Geologic time scale
The table of geologic time spans, presented here, agrees with the nomenclature and standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that Earth is about 4.54 billion years old, the geology or deep time of Earth’s past has been organized into various units according to events which took place in each period. Older time spans, which predate the reliable record, are defined by their absolute age. Some other planets and moons within the Solar System have sufficiently rigid structures to have preserved records of their own histories, for example, Mars, dominantly fluid planets, such as the gas giants, do not preserve their history in a comparable manner. Apart from the Late Heavy Bombardment, events on other planets probably had little influence on the Earth. Construction of a scale that links the planets is, therefore, of only limited relevance to the Earths time scale. The existence and terrestrial effects of the Late Heavy Bombardment is still debated, the largest defined unit of time is the supereon, composed of eons.
Eons are divided into eras, which are in turn divided into periods, the terms eonothem, system and stage are used to refer to the layers of rock that correspond to these periods of geologic time in Earths history. Geologists qualify these units as early and late when referring to time, and lower, for example, the lower Jurassic Series in chronostratigraphy corresponds to the early Jurassic Epoch in geochronology. The adjectives are capitalized when the subdivision is formally recognized, and lower case when not, thus early Miocene but Early Jurassic. Geologic units from the time but different parts of the world often look different and contain different fossils. For example, in North America the Lower Cambrian is called the Waucoban series that is subdivided into zones based on succession of trilobites. In East Asia and Siberia, the unit is split into Alexian, Atdabanian. A key aspect of the work of the International Commission on Stratigraphy is to reconcile this conflicting terminology, the term Anthropocene is used informally by popular culture and a growing number of scientists to describe the current epoch in which we are living.
The term was coined by Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer in 2000 to describe the current time, others say that humans have not even started to leave their biggest impact on Earth, and therefore the Anthropocene hasnt even started yet. Whatever the case, the ICS has not officially approved the term, leonardo da Vinci concurred with Aristotles interpretation that fossils represented the remains of ancient life. The 11th-century Persian geologist Avicenna and the 13th-century Dominican bishop Albertus Magnus extended Aristotles explanation into a theory of a petrifying fluid. Avicenna first proposed one of the principles underlying geologic time scales, the Chinese naturalist Shen Kuo recognized the concept of deep time
Byron Bay, New South Wales
Byron Bay is a beachside town located in the far-northeastern corner of the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 772 kilometres north of Sydney and 165 kilometres south of Brisbane, Cape Byron, a headland adjacent to the town, is the easternmost point of mainland Australia. At the 2011 census, the town had a permanent population of 4,959, the town is in turn the nucleus of Byron Shire, which had 29,209 residents. The local Arakwal Aboriginal peoples name for the area is Cavvanbah, Lieutenant James Cook named Cape Byron after Naval officer John Byron, circumnavigator of the world and grandfather of the poet Lord Byron. The history of Europeans in Byron Bay began in 1770, when Lieutenant James Cook found a safe anchorage, the first industry in Byron was cedar logging from the Australian red cedar. Gold mining of the beaches was the industry to occur. Up to 20 mining leases set up on Tallow Beach to extract gold from the sands around the 1870s. Byron Bay has a history of industrial production and was a significant.
The poet Brunton Stephens spoke of cattle grazing on the plains of Cape Byron in a poem he penned in 1876. The first jetty was built in 1886, and the railway was connected in 1894, dairy farmers cleared more land and settled the area. In 1895, the Norco Co-operative was formed to provide storage and manage the dairy industry. The introduction of improved production, and Byron Bay exported butter to the world. The Norco factory was the biggest in the hemisphere, expanding from dairy to bacon. The lighthouse was built in 1901 at the most easterly point on the Australian mainland, in 1930, the first meatworks opened. The smell from the meat and dairy works was, by all accounts, sand mining between the World Wars damaged the environment further, and one by one, all these industries declined. Longboard surfers arrived in the 1960s and used natural breaks at The Pass and Cosy Corner. This was the beginning of Byron Bay as a tourist destination, and by 1973, shipwrecks litter the bay and surrounding areas.
Byron Bay is part of the caldera of an ancient shield volcano, the Tweed Volcano
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
The Breakfast Creek is a small urban stream that is a tributary of the Brisbane River, located in suburban Brisbane in the South East region of Queensland, Australia. Travelling up the Brisbane River the creek is the first to join the river on its northern banks, the heritage-listed Breakfast Creek Hotel is located near the confluence with the Brisbane River and is known for serving XXXX beer exclusively from wooden barrels. The shorter race in the annual Bridge to Brisbane fun run starts at the Breakfast Creek bridge, john Oxley and Allan Cunningham met members of an aboriginal clan at the mouth of the creek in 1824. After they had breakfast at the minor conflict with the aboriginals arose after one of them grabbed Oxleys hat. Oxley named the waterway in remembrance of the incident, an important Aboriginal camping ground occupied the Breakfast Creek / Hamilton area until it was broken up by police raids in the 1860s. The camp was one of the sources from which local Aboriginal people supplied the Moreton Bay colony with fish.
It was where Aboriginal leader Dalaipi spoke his famous Indictments which were published in the Moreton Bay Courier in 1858, one of the white first settlers on the creek was Patrick Leslie who in 1845 built the still-standing Newstead House. Brisbanes Cantonese community, who had established businesses in Fortitude Valley and built the Temple of the Holy Triad in 1886, settled in the flats around Breakfast Creek and Eagle Farm. During dry times in the colony of Moreton Bay, when water from the Roma Street reservoir was depleted. Various streets close to Breakfast Creek were affected by Brisbane floods in 1893,1974, a number of floods destroyed early bridges across the creek. The first permanent bridge was built in 1858 using ironbark, as the timber of the bridge eroded, a second metal bridge was built in 1889. As traffic levels over the increased, it became necessary to build a third larger concrete bridge in 1958. Remnants of the bridge can still be seen and are listed on the Brisbane Heritage Register.
List of rivers of Queensland University of Queensland, Queensland Places, Breakfast Creek
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism and these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, a few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level and these colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains, different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m, there is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain, whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. The highest point in San Francisco, California, is called Mount Davidson, notwithstanding its height of 300 m, Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittows Dictionary of Physical Geography states Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, in addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement, typically 100 or 500 feet. For a while, the US defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, any similar landform lower than this height was considered a hill. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US, using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, and 14% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earths land mass is mountainous, there are three main types of mountains, volcanic and block.
All three types are formed from plate tectonics, when portions of the Earths crust move, compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, at a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain, magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US
It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peaks key col is a point on this contour line. By convention, the prominence of Mount Everest, the Earths highest mountain, is taken to equal the elevation of its summit above sea level, if the peaks prominence is P metres, to get from the summit to any higher terrain one must descend at least P metres. Together with the convention for Mount Everest, this implies that the prominence of any island or continental highpoint is equal to its elevation above sea level, for every ridge connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the ridge. The key col is defined as the highest of these cols, the prominence is the difference between the elevation of the peak and the elevation of the key col. The following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence, imagine you are standing at the top of a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to your feet. Now slowly lower the sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet.
Your island will grow and will merge with other islands that emerge, the parent peak may be either close or far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, the key col may be close or far from the subject peak. The key col for Aconcagua is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km, the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is a measurement that is strongly correlated with the subjective significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or relatively insignificant independent summits, peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around and are likely to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains, for example, the worlds second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everests South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a subsummit of the main summit, many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as a criterion for inclusion, or cutoff.
John and Anne Nuttalls The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, in the contiguous United States, the famous list of fourteeners uses a cutoff of 300 ft /91 m. Also in the U. S.2000 feet of prominence has become a threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are different from lists ranked by elevation. Such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points, one advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff, since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak
Coolangatta is the southernmost suburb of City of Gold Coast, Australia. It is named after the schooner Coolangatta which was wrecked there in 1846, at the 2011 Australian Census the suburb recorded a population of 5,193. Coolangatta and its immediate neighbouring Twin Town Tweed Heads in New South Wales have a shared economy. The Tweed River supports a fishing fleet, and the seafood is a local specialty offered in the restaurants and clubs of the holiday. The Gold Coast Airport, formerly known as Coolangatta Airport, is located at Coolangatta, Coolangatta was one of the earliest settlements on the Gold Coast. Once again focused on a headland at Point Danger the area was occupied by Europeans from at least 1828 by a convict station. Selectors followed in the 1860s and a settlement at Coolangatta was established. In 1883 a township was surveyed, Coolangatta was wrecked on Kirra / Bilinga Beach adjacent to a creek during a storm on Wednesday August 18,1846. On July 6,1846, the ship sailed under Captain Steele from Brisbane, Steele found the river entrance closed by silt forming a bar, so he anchored in the lee of Point Danger off Kirra Beach.
Red cedar logs were hauled overland from Terranora Inlet and rafted from the beach. Meanwhile, five ships loaded with red cedar were bar-bound inside the river, on August 18,1846, while Steel was ashore, a south-east gale blew up. Steeles boat was damaged while getting through the surf and he watched from the beach as the gale intensified, the prisoners were freed and all hands abandoned ship and swam for shore as the anchors dragged. The ship parted its anchors and washed ashore near what was called Coolangatta Creek, the survivors walked 70 miles north to Amity Point in six days, fed each night by different groups of friendly indigenous Australians, and were taken into Brisbane on board the Tamar. Government surveyor Henry Schneider named the area Coolangatta while surveying in 1883 for the auction in March 1884. As a border town Coolangatta included an office, boatshed. Extension of the South Coast railway from Nerang railway station to Tweed Heads opened on 10 August 1903, the railway guaranteed the success of Coolangatta as a holiday township and it flourished from that time forward.
The Tweed Heads and Coolangatta Surf Life Saving Club opened on 13 September 1911, guesthouses and hotels were erected and a commercial centre soon followed. In January 1919 the border between Queensland and New South Wales was closed to all traffic in response to the 1918 flu pandemic in an attempt to stop the spread of the north into Queensland
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa.
In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party.
June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Tamborine Mountain is a 28 square kilometres plateau and locality in the Scenic Rim local government area of South East Queensland, Australia. In the 2011 census, Tamborine Mountain had a population of 7,030 people, the name is of Aboriginal origin and has nothing to do with the musical instrument. It is considered part of the Gold Coast hinterland and has a strong tourist industry, Tamborine Mountain was inhabited by Aborigines for tens of thousands of years and, at the time of early European settlement, lay in the territory of the Wangerriburras. The origin of the name Tamborine comes from the Anglicised version of the Aboriginal word Jambreen from the Yugambeh language, the spelling appears on early records as Tchambreem and even Goombireen, which means wild lime and refers to the finger lime trees growing on the mountain. Until it was opened for selection in 1878 it was covered with a range of forest types. In that year the first white settler, John OCallaghan selected a parcel of land on the mountain.
Much clearing for agriculture took place, though efforts were made to protect the values of the area, with Witches Falls National Park being declared in 1908. The Tamborine National Park is made up of 12 separate sections of land, mainly remnant rainforest, on the plateau, a tourist road to the mountain was opened in 1924. Tamborine Mountain rises at the start of the north-east section of the Scenic Rim, the climate is subtropical, with the annual rainfall of about 1,550 mm falling mainly between December and March. Temperatures vary between maxima of 17 °C in winter and 25 °C in summer, and are usually 5 °C to 7 °C degrees cooler than the surrounding lowlands. Winters are usually dry and sunny, with maximum temperatures. With its fertile red soil and high rainfall, the plateau produces rich crops of avocados, passionfruit, rhubarb. With its cool climate and spectacular scenery, as well as its proximity to Brisbane, the Mountain receives an average of 102.9 clear days, annually. It includes the southern fragments of the Tamborine National Park, the IBA supports an isolated northern population of Alberts lyrebirds, as well as pale-yellow robins, green catbirds, regent bowerbirds and Australian logrunners.
Additional significant birds recorded from the site are glossy black cockatoos, sooty owls, marbled frogmouths, other animals present in the IBA include platypuses, short-beaked echidnas and Richmond birdwings. Human settlement on the plateau is centred on three village communities, North Tamborine, Eagle Heights and Mount Tamborine, with a population of about 5,100. The plateau is classified as an area, with zoning restrictions that prohibit property from being subdivided. There is no reticulated water supply or sewerage system, and residents are dependent on rainwater, many residents commute to work on the Gold Coast or in Brisbane
The McPherson Range is an extensive mountain range, a spur of the Great Dividing Range, heading in an easterly direction from near Wallangarra to the Pacific Ocean coastline. It forms part of the Scenic Rim on the border between the states of New South Wales and Queensland, further west of the McPherson Range is the Main Range. Towards the coast the range continues into the Border Ranges and other mountainous terrain formed by the Tweed Volcano, the Australian electoral Division of McPherson was named after the mountain range. Wilsons Peak is considered to be the intersection of the Great Divide, there are five waterfalls in this part of the range including Teviot Falls, Queen Mary Falls, Daggs Falls, Browns Falls and Upper Browns Falls. Other notable mountains in the range include Mount Lindesay and Mount Barney, the Sydney–Brisbane rail corridor and the Lions Road pass over the range at Richmond Gap, as does the Mount Lindesay Highway and the Nerang-Murwillumbah Road. A third passage through Teviot Gap, provides a route between Boonah and Killarney near Wilsons Peak.
The ranges were first explored by white settlers in 1828, the party was headed by Allan Cunningham and Patrick Logan while searching for a route to the Darling Downs from the newly established Moreton Bay penal colony. Logan had climbed Mount Barney thinking that he was on Mount Warning until he reached the summit, realising they were on another range they named it the McPherson Range. Logan named Wilsons Peak and Mount Shadforth, which is now known as Mount Toowoonan, the McPherson Range was the location of the Stinson airliner crash, which went missing on a flight between Brisbane and Sydney in 1937. Alfonso Bernard OReilly, a farmer, trekked through thick forests and rugged terrain to discover the wreck. The sub-tropical rainforest on the range has never been damaged by bushfires and contains more than 20 species of rock. The stream lily is a plant found along creeks and gullies of the range. The extinct fern species Antrophyum austroqueenslandicum may still exist in unsurveyed parts of the range, the unique Lamington spiny crayfish colours has evolved with white in New South Wales valleys and blue crayfish in Queenslands section of the range.
Gold Coast hinterland List of mountains in Australia Media related to McPherson Range, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons