Port Augusta is a small city in South Australia. It is a seaport and railway junction city mainly located on the east coast of the Spencer Gulf immediately south of the gulfs head, the suburb of Port Augusta West is located on the west side of the gulf on the Eyre Peninsula. Other major industries included, up until mid-2010s, electricity generation, at June 2015, the estimated urban population was 14,214. The urban area consists of the following suburbs laid out from east to west - Port Augusta and Davenport on the side of Spencer Gulf. It is a harbour, which was founded on 24 May 1852 by Alexander Elder. Mr. Grainger was a member of Government from Adelaide, the port was named after Augusta Sophia, Lady Young, the wife of the Governor of South Australia, Sir Henry Edward Fox Young. According to the 2011 Census, the population of the Port Augusta census area was 13,504 people,50. 2% of the population were female,85. 2% are Australian born, over 88. 6% of residents are Australian citizens and 17.
3% were Aboriginal. The median weekly income is A$789 or more per week. 17. 4% of the population identify themselves as Catholic, while a higher 26. 2% identify with no religion at all, Spencer Gulf is a natural barrier to land transport, so Port Augusta has naturally become the crossroads of Australia. It is at the junction of road and rail links. Port Augusta is the end of the Eyre Highway to Perth. It is the end of the Augusta Highway to Adelaide. It is the end of the Stuart Highway to Darwin. All traffic across southern Australia passes through Port Augusta, in 1878, the town became the southern terminus of a proposed North South transcontinental line, headed for Darwin 2,500 km away. This 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge railway was taken over by the Commonwealth in 1910. In 1929, it was extended to its last terminus at Alice Springs, between 1913 and 1917, a 2,000 km long east–west transcontinental railway was built from Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie in Western Australia. The standard gauge Adelaide-Darwin railway was completed in 2003.
Port Augusta is a stop on the Indian Pacific transcontinental train service on the Sydney–Perth railway, one service a week for each train in each direction serve the station
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
The Darling River is the third longest river in Australia, measuring 1,472 kilometres from its source in northern New South Wales to its confluence with the Murray River at Wentworth, New South Wales. Including its longest contiguous tributaries it is 2,844 km long, making it the longest river system in Australia, the Darling River is the outbacks most famous waterway. The Darling has been in health, suffering from overuse of its waters, pollution from pesticide runoff. In some years it has barely flowed at all, the river has a high salt content and declining water quality. Increased rainfall in its catchment in 2010 has improved flow, the Division of Darling, Division of Riverina-Darling, Electoral district of Darling and Electoral district of Lachlan and Lower Darling were named after the river. The Queensland headwaters of the Darling were gradually colonised from 1815 onward, in 1828 the explorer Charles Sturt and Hamilton Hume were sent by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Ralph Darling, to investigate the course of the Macquarie River.
He discovered the Bogan River and then, early in 1829, the upper Darling, in 1835, Major Thomas Mitchell travelled a 483-kilometre portion of the Darling River. Although his party never reached the junction with the Murray River he correctly assumed the rivers joined, in 1856, the Blandowski Expedition set off for the junction of the Darling and Murray Rivers to discover and collect fish species for the National Museum. The expedition was a success with 17,400 specimens arriving in Adelaide the next year, but over the past century the rivers importance as a transportation route has declined. In 1992, the Darling River suffered from severe cyanobacterial bloom that stretched the length of the river, the presence of phosphorus was essential for the toxic algae to flourish. Flow rates, turbulence and temperature were other contributing factors, in 2008, the Federal government purchased Toorale Station in northern New South Wales for A$23 million. The purchase allowed the government to return 11 gigalitres of environmental flows back into the Darling and its meandering course is three times longer than the direct distance it traverses.
Much of the land that the Darling flows through are plains and is relatively flat. Other rivers join the Darling near Bourke or below - the Bogan River, South east of Broken Hill, the Menindee Lakes are a series of lakes that were once connected to the Darling River by short creeks. The Menindee Lake Scheme has reduced the frequency of flooding in the Menindee Lakes, as a result, about 13,800 hectares of lignum and 8,700 hectares of Black box have been destroyed. Weirs and constant low flows have fragmented the river system and blocked fish passage, the Darling River runs south-south-west, leaving the Far West region of New South Wales, to join the Murray River on the New South Wales - Victoria border at Wentworth, New South Wales. The Barrier Highway at Wilcania, the Silver City Highway at Wentworth, part of the river north of Menindee marks the border of Kinchega National Park. In response to the 1956 Murray River flood a weir was constructed at Menindee to mitigate flows from the Darling River, the north of the Darling River is in the Southeast Australia temperate savanna ecoregion and the south west of the Darling is part of the Murray Darling Depression ecoregion
William Barak, was the last traditional ngurungaeta of the Wurundjeri-willam clan, first inhabitants of present-day Melbourne, Australia. He became a spokesman for Aboriginal social justice and an important informant on Wurundjeri cultural lore. Barak was born in the early 1820s at Brushy Creek near present-day Croydon and his mother, came from the Nourailum bulluk at Murchison, Victoria. His father, was an important member of the Wurundjeri clan, Barak was said to have been present as a boy when John Batman met with the tribal elders to purchase the Melbourne area in 1835. Before he died he described witnessing the signing of the treaty in a ceremony he called a tanderem, ninggalobin and Billibellary were the leading song makers and principal Wurundjeri leaders in the Melbourne region. European colonisation had caused disruptions to initiation ceremonies, in response these three men gathered at South Yarra in the late 1830s and inducted the young William Barak into Aboriginal lore. At the end of the ceremony Barak presented his uncle, Barak attended the government’s Yarra Mission School from 1837 to 1839.
When he joined the Native Mounted Police in 1844, he was given the name of William Barak, in early 1863, Barak moved to Coranderrk Station, near Healesville, Victoria with about thirty others. Upon the death of Simon Wonga in 1875, Barak became the Ngurungaeta of the clan and he worked tirelessly for his people and was a successful negotiator on their behalf. He was a respected man and leader, with standing amongst the Indigenous people. Barak died at Coranderrk in 1903 and is buried at the Coranderrk cemetery and he was about 85 years old. Barak is now best remembered for his artworks, which both traditional Indigenous life and encounters with Europeans. Most of Baraks drawings were completed at Coranderrk during the 1880s and 1890s and they are now highly prized and exhibited in leading public galleries in Australia. His work is on permanent display in the National Gallery of Victoria Ian Potter Centre at Federation Square, ceremony is housed at the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery. In 2006 a permanent sound installation called Proximities was installed on the bridge and it was designed by David Chesworth and Sonia Leber.
Its central section features a song sung in Woiwurrung by Wurundjeri Elder. In 2015 a 279-foot-tall image of William Barak was used to form the facade of an apartment building called Swanston Square in Melbourne. The portrait is formed by the white balconies against a black wall, remembering Barak at the National Gallery of Victoria
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone. Although stone tool-dependent societies and cultures still exist today, most stone tools are associated with prehistoric, archaeologists often study such prehistoric societies, and refer to the study of stone tools as lithic analysis. Ethnoarchaeology has been a research field in order to further the understanding and cultural implications of stone tool use. Stone has been used to make a variety of different tools throughout history, including arrow heads, spearpoints. Stone tools may be made of ground stone or chipped stone. Chipped stone tools are made from materials such as chert or flint, chalcedony, basalt. One simple form of reduction is to strike stone flakes from a nucleus of material using a hammerstone or similar hard hammer fabricator, if the goal of the reduction strategy is to produce flakes, the remnant lithic core may be discarded once it has become too small to use. In some strategies, however, a flintknapper reduces the core to a rough unifacial or bifacial preform, more complex forms of reduction include the production of highly standardized blades, which can be fashioned into a variety of tools such as scrapers, knives and microliths.
Archaeologists classify stone tools into industries that share distinctive technological or morphological characteristics and he assigned to them relative dates, Modes 1 and 2 to the Lower Palaeolithic,3 to the Middle Palaeolithic,4 to the Advanced and 5 to the Mesolithic. They were not to be conceived, however, as either universal—that is, they did not account for all lithic technology, Mode 1, for example, was in use in Europe long after it had been replaced by Mode 2 in Africa. Clarkes scheme was adopted enthusiastically by the archaeological community, one of its advantages was the simplicity of terminology, for example, the Mode 1 / Mode 2 Transition. The transitions are currently of greatest interest, Kenya Stone tools found from 2011 to 2014 at Lake Turkana in Kenya, are dated to be 3.3 million years old, and predate the genus Homo by half million years. The oldest known Homo fossil is 2.8 million years old compared to the 3.3 million year old stone tools. Dating of the tools was by dating volcanic ash layers in which the tools were found, Oldowan tools were characterised by their simple construction, predominantly using core forms.
The blunt end is the surface, the sharp, the distal. Grasping the proximal surface, the hominid brought the surface down hard on an object he wished to detach or shatter. The earliest known Oldowan tools yet found date from 2.6 million years ago, during the Lower Palaeolithic period, and have been uncovered at Gona in Ethiopia. Homo habilis was the hominin who used the tools for most of the Oldowan in Africa, more complex, Mode 2 tools began to be developed through the Acheulean Industry, named after the site of Saint-Acheul in France
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 4,641,636 as of 2016, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August 1835, in what was the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named Melbourne by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government until 1927. It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a centre for street art, music. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong.
The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize
The towns of Ararat and Hamilton are within their territory. There were 41 Djab wurrung clans who formed an alliance with the neighboring Jardwadjali people through intermarriage, shared culture, alternate transcriptions of the name are Chaap Wuurong, Tjapwuring, Tjapwurong etc. The Djab wurrung were a society, with descent system based on the Gamadj and Grugidj moieties. Grugidj sub-totems included pelican, parrot and large kangaroo, Gamadj sub-totems included emu, whip snake, possum and sparrowhawk. Clans intermarried with the Dja Dja Wurrung, Dhauwurd wurrung, the Djab Wurrung were semi-nomadic hunter gatherers within their territorial boundaries. During early Autumn there were gatherings of up to 1000 people for one to two months hosted at the Mount William swamp or at Lake Bolac for the annual eel migration. Several tribes attended these gatherings including the Girai wurrung, Djargurd wurrung, Dhauwurd wurrung, near Lake Bolac a semi-permanent village extended some 35 kilometres along the river bank during autumn.
George Augustus Robinson on 7 July 1841 described some of the infrastructure that had constructed near Mount William. an area of at least 15 acres was thus traced out. These works must have been executed at great cost of labour, there must have been some thousands of yards of this trenching and banking. The whole of the water from the mountain rivulets is made to pass through this trenching ere it reaches the marsh, in mid summer gatherings for ceremony and hunting took place at Mirraewuae, a marsh near Hexham rich with emu and other game. The ball is about the size of an orange, and is made of opossum-skin, tom Wills family moved to a station near Ararat around 1840, when he was 5 years old, and he grew up often playing with the local aboriginal kids and learning the local dialect. He was influential in establishing and codifying Australian Rules football, some of the Djab wurrung clans are thought to have practiced burial of their dead in trees. Djab wurrung was one of four primary languages spoken in western Victoria, sub dialects included Djab wurrung, Knenknen wurrung, and Pirtpirt wurrung.
The Djab wurrung occupied their lands for up to 40,000 years, although the oldest known occupation site and it is likely the Djab wurrung were well aware of Europeans from their communications with coastal tribes. Their first explicit contact was with Major Thomas Mitchell exploring western Victoria in September 1836 when he surprised two women of the Utoul balug and their children near Mount Cole, two years later, in 1838, the squatters with their sheep started settling in Djab wurrung country. European Settlement from 1836 was marked by resistance to the invasion often by driving off or stealing sheep which resulted in conflict, from 1840 to 1859 there were reports of 35 massacres and killings of Djab wurrung people, most occurring before the end of 1842. Very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court, resistance took the form of maintaining connections to country and culture through whatever means were available. The Campbell brothers discouraged white employees from visiting the out-stations further reducing possible interaction, archeological evidence shows that the Beeripmo balug and Utoul balug maintained their connection to country and food diet well into the 1860s on the property
North Central Victoria
North Central Victoria is a rural region in the Australian state of Victoria. As at the 2011 Australian census, the North Central region had a population of 239,438, a climate change study by LaTrobe University includes the Shire of Hepburn within the region. The major urban centres are Bendigo, Castlemaine and Rochester, smaller localities include Kyneton, Pyramid Hill, Kerang and Creswick. In 2002 the estimated population of North Central Victoria was 200,000, the climate is moderate with wet winters and warm, dry summers. Annual rainfall ranges from 350 millimetres near Swan Hill in the north, temperatures are warm in summer, typically ranging from a maximum of 31 °C to a minimum of 14 °C in Kerang in the northwest and from 27 °C to 11 °C in the south. Winters are cool with temperatures of 2–4 °C across the region. This includes the management of water allocations and environmental protection for the Avon-Richardson, Campaspe. Regional water consumption for irrigation and domestic use greatly exceeds local supply, irrigation consumes an average 1.4 gigalitres per annum, while domestic use consumes around 40,000 megalitres per annum.
More than 75% of regional water needs are met from water imports from the Goulburn Valley and upper Murray River catchments to the north and west. An extensive network of natural lakes includes Lake Buloke, Lake Batyo Catyo near the town of Donald, the predominant land use is agriculture, including sheep and cattle grazing and the production of cereals and legumes. The gross value of agricultural output exceeds $0.8 billion a year, forestry is a major employer in the area surrounding the former gold rush towns of Creswick and Daylesford, with a substantial output of firewood, furniture timber and Eucalyptus oil. Approximately 13% of the North Central catchment is public land, comprising flora reserves and state and national parks
They were part of the Kulin alliance of tribes. There were 16 clans, which adhered to a patrilineal system, like the other Kulin peoples there were two moieties, Bunjil the eagle and Waa the crow. The Dja Dja Wurrung were bound to their land by their belief system deriving from the Dreaming, when mythic beings had created the world. They were part of established trade networks which allowed goods and information to flow over substantial distances, the Tachylite deposits near Spring Hill and the Coliban River may have been important trade goods as stone artefacts from this material have been found around Victoria. There is evidence that smallpox swept through the Dja Dja Wurrung in 1789 and 1825, the epidemics were incorporated into aboriginal mythology as a giant snake, the Mindye, sent by Bunjil, to blow magic dust over people to punish them for being bad. The trade networks would have carried news of the white men settling on the Eora land in the early 1790s. Thomas Mitchell was probably the first white man to be seen in Dja Dja Wurrung country when he explored and surveyed central Victoria in 1836, the settlement of the Goulburn and Loddon Districts began the following year by squatters eager to carve out a station and run.
On 7 February 1841 Munangabum was shot and wounded by settlers while his companion Gondiurmin died at Far Creek Station, three settlers were apprehended and tried on 18 May 1841 but were acquitted for want of evidence as aborigines could not give evidence in courts of law. He was murdered in 1846 by a rival clan-head from the south, an important source of frontier conflict was sexual relations between European settlers and aboriginal women. Abduction and rape of women was relatively common, often leading to violent interactions. Parker expressed in 1842 the firm conviction and that nine out of ten outrages committed by the blacks derived either directly or indirectly from sexual relations. The Dja Dja wurrung peoples experienced two waves of settlement and dispossession, from the south from 1837 and from the north from 1845, very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court. On the few occasions when this did happen, the cases were dismissed as aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law.
The incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported and he arrived in Melbourne in January 1839 with Robinson appointing Parker to the northwest or Loddon District in March. He did not start his protectorate until September 1839, the Protectors duties included to safeguard aborigines from encroachments on their property, and from acts of cruelty, of oppression or injustice and a longer term goal of civilising the natives. Parker initially established his base at Jacksons Creek near Sunbury, which was not close enough to the nations of his protectorate. The Governor of NSW, Sir George Gipps and stations or reserves for each protector were approved in 1840. Parkers original choice for a reserve in September 1840 was a site, known as Neereman by the Dja Dja Wurrung, on Bet Bet Creek a tributary of the Loddon River
Australian National Heritage List
The Australian National Heritage List is a heritage register, a list of national heritage places deemed to be of outstanding heritage significance to Australia. The list includes natural and indigenous places, once on the National Heritage List the provisions of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 apply. The Australian National Heritage List, together with the Commonwealth Heritage List, in addition, the place must pass a significance threshold, it must have outstanding heritage value to the nation as a whole. This is determined by comparison to similar places. The Australian National Heritage List comprises the following sites, A One of 15 World Heritage places included in the National Heritage List on 21 May 2007, B Yard 4 North was added on 4 August 2009. Commonwealth Heritage List Media related to Australian National Heritage List at Wikimedia Commons Australian National Heritage List