California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Manzanita Band of Diegueno Mission Indians
The Manzanita Band of Diegueño Mission Indians of the Manzanita Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of Kumeyaay Indians, who are sometimes known as part of the Mission Indians. Because the Manzanita Band is one of the Kumeyaay band of Indians, their culture has everything to do with the Kumeyaays. For example, Kumeyaay customs are passed through generations and they gather in both times of celebration and griefs. Kumeyaay Culture deals a lot with songs. Song contains the collective wisdom of the Kumeyaay; some popular songs include the Eagle Dance. The social structure of the bands included the shiimull, an ancestral descent group, governed by a hierarchy of kwaaypaays. In 1769, when the Spanish arrived, there were around 50 and 75 shiimull; each one of these bands included 5 to 15 family groups. Kumeyaay Indians foraged for flora that they can use and hunt for animals depending on the season. Besides hunting for food, the Kumeyaay planted trees and fields of grain,squash and corn gathered and grew medicinal herbs and plants, ate floras like fresh fruits, pine nuts and acorn.
They are known for their basket weaving. The people had sophisticated practices of agriculture and animal husbandry. Another thing was they controlled erosion and overgrowth; the Manzanita Reservation is a federal Indian reservation located in the southern Laguna Mountains near Boulevard, in southeastern San Diego County, California. It is in the Dieguno Region; the reservation is 67 miles east of the city San Diego on Interstate 8. Through the authority of the Executive Order of 1891, the reservation was built on 640 acres of reserved land in 1893. In 1907 the reserve land was increased; the reservation is now 3,579 acres large with a population of 67-69 and is held in a trust by the U. S. Government which meant the land is still technically owned by the US Government, it was established in 1893. In 1973, 6 out of 69 enrolled; the reservation lies adjacent to both the Campo Indian Reservation and the La Posta Indian Reservation. The nearest off-reservation communities are Campo. In the present day there are 13 small Kumeyaay Indian reservations in California.
The Manzanita Band is headquartered in Boulevard. Members of the Manzanita Band belongs to the Kumeyaay Nation, they are governed by a democratically elected tribal council. All tribal members that are 18 year are on the council; the council votes for who can be on the executive community, which includes the tribal chairman, two regular members, a secretary-treasurer. Leroy J. Elliott was formally their tribal chairperson. Now the current acting Chairwoman is Angela Elliott Santos; the tribe itself is organized under the IRA constitution, approved in 1976. Besides the executive council, the tribe includes a housing community and management offices. Eargle, Jr. Dolan H. California Indian Country: The Land and the People. San Francisco: Tree Company Press, 1992. ISBN 0-937401-20-X. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Shipek, Florence C. "History of Southern California Mission Indians." Handbook of North American Indians.
Volume ed. Heizer, Robert F. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. 610-618. ISBN 0-87474-187-4.` Southern California Tribal Chairman's Association—SCTCA.net: Manzanita Band of the Kumeyaay Nation webpage Kumeyaay.info: The Kumeyaay Tribes Guide — Tribal Bands of the Kumeyaay Nation — in San Diego County, California + Baja California state, México
Chula Vista, California
Chula Vista is the second largest city in the San Diego metropolitan area, the seventh largest city in Southern California, the fourteenth largest city in the state of California, the 74th-largest city in the United States. The population was 243,916 as of the 2010 census. Located just 7.5 miles from downtown San Diego and 7.5 miles from the Mexican border in the South Bay region of the metropolitan area, the city is at the center of one of the richest economic and culturally diverse zones in the United States. Chula Vista is so named because of its scenic location between the San Diego Bay and coastal mountain foothills. Founded in the early 19th century, fast population growth has been observed in the city. Located in the city is one of America's few year-round United States Olympic Training centers and popular tourist destinations include Aquatica San Diego, Mattress Firm Amphitheatre, the Chula Vista marina, the Living Coast Discovery Center. Fossils of aquatic life, in the form of a belemnitida from the Jurassic have been found within the modern borders of Chula Vista.
It is not. It isn't until 10,000 years ago, that human activity has been found within the modern borders of Chula Vista in Otay Valley of the San Dieguito people; the oldest site of human settlement within the modern boundaries of Chula Vista, was named Otai by the Spanish in 1769, had been occupied as far back as 7,980 years ago. Another place where humans first settled within the modern boundaries of Chula Vista was at the Rolling Hills Site, which dates back to 7,000 years ago. In the year 3000 BCE, people speaking the Yuman language began movement into the region from the Lower Colorado River Valley and southwestern Arizona portions of the Sonoran desert; the Kumeyaay tribe came to populate the land, on which the city sits today, who lived in the area for hundreds of years. In the year 1542 CE, a fleet of three Spanish Empire ships commanded by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailed into San Diego Harbor. Early explorations by Spanish conquistadors, such as these, led to Spanish claims of the land.
The historic land on which Chula Vista sits became part of the 1795 land grant known as Rancho del Rey or The King's Ranch. The land was renamed Rancho de la Nación. After Mexico became independent from Spain, what is now Chula Vista became part of Alta California. Beginning in 1829, the land, now Chula Vista was divided among Rancho Janal, Rancho Otay, Rancho de la Nación and Rancho La Punta. During the Mexican–American War, California was claimed by the United States, regardless of the California independence movement that had swept the state. Though California was now under the jurisdiction of the United States, land grants were allowed to continue in the form of private property. In 1873, the United States Army built a telegraph line between San Diego and Fort Yuma which ran through Telegraph Canyon in Chula Vista. In the 1870s and 1880s mining was done on Rancho Janal; the San Diego Land and Town Company developed lands of the Rancho de la Nación for new settlement. The town began as a five thousand acre development, with the first house being erected in 1887.
Around this time, the lemon was introduced to the city, by a retired professor from the University of Wisconsin. Chula Vista can be translated from Spanish as "beautiful view"; the 1888 completion of the dam allowed for irrigation of Chula Vista farming lands. Chula Vista became the largest lemon-growing center in the world for a period of time; as of February 2019, the oldest surviving buildings in Chula Vista originate from around this time, including the Barber house, the Cordrey house. Additionally, the Coronado Belt Line Railroad was built through Chula Vista, connecting Hotel Del Coronado with the National City, where Southern California Railroad terminated. Another railroad built through Chula Vista, was the National City and Otay Railroad, routed down Third Avenue. During the depression at the end of the century, industrial employment in Chula Vista was limited to the La Punta Salt Works and packing houses; the citizens of Chula Vista voted to incorporate on October 17, 1911. The State approved in November.
One of its first city council members was a former Clevelandite Greg Rogers, a leader of the Chula Vista Yacht Club. The yacht club would the first on the West Coast to build race specific boats, which resulted in a uniquely designed sloop. In 1915, a Carnegie Library was built on F Street. In the 1910s, Chinese and Mexican farm laborers worked the fields within the city, with most commuting in from Downtown San Diego and Logan Heights. In January 1916, Chula Vista was impacted by the Hatfield Flood, named after Charles Hatfield, when the Lower Otay Dam collapsed flooding the valley surrounding the Otay River. In 1916, the Hercules Powder Company opened a 30-acre bayfront site, now known as Gunpowder point, which produced substances used to make cordite, a gun propellant used extensively by the British Armed Forces during World War I. In 1920, the San Diego Country Club opened in Chula Vista, with its clubhouse designed by Richard Requa who had worked on the California Pacific International Exposition.
In 1925, aviation began in Chula Vista, with the
Interstate 8 is an Interstate Highway in the southwestern United States. It runs from the southern edge of Mission Bay at Sunset Cliffs Boulevard in San Diego, California at the Pacific Ocean, to the junction with I-10, just southeast of Casa Grande, Arizona. In California, the freeway travels through the San Diego metropolitan area as the Ocean Beach Freeway and the Mission Valley Freeway before traversing the Cuyamaca Mountains and providing access through the Imperial Valley, including the city of El Centro. Crossing the Colorado River into Arizona, I-8 continues through the city of Yuma across the Sonoran Desert to Casa Grande, in between the cities of Phoenix and Tucson; the first route over the Cuyamaca Mountains was dedicated in 1912, a plank road served as the first road across the Imperial Valley to Yuma. These were replaced by U. S. Route 80 across California and part of Arizona, Arizona State Route 84 between Gila Bend and Casa Grande; the US 80 freeway through San Diego was complete by the time it was renumbered as I-8 in the 1964 state highway renumbering.
The Arizona portion of the road was built starting in the 1960s. Several controversies erupted during the construction process. S. House of Representatives subcommittee found that the Arizona government had mismanaged financial resources; the route was completed in 1975 through California, by 1977 through Arizona, though the bridge over the Colorado River was not completed until 1978. Since the freeway through San Diego has been widened due to increasing congestion, another portion in Imperial County had to be rebuilt following damage by the remnants of Hurricane Kathleen. I-8 is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration; the freeway from the eastern junction with California State Route 98 to the eastern end is designated as part of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail auto tour route, promoted by the National Park Service. The freeway begins at the intersection of Sunset Cliffs Nimitz Boulevard in San Diego.
For its first few miles, it parallels the San Diego River floodway. Near Old Town San Diego, I-8 intersects with I-5 as well as with Rosecrans Avenue, the former routing of SR 209; as the freeway enters Mission Valley, it continues eastward, bisecting the area known as "Hotel Circle" that has several hotels. I-8 has interchanges with SR 163, I-805, I-15 and its continuation, SR 15, before making a small bend to the north. In La Mesa, the route intersects SR 125. I-8 continues into El Cajon, where it intersects with SR 67 before it ascends into the mountains and the Cleveland National Forest, traveling through towns such as Alpine and Pine Valley, reaching high points at Laguna Summit, Crestwood Summit, Tecate Divide, crossing the Pine Valley Creek Bridge and passing near the Viejas Casino. A U. S. border patrol interior checkpoint was constructed in 1995 near Alpine, for westbound traffic on I-8. The freeway intersects with SR 79 in the national forest before passing through the La Posta and Campo Indian reservations.
In Boulevard, I-8 has an interchange with the eastern end of SR 94. I-8 straddles the San Diego–Imperial county line for a few miles before turning east. At the Mountain Springs/In Ko Pah grade, the freeway is routed down two separate canyons—Devils Canyon for westbound traffic and In-Ko-Pah Gorge for eastbound traffic—as it descends 3,000 feet in 11 miles. In places, the median is over 1.5 miles wide. This portion of the road is known for high winds through the canyons that have made driving difficult, sometimes resulting in closure of the freeway; the route enters the Imperial Valley, where it intersects with SR 98, a highway leading to Calexico, passes near the Desert View Tower. I-8 goes through Coyote Wells before entering the city of El Centro several miles later. In El Centro, I-8 intersects with SR 86 and SR 111, both north–south routes which connect to I-10 in the Coachella Valley, north of the Salton Sea. SR 115 and SR 98 end at I-8 east of El Centro; the route has the lowest above-ground elevation of any Interstate at 52 feet below sea level near El Centro.
The freeway traverses the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area and intersects with SR 186 leading south to Baja California Norte, Mexico. I-8 runs parallel to the All-American Canal across the desert for 55 miles. At points in eastern Imperial County, the Mexican border is less than half a mile south of the Interstate. I-8 passes through Felicity and Winterhaven before crossing the Colorado River on a bridge into Yuma, Arizona. I-8 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System from I-5 to the western junction of SR 98, though it is not an official state scenic highway, it is known as the Border Friendship Route from San Diego to the Arizona state line. The Interstate is signed as the Ocean Beach Freeway west of I-5. For the entire length within San Diego County and into Imperial County, it is signed as the Kumeyaay Highway, after the local Native American tribe and their trad
The Kumeyaay known as Tipai-Ipai Kamia or Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in the states of California in the Baja California in Mexico. In Spanish, the name is spelled Kumiai; the Kumeyaay consist of the Ipai and Tipai. The two coastal groups' traditional homelands were separated by the San Diego River: the northern Ipai and the southern Tipai. Nomenclature and tribal distinctions are not agreed upon; the general scholarly consensus recognizes three separate languages: Ipai, Kumeyaay proper, Tipai in northern Baja California. Other authorities see only two: Tipai. However, this notion is not supported by speakers of the language who contend that within their territory, all Kumeyaay can understand and speak to each other, at least after a brief acclimatization period. All three languages belong to the Delta–California branch of the Yuman language family, to which several other linguistically distinct but related groups belong, including the Cocopa, Quechan and Kiliwa.
The term Kumeyaay means "those who face the water from a cliff". It may come from the Kiliwa word kumeey meaning "man" or "people." Both Ipai/Iipay and Tipai mean "man" or "people." Some Kumeyaay in the southern areas refer to themselves as MuttTipi, which means "people of the earth."Linguist Margaret Langdon is credited with doing much of the early work on documenting the language. Evidence of settlement in what is today considered Kumeyaay territory may go back 12,000 years. 7000 BCE marked the emergence of two cultural traditions: the California Coast and Valley tradition and the Desert tradition. The Kumeyaay had land along the Pacific Ocean from present Oceanside, California in the north to south of Ensenada and extending east to the Colorado River; the Cuyamaca complex, a late Holocene complex in San Diego County is related to the Kumeyaay peoples. The Kumeyaay tribe used to inhabit what is now a popular state park, known as Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve. One view holds that historic Tipai-Ipai emerged around 1000 years ago, though a "proto-Tipai-Ipai culture" had been established by about 5000 BCE.
Katherine Luomola suggests that the "nucleus of Tipai-Ipai groups" came together around AD 1000. The Kumeyaay themselves believe. At the time of European contact, Kumeyaay comprised several autonomous bands with 30 patrilineal clans. Spaniards entered Tipai-Ipai territory in the late 18th century, bringing with them non-native, invasive flora, domestic animals, which brought about degradation to local ecology. Under the Spanish Mission system, bands living near Mission San Diego de Alcalá, established in 1769, were called Diegueños. After Mexico took over the lands from Spain, they secularized the missions in 1834, Ipai and Tipais lost their lands. From 1870 to 1910, American settlers seized lands, including native gathering lands. In 1875, President Ulysses S. Grant created reservations in the area, additional lands were placed under trust patent status after the passage of the 1891 Act for the Relief of Mission Indians; the reservations lacked adequate water supplies. Kumeyaay people supported themselves by farming and agricultural wage labor.
For their common welfare, several reservations formed Inc.. The Kumeyaay Community College was created by the Sycuan Band to serve the Kumeyaay-Diegueño Nation, describes its mission as "to support cultural identity and self-determination while meeting the needs of native and non-Native students." The college's focus is on "Kumeyaay History, Kumeyaay Ethnobotany and traditional Indigenous arts." It "serves and relies on resources from the thirteen reservations of the Kumeyaay Nation situated in San Diego county." In the fall of 2016, Cuyamaca College began offering an associate degree in Kumeyaay Studies with courses at its Rancho San Diego campus, as well as at Kumeyaay Community College on the Sycuan reservation. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. In 1925, Alfred L. Kroeber proposed that the population of the Kumeyaay in the San Diego region in 1770 had been about 3,000. More Katharine Luomala points out that this estimate depended on calculations of rates of baptisms at the Mission, as such "ignores the unbaptized."
She suggests. Florence C. Shipek goes further. In the late eighteenth century, it is estimated that the Kumeyaay population was between 3,000 and 9,000. In 1828, 1,711 Kumeyaay were recorded by the missions; the 1860 federal census recorded 1,571 Kumeyaay living in 24 villages. The Bureau of Indian Affairs recorded 1,322 Kumeyaay in 1968, with 435 living on reservations. By 1990, an estimated 1,200 lived on reservation lands; the Kumeyaay live on 13 reservations in San Diego County, California in the United States and are enrolled in the following federally recognized tribes: Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Campo Indian Reservation Capitan Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of California: Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Missi
The San Diego Union-Tribune
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune; the name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities; the sale closed on June 18, 2018. The predecessor newspapers of the Union-Tribune were: San Diego Herald, founded 1851 and closed April 7, 1860. Both the Union and the Tribune were acquired by Copley Press in 1928 and were merged on February 2, 1992; the merged newspaper was sold to the private investment group Platinum Equity of Beverly Hills, California, on March 18, 2009. On August 17, 2010, the Union-Tribune changed its design to improve "clarity and ease of use".
Changes included being printed on thinner, 100 percent recycled paper, moving the comics to the back of the business section, abbreviating the title The San Diego Union-Tribune on the front page to U-T San Diego. The U-T nameplate was created by Jim Parkinson, a type designer who created nameplates for The Rolling Stone and Newsweek. In November 2011, Platinum Equity sold the newspaper to MLIM Holdings, a company led by Doug Manchester, a San Diego real estate developer and "an outspoken supporter of conservative causes"; the purchase price was in excess of $110 million. Manchester built two landmark downtown hotels, the Manchester Grand Hyatt Hotel and the San Diego Marriott Hotel and Marina, his group owns the Grand Del Mar luxury resort in San Diego. On January 3, 2012, the newspaper announced that it would use the name U-T San Diego "on all of our media products and communications"; the official announcement explained the change as being intended to "unify our print and digital products under a single brand with a clear and consistent expectation of quality".
U-T San Diego bought the North County Times in 2012. On October 15, 2012, the North County Times ceased publication and became the U-T North County Times, an edition of the U-T with some North County–specific content. Six months the U-T North County Times name was dropped and the newspaper became a North County edition of the U-T. In June 2012, U-T San Diego launched a television news channel; the network featured news and editorial content produced by the newspaper's staff, was created as part of the newspaper's growing emphasis on multi-platform content under Manchester. By October 2013, just over a year after its launch, the network re-formatted with a focus on news, amidst a number of major departures among the channel's staff. On February 19, 2014, U-T TV was discontinued, but the network's remaining staff was retained to produce video content for the newspaper's digital properties. In November 2013, the newspaper bought eight more local weekly newspapers in the San Diego area, which continued publication under their own names.
On May 7, 2015, it was announced that the Tribune Publishing Company, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, other newspapers, had reached a deal to acquire U-T San Diego and its associated properties for $85 million. The sale ended the newspaper's 146 years of private ownership; the transaction was completed on May 21, 2015. On the same date, the newspaper reintroduced its previous branding as The San Diego Union-Tribune; the Union-Tribune and the Los Angeles Times became part of a new operating entity known as the California News Group, with both newspapers led by Times publisher and chief executive officer Austin Beutner. The two newspapers would retain distinct operations, but there would be a larger amount of synergy and content sharing between them; the acquisition did not include the newspaper's headquarters, retained by Manchester and would be leased by the newspaper. On May 26, 2015, the newspaper announced it would lay off 178 employees, representing about thirty percent of the total staff, as it consolidated its printing operations with the Times in Los Angeles.
In 2016, The San Diego Union Tribune acquired the monthly entertainment magazine Pacific San Diego. On June 13, 2015, at 10:02 p.m. PDT the final run of The San Diego Union Tribune was printed at the San Diego headquarters in Mission Valley began, it was to print the Sunday edition newspaper for June 14, 2015. The following Monday's newspaper would be printed at the Los Angeles Times location; the dismantling of the printing presses in Mission Valley began in mid-September 2015. In 2016 rival newspaper publisher Gannett Company offered to buy the Tribune Publishing Company; the offer was rejected by management, spurring some shareholder dissatisfaction and a shareholder lawsuit. Meanwhile, the Tribune Publishing Company renamed itself Tronc Inc. Tronc is an acronym for Tribune online content. Effective June 20, the renamed company will trade on the NASDAQ exchange under the symbol TRNC. In February 2018, a deal was reached to sell the Union-Tribune to Patrick Soon-Shiong, a medical doctor who has made billions as a biotech entrepreneur.
The deal included the Los Angele
U.S. Route 80
U. S. Route 80 is an east-west United States Numbered Highway, much of, once part of the early auto trail known as the Dixie Overland Highway; as the "0" in the route number indicates, it was a cross-country route, from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Its original western terminus was in California. However, the entire segment west of Dallas, has been decommissioned in favor of various Interstate Highways and state highways; the highway's western terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 30 on the Dallas–Mesquite, Texas city line. The highway's eastern terminus is in Tybee Island, Georgia, at the intersection of Butler Avenue, Inlet Avenue, Tybrisa Street, near the Atlantic Ocean. Modern US 80 begins as a significant component of the urban freeway system of Texas. With Spur 557, it serves as the shortest freeway route from the central and northern portions of Dallas to I-20, heading east towards Shreveport, Louisiana. From its origin at I-30 in eastern Dallas, through its interchange with the I-635 "LBJ" Loop, to its junction with I-20 southwest of Terrell, US 80/Spur 557 is a full Interstate-grade, limited-access freeway.
In western Terrell, US 80 leaves the freeway, which continues southeast as Spur 557 to I-20, while US 80 runs north of I-20 through a number of small towns and cities, including Terrell, Mineola and Marshall. It rejoins I-20 for about five miles, before splitting to pass through downtown Waskom before crossing into Louisiana. US 80 is parallel to the newer I-20, which has supplanted it as a long-distance route, for the entirety of its length in Louisiana; the highway crosses the state line from Texas into Caddo Parish as a two-lane road and crosses over to the south of I-20 without connecting with the freeway. It passes through the town of Greenwood where it meets US 79 coming north from Texas, these two routes run concurrently eastward from there to Minden. US 79/US 80 crosses over I-20 again, this time at an interchange, enters the city of Shreveport as Greenwood Road; the highway passes over I-220 without an interchange and continues east to an intersection with Jefferson Paige Road where it expands to four undivided lanes and enters the main part of the urbanized area.
US 171 ends at US 79/US 80 at the intersection with Hearne Avenue. At this intersection, the road narrows to two through lanes. US 80 intersects I-20 again just east of here. At Mansfield Road, the highway name changes to Texas Avenue and angles northeast through an industrial area; the road skirts the I-20/I-49 interchange and expands to four lanes for its final approach to downtown. At the west edge of downtown, eastbound jogs one block east on Crockett Street and two blocks north on Common Street north to Texas Street. US 79/US 80 passes through downtown Shreveport on Texas Street before crossing the Red River on the 1930s vintage Long–Allen Bridge and entering Bossier City and Bossier Parish. Through Bossier Parish, US 79/US 80 comprises a major urban and suburban arterial carrying a minimum of four lanes. In the eastern reaches of the parish, continuing into Webster Parish, it is a divided highway; the road intersects the east end of I-220 at an interchange. US 79/US 80 stays to the north of I-20, except for a stretch east of Haughton where it strays to the south for a period, skirting the north edge of the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant.
At Dixie Inn, the highway intersects US 371. In Minden, US 79 continues its northeasterly trajectory toward Arkansas. East of Minden, US 80 crosses to the south of I-20 and serves the Bienville Parish towns of Gibsland and Arcadia. Entering Lincoln Parish, the highway serves Simsboro and Grambling before entering Ruston and overlapping US 167 on a north–south couplet of streets through the business district. US 80 resumes its eastward path on the north side of Ruston and exits the city on East Georgia Avenue. Between Ruston and Monroe the highway serves the small communities of Calhoun. Now on the north side of the interstate, it enters Ouachita Parish and approaches the Monroe area as a two-lane road. US 80 crosses Louisiana Highway 143 and enters West Monroe on Cypress Street, where it continues south into the business district and widens to a four-lane urban arterial. At junction LA 34, US 80 makes a left turn, angling northeast, crosses the Ouachita River, entering the city of Monroe; as Louisville Avenue it passes north of downtown, but the downtown area can be accessed via Business US 165 which intersects US 80 at North 5th/North 6th Street and becomes concurrent from there to the east.
Louisville Avenue becomes a commercialized urban arterial and remains so as it passes through the city curving southwestward and meeting the intersection with Desiard Street. As Desiard Street, US 80 meets mainline US 165, on its expressway bypass alignment, at a diamond interchange. Eastward from there, US 80 passes through suburban areas until it meets LA 139, where it is forced to turn off its four-lane alignment at an intersection which favors LA 139 traffic. Now a two-lane road, US 80 continues east through northeast Louisiana, passing through Richland and Madison parishes and serving the communities and towns of Start, Delhi, Tallulah and Delta. Just west of Delta, US 80 turns off its original route and runs a short distance south to an interchange with I-20; the orig