont Bridge and the Glebe Island Bridge. In 1900 he was appointed Principal Assistant Engineer for Rivers, Water Supply and Drainage, supervised the completion of the Sydney low level sewerage system, a pumping system to replace harbour sewage outfalls. Following this he was appointed to the Hunter District Water Sewerage Board, he returned to the Public Works Department in 1912, had overall design responsibility for the steel Pratt truss–type Tom Uglys Bridge over the Georges River.

He is credited with designing his own type of Truss Bridge, the Allan Truss. He was awarded a Telford Premium by the Institution of Civil Engineers for a paper on port improvements in Newcastle, including excavation of the channel and extension of the breakwater. Allan retired from the public service in March 1926, he was survived by two sons. List of bridges designed by Percy Allan

Melissa Winter

Melissa "Mel" Winter is an American Democratic political aide who served as a senior advisor to First Lady Michelle Obama throughout the Presidency of Barack Obama. Winter was born in Chicago but her family moved to La Jolla, California. After graduating from Skidmore College, she moved to Washington, D. C. and began an 18-year career on Capitol Hill. She worked for then-Congressman Norman Mineta for seven years as a Staff Assistant and Executive Assistant before joining the staff of Senator Joe Lieberman. Winter was Senator Lieberman's Traveling Aide during his time as the Democratic candidate for Vice President in the 2000 election, she served as Director of Scheduling for Lieberman's 2004 Presidential campaign. In 2007, Winter was Mrs. Obama's first hire on the Obama Presidential campaign, she served as a close aide to Mrs. Obama throughout the 2008 campaign. After the election, Winter was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff to the First Lady and was promoted to Senior Advisor to the First Lady.

Since leaving the White House, Winter continues to serve as Mrs. Obama's personal Chief of Staff

Principle of explosion

The principle of explosion, or the principle of Pseudo-Scotus, is the law of classical logic, intuitionistic logic and similar logical systems, according to which any statement can be proven from a contradiction. That is, once a contradiction has been asserted, any proposition can be inferred from it; this is known as deductive explosion. The proof of this principle was first given by 12th century French philosopher William of Soissons; as a demonstration of the principle, consider two contradictory statements – "All lemons are yellow" and "Not all lemons are yellow", suppose that both are true. If, the case, anything can be proven, e.g. the assertion that "unicorns exist", by using the following argument: We know that "All lemons are yellow", as it has been assumed to be true. Therefore, the two-part statement "All lemons are yellow OR unicorns exist” must be true, since the first part is true. However, since we know that "Not all lemons are yellow", the first part is false, hence the second part must be true, i.e. unicorns exist.

Due to the principle of explosion, the existence of a contradiction in a formal axiomatic system is disastrous. Around the turn of the 20th century, the discovery of contradictions such as Russell's paradox at the foundations of mathematics thus threatened the entire structure of mathematics. Mathematicians such as Gottlob Frege, Ernst Zermelo, Abraham Fraenkel, Thoralf Skolem put much effort into revising set theory to eliminate these contradictions, resulting in the modern Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory. In a different solution to these problems, a few mathematicians have devised alternate theories of logic called paraconsistent logics, which eliminate the principle of explosion; these allow some contradictory statements to be proved without affecting other proofs. In symbolic logic, the principle of explosion can be expressed schematically in the following way: P, ¬ P ⊢ Q Below is a formal proof of the principle using symbolic logic This is just the symbolic version of the informal argument given in the introduction, with P standing for "all lemons are yellow" and Q standing for "Unicorns exist".

We start out by assuming that not all lemons are yellow. From the proposition that all lemons are yellow, we infer that either all lemons are yellow or unicorns exist, but from this and the fact that not all lemons are yellow, we infer that unicorns exist by disjunctive syllogism. An alternate argument for the principle stems from model theory. A sentence P is a semantic consequence of a set of sentences Γ only if every model of Γ is a model of P, but there is no model of the contradictory set. A fortiori, there is no model of, not a model of Q. Thus, every model of is a model of Q, thus Q is a semantic consequence of. Paraconsistent logics have been developed. Model-theoretic paraconsistent logicians deny the assumption that there can be no model of and devise semantical systems in which there are such models. Alternatively, they reject the idea that propositions can be classified as false. Proof-theoretic paraconsistent logics deny the validity of one of the steps necessary for deriving an explosion including disjunctive syllogism, disjunction introduction, reductio ad absurdum.

The metamathematical value of the principle of explosion is that for any logical system where this principle holds, any derived theory which proves ⊥ is worthless because all its statements would become theorems, making it impossible to distinguish truth from falsehood. That is to say, the principle of explosion is an argument for the law of non-contradiction in classical logic, because without it all truth statements become meaningless. Reduction in proof strength of logics without ex falso are discussed in minimal logic. Consequentia mirabilis – Clavius's Law Dialetheism – belief in the existence of true contradictions Law of excluded middle – every proposition is true or false Law of noncontradiction – no proposition can be both true and not true Paraconsistent logic – a family of logics used to address contradictions Paradox of entailment – a seeming paradox derived from the principle of explosion Reductio ad absurdum – concluding that a proposition is false because it produces a contradiction Trivialism – the belief that all statements of the form "P and not-

Puppet on a Chain

Puppet on a Chain is a novel by Scottish author Alistair MacLean. Published in 1969 with a cover by Norman Weaver, it is set in the late 1960s narcotics underworld of Amsterdam and other locations in the Netherlands. Paul Sherman is a veteran Interpol Narcotics Bureau agent, used to independent action and blunt force tactics, he is assisted by one an experienced operative, the other a rookie. Sherman is in the Netherlands after receiving word about a vicious heroin smuggling ring from a friend. However, the narco-criminals will kill ruthlessly to protect its operation and before Sherman can leave Schiphol Airport he has witnessed the gunning down of his key contact, been knocked half-unconscious by an assassin, tangled with local authorities. "Puppet on a Chain" has the standard twisting plot, local atmospherics, sardonic dialogue that were Maclean's trademarks as a story-teller. Maclean allows his protagonist to have a bantering sarcastic relationship with his assistants that provides a streak of humor as the plot unfolds.

Sherman's relationship with his assistants is used against him. As his investigation is undermined by betrayal, leaving him a half-step behind his adversaries, Sherman must resort to violent action to turn the tables; the story culminates in a violent struggle above the streets of Amsterdam to save the life of his surviving female operative, not knowing whether anyone they meet can be trusted. The New York Times called the book "one of the best in the Greene-Ambler-MacInnes tradition... the writing is as crisp as a sunny winter morning". The book became a best seller. Puppet on a Chain appeared in film as a 1972 movie directed by Geoffrey Reeve; the 1976 super hit Bollywood movie Charas, starring Dharmendra and Hema Malini was an adaptation of this story. Book review at AlistairMacLean.com Internet Movie Database

603

Year 603 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 603 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Spring – Witteric, counting on the support of the nobles, attacks the royal palace in Toledo and overthrows King Liuva II, he has him executed. Witteric becomes new king of the Visigoths. King Agilulf besieges Cremona, with the assistance of the Slavs the city is destroyed, he captures Mantua. Agilulf, under the influence of his wife Theodelinda, abandons Arianism for Catholicism, is with his son Adaloald baptised in the Cathedral of Monza, where the Iron Crown of Lombardy is installed; the last mention of the Roman Senate is made. It mentions that the Senate has acclaimed new statues of Empress Leontia. Battle of Degsastan: King Æthelfrith of Northumbria defeats the combined forces of the Strathclyde Britons and Scots under Áedán mac Gabráin, establishing the supremacy of the Angles in the northern part of what will become known as the British Isles.

Emperor Wéndi stabilises the Chinese Empire. Prince Shōtoku of Japan establishes a twelve level cap and rank system, is said to have authored a seventeen-article constitution. Rebellious Göktürks kill the ambitious ruler Tardu, of the Western Turkic Khaganate. Heshana Khan succeeds his father Tardu as ruler of the Göktürks, levies heavy taxes on the Tiele people. Schuttern Abbey is founded by the wandering Irish monk Offo; the future Pope Boniface III is appointed papal legate to Constantinople. Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali, Muslim scholar Dagobert I, king of the Franks Li Daozong, prince of the Tang Dynasty Li Yuanji, prince of the Tang Dynasty Pacal the Great, ruler of Palenque Yeon Gaesomun, dictator of Goguryeo Fintan of Clonenagh, Irish abbot Liuva II, king of the Visigoths Mungo, Brythonic bishop Tardu, ruler of the Göktürks