Mount Lincoln (Colorado)
Mount Lincoln is the eighth-highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14,293-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Mosquito Range and the eleventh-highest summit in the contiguous United States. Mount Lincoln is located in Pike National Forest, 5.2 miles north-northwest of the Town of Alma in Park County, United States. The summit of Mount Lincoln is the highest point in Park County and the entire drainage basin of the Missouri River; the mountain was named in honor of Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States. Mount Lincoln is climbed from the east, starting at the Roberts Road Trailhead off of Colorado Highway 9. Multiple routes ascend from this trailhead; the shortest route climbs 3,000 ft in 3.5 mi, with the upper part of the route involving hiking on broken granite and shale. Many climbers attempt to combine the summit of Lincoln with those of Bross and Democrat in one climb. Silver was discovered here in 1874. Mount Lincoln, along with its neighbors Cameron and Bross, are pockmarked with old mines, much of the land is owned by mining companies.
In the summer of 2005, these landowners denied access to the peaks by hikers and climbers, fearing liability in the case of injury, citing the particular dangers due to the presence of old mine workings. On August 1, 2006, the town of Alma signed a deal to lease the peaks for a nominal fee, to reduce the potential liability to the owners and free up the peaks for recreational access; the opening of these peaks excludes the summit of Mount Bross since not all of the landowners have given permission for access to the area. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners Mount Cameron on 14ers.com Mount Lincoln on Distantpeak.com Mount Lincoln on Summitpost
Pico de Orizaba
Pico de Orizaba known as Citlaltépetl, is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America, after Denali of Alaska in the United States and Mount Logan of Canada. It rises 5,636 metres above sea level in the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, on the border between the states of Veracruz and Puebla; the volcano is dormant but not extinct, with the last eruption taking place during the 19th century. It is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Pico de Orizaba overlooks the city of Orizaba, from which it gets its name; the name Citlaltépetl is not used by Nahuatl speakers of the Orizaba area, who instead call it Istaktepetl, or'White Mountain'. Citlaltépetl comes from the Náhuatl citlalli and tepētl and thus means "Star Mountain"; this name is thought to be based on the fact that the snow-covered peak can be seen year round for hundreds of kilometers throughout the region. During the colonial era, the volcano was known as Cerro de San Andrés due to the nearby settlement of San Andrés Chalchicomula at its base.
A third name, which means "the one that colors or illuminates", has been recorded. This name was given by the Tlaxcaltecs in memory of their lost country; the peak of Citlaltépetl rises to an elevation of 5,636 m above sea level. Regionally dominant, Pico de Orizaba is the highest peak in Mexico and the highest volcano in North America. Orizaba is ranked 7th in the world in topographic prominence, it is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro, the volcano is ranked 16th in the world for topographic isolation. About 110 km to the west of the port of Veracruz, its peak is visible to ships approaching the port in the Gulf of Mexico, at dawn rays of sunlight strike the Pico while Veracruz still lies in shadow; the topography of Pico de Orizaba is asymmetrical from the center of the crater. The gradual slopes of the northwestern face of the volcano allows for the presence of large glaciers and is the most traveled route to take for hikers traveling to the summit.
Pico de Orizaba is one of only three volcanoes in México that continue to support glaciers and is home to the largest glacier in Mexico, Gran Glaciar Norte. Orizaba has nine known glaciers: Gran Glaciar Norte, Lengua del Chichimeco, Toro, Glaciar de la Barba, Occidental and Oriental; the equilibrium line altitude is not known for Orizaba. Snow on the south and southeast sides of the volcano melts because of solar radiation, but lower temperatures on the northwest and north sides allow for glaciers; the insolation angle and wind redeposition on the northwest and north sides allow for constant accumulation of snow providing a source for the outlet glaciers. On the north side of Orizaba, the Gran Glaciar Norte fills the elongated highland basin and is the source for seven outlet glaciers; the main glacier extends 3.5 km north of the crater rim, has a surface area of about 9.08 km2 descending from 5,650 m to about 5,000 m. It has a irregular and stepped profile, caused in part by the configuration of the bedrock.
Most crevasses show an ice thickness of 50 m. Below the 5,000 m in elevation on the north side of the volcano, the outlet glaciers Lengua del Chichimeco and Jamapa extend north and northwest another 1.5 km and 2 km, respectively. The terminal lobe of Lengua del Chichimeco at 4,740 m, having a gradient of only 140 m/km, is a low, broad ice fan that has a convex-upward profile, a front typical of all Mexican glaciers; the most distinct glacier is Glaciar de Jamapa, which leaves Gran Glaciar Norte at about 4,975 m and, after 2 km with a gradient of 145 m/km, divides into two small tongues that end at 4,650 m and 4,640 m. Both tongues terminate in broad convex-upward ice fans thinning along their edges; the retreat of these tongues prior to 1994 produced much erosion downstream and buried their edges by ablation rock debris. The west side of Gran Glaciar Norte generates five outlet glaciers. From north to south, the first two, Glaciar del Toro and Glaciar de la Barba, are hanging cliff or icefall glaciers, reaching the tops of giant lava steps at 4,930 m and 5,090 m, respectively.
They descend 200 to 300 m farther down into the heads of stream valleys as huge ice blocks but are not regenerated there. About 1 km, Glaciar Noroccidental, a small outlet glacier 300 m long, drains away from the side of Gran Glaciar Norte at about 5,100 m and draws down the ice surface a few tens of meters over a distance of 500 m, descending to 4,920 m with a gradient of 255 m/km. Another 1 km still farther south, Glaciar Occidental breaks away from Gran Glaciar Norte west of the summit crater at about 5,175 m as a steep, 1 km long glacier having a gradient of 270 m/km that ends at 4,930 m. From the southwest corner of the mountain, another outlet glacier, Glaciar Suroccidental, 1.6 km long, flows from Gran Glaciar Norte at 5,250 m with a gradient of 200 m/km, which en
Mount Antero is the highest summit of the southern Sawatch Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The prominent 14,276-foot fourteener is located in San Isabel National Forest, 12.2 miles southwest by south of the Town of Buena Vista in Chaffee County, United States. The mountain is named in honor of Chief Antero of the Uintah band of the Ute people. Mount Antero is prized for its gemstone deposits and has one of the highest concentrations of aquamarine in the country. There are several active private mining claims being exploited on Mount Antero and surrounding peaks; the peak is located due south of the more visually prominent Mount Princeton. Mount Antero is one of the most prominent peaks of the Sawatch Range, rising an impressive 7,200 feet above the town of Salida, Colorado to the southeast. There are two popular climbing routes on Mount Antero; the accepted hiking route is from the east starting at the Browns Creek Trailhead and paralleling Little Browns Creek to its upper reaches where it crosses Forest Road 1A following the road near to the summit.
The other route, which begins near the ghost town of St. Elmo, follows the same forest road from the north up Baldwin Creek; this route has heavy tourist traffic in fair weather during the summer months. The peak was surveyed by the Pike Expedition in 1806. A forest service sign at the Browns Creek trailhead commemorates the expedition camp at the eastern base of the peak. On July 20, 2018, 5-time World Champion Joseph Gray ran the fastest known time up Mount Antero from the bottom of FS road 277 to the top of Mount Antero in 1:23:10, he used a running power meter during the attempt. Antero Peak Mount Antero List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado fourteeners San Isabel National Forest Map, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Mount Antero at 14ers.com Mount Antero at Colorado Fourteeners Initiative Mount Antero at Distantpeak.com Mount Antero at ListsofJohn.com Mount Antero at Peakbagger.com Mount Antero at Peakery.com Mount Antero at USDA Forest Service Various Photos of Mt. Antero Video of Mount Antero
Mount Lucania is the third-highest mountain located in Canada. A long ridge connects Mount Lucania with the fifth-highest in Canada. Lucania was named by the Duke of Abruzzi, as he stood on the summit of Mount Saint Elias on July 31, 1897, having just completed the first ascent. Seeing Lucania in the far distance, beyond Mount Logan, he named it "after the ship on which the expedition had sailed from Liverpool to New York," the RMS Lucania; the first ascent of Mount Lucania was made in 1937 by Robert Hicks Bates. They used an airplane to reach 2,670 m above sea level. Washburn called upon Bob Reeve, a famous Alaskan bush pilot, who replied by cable to Washburn, "Anywhere you'll ride, I'll fly"; the ski-equipped Fairchild F-51 made several trips to the landing site on the glacier without event in May, but on landing with Washburn and Bates in June, the plane sank into unseasonal slush. Washburn and Reeve pressed hard for five days to get the airplane out and Reeve was able to get the airplane airborne with all excess weight removed and with the assistance of a smooth icefall with a steep drop.
Washburn and Bates continued on foot to make the first ascent of Lucania, in an epic descent and journey to civilization, they hiked over 150 miles through the wilderness to safety in the small town of Burwash Landing in the Yukon. The second ascent of Lucania was made in 1967 by Jerry Halpern, Mike Humphreys, Gary Lukis, Gerry Roach. List of mountain peaks of Canada David Roberts, Escape from Lucania: An Epic Story of Survival, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-2432-9
Mount Whitney is the tallest mountain in California, as well as the highest summit in the contiguous United States and the Sierra Nevada—with an elevation of 14,505 feet. It is in Central California, on the boundary between California's Inyo and Tulare counties, 84.6 miles west-northwest of the lowest point in North America at Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park at 282 ft below sea level. The west slope of the mountain is in Sequoia National Park and the summit is the southern terminus of the John Muir Trail which runs 211.9 mi from Happy Isles in Yosemite Valley. The east slope is in the Inyo National Forest in Inyo County; the summit of Mount Whitney is on the Great Basin Divide. It lies near many of the highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada; the peak rises above the Owens Valley, sitting 10,778 feet or just over two miles above the town of Lone Pine 15 miles to the east, in the Owens Valley. It rises more on the west side, lying only about 3,000 feet above the John Muir Trail at Guitar Lake.
The mountain is dome-shaped, with its famously jagged ridges extending to the sides. Mount Whitney has an alpine climate and ecology. Few plants grow near the summit: one example is the sky pilot, a cushion plant that grows low to the ground; the only animals are transient, such as the butterfly Parnassius phoebus and the gray-crowned rosy finch. The mountain is the highest point on the Great Basin Divide. Waterways on the west side of the peak flow into Whitney Creek; the Kern River terminates in the Tulare Basin. During wet years, water overflows from the Tulare Basin into the San Joaquin River which flows to the Pacific Ocean. From the east, water from Mount Whitney flows to Lone Pine Creek, which joins the Owens River, which in turn terminates at Owens Lake, an endorheic lake of the Great Basin; the estimated elevation of the summit of Mount Whitney has changed over the years. The technology of elevation measurement has become more refined and, more the vertical coordinate system has changed.
The peak was said to be at 14,494 ft and this is the elevation stamped on the USGS brass benchmark disk on the summit. An older plaque on the summit reads "elevation 14,496.811 feet" but this was estimated using the older vertical datum from 1929. Since the shape of the Earth has been estimated more accurately. Using a new vertical datum established in 1988 the benchmark is now estimated to be at 14,505 ft; the eastern slope of Whitney is far steeper than its western slope because the entire Sierra Nevada is the result of a fault-block, analogous to a cellar door: the door is hinged on the west and is rising on the east. The rise is caused by a normal fault system that runs along the eastern base of the Sierra, below Mount Whitney. Thus, the granite that forms Mount Whitney is the same as the granite that forms the Alabama Hills, thousands of feet lower down; the raising of Whitney is due to the same geological forces that cause the Basin and Range Province: the crust of much of the intermontane west is being stretched.
The granite that forms Mount Whitney is part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. In Cretaceous time, masses of molten rock that originated from subduction rose underneath what is now Whitney and solidified underground to form large expanses of granite. In the last 2 to 10 million years, the Sierra was pushed up which enabled glacial and river erosion to strip the upper layers of rock to reveal the resistant granite that makes up Mount Whitney today. In July 1864, the members of the California Geological Survey named the peak after Josiah Whitney, the State Geologist of California and benefactor of the survey. During the same expedition, geologist Clarence King attempted to climb Whitney from its west side, but stopped just short. In 1871, King returned to climb what he believed to be Whitney, but having taken a different approach, he summited nearby Mount Langley. Upon learning of his mistake in 1873, King completed his own first ascent of Whitney, but did so a month too late to claim the first recorded ascent.
Just a month earlier, on August 18, 1873, Charles Begole, A. H. Johnson, John Lucas, all of nearby Lone Pine, had become the first to reach the highest summit in the contiguous United States; as they climbed the mountain during a fishing trip to nearby Kern Canyon, they called the mountain Fisherman's Peak. In 1881 Samuel Pierpont Langley, founder of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory remained for some time on the summit, making daily observations on the solar heat. Accompanying Langley in 1881 was another party consisting of Judge William B. Wallace of Visalia, W. A. Wright and Reverend Frederick Wales. Wallace wrote in his memoirs that "The Pi Ute Indians called Mt. Whitney "Too-man-i-goo-yah," which means "the old man." They believe that the Great Spirit who presides over the destiny of their people once had his home in that mountain." The spelling Too-man-i-goo-yah is a transliteration from the indigenous Paiute Mono language. Other variations are Tumanguya. In 1891, the United States Geological Survey's Board on Geographic Names decided to recognize the earlier name Mount Whitney.
Despite losing out on their preferred name, residents of Lone Pine financed the first trail to the summit, engineered by Gustave Marsh, completed on July 22, 1904. Just four days the new trail enabled the first recorded death on Whitney. Having hiked the trail, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries employee Byrd Surby was struck and killed by lightning while eating lunch
For the mountain in Antarctica, see Mount Steele. Mount Steele is the fifth-highest mountain in Canada and the eleventh-highest peak in North America reaching the height of 5,073 metres. A lower southeast peak of Mt. Steele stands at 4,300 m, it was named after Sir Sam Steele, the North-West Mounted Police officer in charge of the force in the Yukon during the Klondike Gold Rush. Walter A. Wood led a team consisting of Foresta Wood, Swiss guide Hans Fuhrer, Joseph W. Fobes, Harrison Wood and I. Pearce Hazard; the expedition approached the peak on the eastern side from Kluane Lake. Base camp was established at the foot of the Steele Glacier with horses carrying loads to Advance Base Camp further along the glacier. ABC provided good views of the mountain and the team decided on the east ridge as their line of ascent. After waiting for the weather to improve after heavy snowfalls, a four-man team consisting of Walter Wood, Harrison Wood and Forbes left Camp 8 at the base of the ridge, their plan to was to make a 2,440-meter push to the summit.
After steady upwards progress, deteriorating weather forced them to return to Camp 8 where they waited out a five-day storm which dumped over a metre of fresh snow. They started out again on August 15 and the ascent was made easier this time by windblown and hard steep snow slopes rather than steep soft snow on their earlier attempt. At 4,570 m, a plateau of wretched snow forced the team to crawl on all fours. Walter Wood commented: The humour of it impressed me. Here were four normal human beings crawling across a snow field 15,000 ft. up in the air, engaged in what they fondly believed to be a sporting venue. Alternating the lead every 100 paces, they made their way from the plateau to the top reaching the summit at 2:30 pm; the team enjoyed a blissful thirty minutes of windless conditions on top before beginning their descent. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Canada
Mount Blackburn is the highest peak in the Wrangell Mountains of Alaska in the United States. It is the twelfth-highest peak in North America; the mountain is an old, eroded shield volcano, the second-highest volcano in the U. S. behind Mount Bona and the fifth-highest in North America. It was named in 1885 by Lt. Henry T. Allen of the U. S. Army after Joseph Clay Stiles Blackburn, a U. S. senator from Kentucky. It is located in the heart of Wrangell – St. Elias National Park, the largest national park in the country; the mountain's massif is covered entirely by icefields and glaciers, is the principal source of ice for the Kennicott Glacier, which flows southeast over 20 miles to just above the town of McCarthy. The mountain contributes a large volume of ice to the north-flowing Nabesna Glacier and the Kuskulana Glacier system. Mount Blackburn is a large, dramatic peak, with great local relief and independence from higher peaks, its west face drops over 11,000 ft to the Kuskulana Glacier in less than 4 horizontal miles.
Its other faces drop 8,000–10,000 ft, all in less than 8 miles. The toe of the Kuskulana Glacier, less than 12 miles from the summit, lies at an elevation of 2,400 ft, giving a rise of 14,000 ft. While these figures speak to the peak's relief, one measure of its independence is that it is the 50th-most topographically prominent peak in the world; the western of Blackburn's two summits is the mountain's highest point, a fact, not understood until the 1960s when new USGS maps were published. The first ascent of the west peak, hence Mount Blackburn, was done on May 30, 1958, by Bruce Gilbert, Dick Wahlstrom, Hans Gmoser, Adolf Bitterlich, Leon Blumer via the North Ridge; this team made the first ascent of Blackburn, but did not know it at the time due to the incorrect identification of the highest point. In fact, Blumer's article in the 1959 American Alpine Journal is titled "Mount Blackburn – Second Ascent." Kennedy Peak, or East Blackburn, 16,286 ft, is the eastern summit and was thought to be the highest point.
The first ascent of this summit was made in 1912 by Dora Keen and George Handy via the Kennicott Glacier and East Face. This heady exploit was ahead of its time. Dora Keen, driven by a deep desire for the climb, solicited miners from the nearby Kennecott Copper Mines, forged a route up the crevassed East Face to the East Peak, but did not traverse over to the West Peak. Keen went on to write a famous article for the Saturday Evening Post titled, "First up Mount Blackburn." In 1912, Keen and Handy thought. Mount Blackburn represents the eroded core of a shield volcano; because it is shrouded in permanent ice, its internal structure cannot be determined. It is believed to have a summit caldera modified by glaciation; the oldest rocks in the area are granites, about 4.2 million years old, representing an intrusive mass. The majority of the mountain is 3.4 million year old granite. From this it is inferred that a caldera collapse took place between 4.2 and 3.4 million years ago, after which activity ceased.
Today's standard route on the peak is the 1958 ascent route, the North Ridge, approached from the Nabesna Glacier, on the north side of the mountain, opposite from Keen and Hardy's route. The route starts from an airstrip on the glacier at an altitude of 7,200 feet, it is a moderate climb by Alaskan standards. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States Wood, Michael. Alaska: A Climbing Guide. Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-724-X. Richter, Donald H.. Guide to the Volcanoes of the Western Wrangell Mountains, Alaska. USGS Bulletin 2072. Winkler, Gary R.. A Geologic Guide to Wrangell—Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Tectonic Collage of Northbound Terranes. USGS Professional Paper 1616. ISBN 0-607-92676-7.
Richter, Donald H.. Geologic Map of the Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. USGS Scientific Investigations Map 2877