Plantation of Ulster
The Plantation of Ulster was the organised colonisation of Ulster – a province of Ireland – by people from Great Britain during the reign of King James VI & I. Most of the colonists came from the majority having a different culture to the natives. Small private plantations by wealthy landowners began in 1606, while the official plantation began in 1609. Most of the land colonised was forfeited from the native Gaelic chiefs, several of whom had fled Ireland for mainland Europe in 1607 following the Nine Years' War against English rule; the official plantation comprised an estimated half a million acres of arable land in counties Armagh, Fermanagh, Tyrone and Derry/Londonderry. Land in counties Antrim and Monaghan was colonised with the king's support. Among those involved in planning and overseeing the plantation were King James, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, Arthur Chichester, the Attorney-General for Ireland, John Davies, they saw the plantation as a means of anglicising and "civilising" Ulster.
The province was wholly Gaelic and rural, had been the region most resistant to English control. The plantation was meant to sever Gaelic Ulster's links with the Gaelic Highlands of Scotland; the colonists were required to be English-speaking and loyal to the king. Some of the undertakers and colonists however were Catholic and it has been suggested that a significant number of the Scots spoke Gaelic; the Scottish colonists were Presbyterian and the English members of the Church of England. The Plantation of Ulster was the biggest of the Plantations of Ireland, it led to the founding of many of Ulster's towns and created a lasting Ulster Protestant community in the province with ties to Britain. It resulted in many of the native Irish losing their land and led to ethnic and sectarian conflict, notably in the Irish rebellion of 1641. Before the plantation, Ulster had been the most Gaelic province of Ireland, as it was the least anglicized and the most independent of English control; the region was wholly rural and had few towns or villages.
Throughout the 16th century, Ulster was viewed by the English as being "underpopulated" and undeveloped. The economy of Gaelic Ulster was overwhelmingly based on agriculture – arable farming and cattle-raising. Many of the Gaelic Irish practiced "creaghting" or "booleying", a kind of transhumance whereby some of them moved with their cattle to upland pastures during the summer months and lived in temporary dwellings during that time; this led outsiders to mistakenly believe that the Gaelic Irish were nomadic. Michael Perceval-Maxwell estimates that by 1600 Ulster's total adult population was only 25,000 to 40,000 people. Others estimate that Ulster's population in the year 1600 was about 200,000; the wars fought among Gaelic clans and between the Gaelic and English undoubtedly contributed to depopulation. The Tudor conquest of Ireland began in the 1540s, during the reign of Henry VIII and lasted for the next sixty years, only being completed after sustained warfare in the reign of Elizabeth I, which broke the power of the semi-independent Irish chieftains.
As part of the conquest, plantations were established in Queen's County and King's County in the 1550s, in Munster in the 1580s, although these were not successful. In the 1570s, Elizabeth I authorized a funded plantation of eastern Ulster, led by Thomas Smith and Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex. In the Nine Years' War of 1594–1603, an alliance of northern Gaelic chieftains—led by Hugh O'Neill of Tyrone, Hugh Roe O'Donnell of Tyrconnell, Hugh Maguire of Fermanagh—resisted the imposition of English government in Ulster. Following an costly series of campaigns by the English, including massacre and use of ruthless scorched earth tactics, the war ended in 1603 with the surrender of the Gaelic alliance and the Treaty of Mellifont; the terms of surrender granted to the rebels were considered generous at the time. After the Treaty of Mellifont, the northern chieftains attempted to consolidate their positions, the English administration attempted to undermine them. In 1607, the chieftains left Ireland to seek Spanish help for a new rebellion, in the Flight of the Earls.
King James issued a proclamation declaring their action to be treason, paving the way for the forfeiture of their lands and titles. A colonization of Ulster had been proposed since the end of the Nine Years' War; the original proposals were smaller, involving planting settlers around key military posts and on church land, would have included large land grants to native Irish lords who sided with the English during the war, such as Niall Garve O'Donnell. However, in 1608 Sir Cahir O'Doherty of Inishowen launched a rebellion and burning the town of Derry; the brief rebellion was ended by Sir Richard Wingfield at the Battle of Kilmacrennan. The rebellion prompted Arthur Chichester, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, to plan a much bigger plantation and to expropriate the legal titles of all native landowners in the province. John Davies, the Attorney-General for Ireland, used the law as a tool of colonization. Before the Flight of the Earls, the English administration had sought to minimize the personal estates of the chieftains, but now they treated the chieftains as sole owners of their whole territories, so that all the land could be confiscated.
Most of this land was deemed to be forfeited to the Crown because the chieftains were declared to be attainted. English judges had declared that titles to land held under
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Stephen Joseph McGroarty
Stephen Joseph McGroarty was an Irish American soldier who served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. McGroarty was born in Mountcharles, Ireland, in 1830 and died in College Hill, Ohio on January 2, 1870, he migrated to the United States at the age of three. His parents settled in Cincinnati, where he was educated in St. Francis Xavier College. After graduation he engaged in the dry-goods business in partnership with an uncle, but left it at the end of five years to study law, he was admitted to the bar and began practice at Toledo, but subsequently returned to Cincinnati, where he achieved a reputation as a criminal lawyer. When the civil war began he raised a company of Irish Americans and served with them in the 10th Ohio Infantry under William Haines Lytle for three months, afterwards re-enlisting in the 10th for three years. At the Battle of Carnifex Ferry he received; as soon as he recovered he returned to the field and was appointed colonel of the 50th Ohio Infantry by the Governor of Ohio David Tod.
The 50th was afterward merged into the 61st, he commanded the latter till the end of the war. At the Battle of Peachtree Creek on July 20, 1864 his left arm was shattered at the elbow by a minié ball in the beginning of the engagement, yet he remained with his men through the fight, he was accustomed to expose his life with the utmost hardihood, during the war received twenty-three wounds. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on May 1, 1865, he was for two years collector of internal revenue, just before his death, which resulted from injuries received in battle, was elected clerk of the Hamilton County, Ohio courts. He was buried at Old St. Joseph's Cemetery in the Price Hill neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio but was moved to Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati in 1912 to be next to his wife. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "McGroarty, Stephen Joseph". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
Stephen Joseph McGroarty at Find a Grave
County Donegal is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal in the south of the county. Donegal County Council Lifford the county town; the population was 159,192 at the 2016 census. It has been known as Tyrconnell, after the historic territory of the same name. In terms of size and area, it is the largest county in Ulster and the fourth-largest county in all of Ireland. Uniquely, County Donegal shares a small border with only one other county in the Republic of Ireland – County Leitrim; the greater part of its land border is shared with three counties of Northern Ireland: County Londonderry, County Tyrone and County Fermanagh. This geographic isolation from the rest of the Republic has led to Donegal people maintaining a distinct cultural identity and has been used to market the county with the slogan "Up here it's different". While Lifford is the county town, Letterkenny is by far the largest town in the county with a population of 19,588. Letterkenny and the nearby city of Derry form the main economic axis of the northwest of Ireland.
Indeed, what became the City of Derry was part of County Donegal up until 1610. There are eight historic baronies in the county: Banagh Boylagh Inishowen East Inishowen West Kilmacrennan Raphoe North Raphoe South Tirhugh The county may be informally divided into a number of traditional districts. There are two Gaeltacht districts in the west: The Rosses, centred on the town of Dungloe, Gweedore. Another Gaeltacht district is located in the north-west: Cloughaneely, centred on the town of Falcarragh; the most northerly part of the island of Ireland is the location for three peninsulas: Inishowen and Rosguill. The main population centre of Inishowen, Ireland's largest peninsula, is Buncrana. In the east of the county lies the Finn Valley; the Laggan district is centred on the town of Raphoe. According to the 1841 Census, County Donegal had a population of 296,000 people; as a result of famine and emigration, the population had reduced by 41,000 by 1851 and further reduced by 18,000 by 1861. By the time of the 1951 Census the population was only 44% of what it had been in 1841.
As of 2016, the county's population was 159,192. The county is, it has a indented coastline forming natural sea loughs, of which both Lough Swilly and Lough Foyle are the most notable. The Slieve League cliffs are the sixth-highest sea cliffs in Europe, while Malin Head is the most northerly point on the island of Ireland; the climate is temperate and dominated by the Gulf Stream, with warm, damp summers and mild wet winters. Two permanently inhabited islands and Tory Island, lie off the coast, along with a large number of islands with only transient inhabitants. Ireland's second longest river, the Erne, enters Donegal Bay near the town of Ballyshannon; the River Erne, along with other Donegal waterways, has been dammed to produce hydroelectric power. The River Foyle separates part of County Donegal from parts of both counties Tyrone. A survey of the macroscopic marine algae of County Donegal was published in 2003; the survey was compiled using the algal records held in the herbaria of the following institutions: the Ulster Museum, Belfast.
Records of flowering plants include Dactylorhiza purpurella Soó. The animals included in the county include the European badger. There are habitats for the rare corn crake in the county. At various times in its history, it has been known as County Tirconaill, County Tirconnell or County Tyrconnell; the former was used as its official name during 1922–1927. This is in reference to both the earldom that succeeded it. County Donegal was the home of the once mighty Clann Dálaigh, whose most well-known branch were the Clann Ó Domhnaill, better known in English as the O'Donnell dynasty; until around 1600, the O'Donnells were one of Ireland's richest and most powerful native Irish ruling families. Within Ulster, only the Uí Néill of modern County Tyrone were more powerful; the O'Donnells were Ulster's second most powerful clan or ruling-family from the early 13th century through to the start of the 17th century. For several centuries the O'Donnells ruled Tír Chonaill, a Gaelic kingdom in West Ulster that covered all of modern County Donegal.
The head of the O'Donnell family had the titles Rí Thír Chonaill. Based at Donegal Castle in Dún na nGall, the O'Donnell Kings of Tír Chonaill were traditionally inaugurated at Doon Rock near Kilmacrennan. O'Donnell royal or chiefly power was ended in what was the newly created County Donegal in September 1607, following the Flight of the Earls from near Rathmullan; the modern County Arms of Donegal was influenced by the design of the old O'Donnell royal arms. The County Arms is the official coat of arms of both County Donegal County Council; the modern County Donegal was shired by order of the English Crown in 1585. The English authori
Gaelic games are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association. Gaelic football and hurling are the two main games. Other games organised by the GAA rounders. Women's versions of hurling and football are played: camogie, organised by the Camogie Association of Ireland, ladies' Gaelic football, organised by the Ladies' Gaelic Football Association. While women's versions are not organised by the GAA, they are associated with it. A million people attended 45 GAA senior championships games in 2017 combined with attendances at other championship and league games generating Gate receipts of €34,391,635. Gaelic football is played by teams of 15 on a rectangular grass pitch with H-shaped goals at each end; the primary object is to score by driving the ball through the goals, known as a goal, or by kicking the ball over the bar, known as a point. The team with the highest point score at the end of the match wins; the female version of the game is known as ladies' Gaelic football and is similar to the men's game with a few minor rule changes.
Other formats with teams of 7 to 11 players are played in Europe, Middle East, Asia and South Africa utilising smaller soccer or rugby pitches. Hurling is a stick and ball game played by teams of 15 on a rectangular grass pitch with H-shaped goals at each end; the primary object is to score by driving the ball through the goals or putting the ball over the bar and thereby scoring a point. Three points is the equivalent of a goal; the team with the highest score at the end of the match wins. It is over three thousand years old, is said to be the world's fastest field game, combining skills from lacrosse, field hockey, baseball in a hard-hitting skilled game; the female version of the game is known as camogie and is similar to hurling with a few minor rule changes. Other formats with teams of 7 to 11 players are played in Europe, Middle East, Asia and South Africa utilising smaller soccer or rugby pitches. Gaelic handball is a game; the game is similar to American handball. There are three codes of handball: 40x20 and One Wall.
One Wall handball is the most popular international version of handball with it being played in over 30 countries. It is hoped by GAA Handball; the sport of handball is governed by GAA Handball in Ireland. Rounders is a bat and ball game, played in Ireland. Rounders is organised by a subdivision of the GAA known as the Rounders Council of Ireland, it is similar to softball. Other Gaelic games such as Gaelic athletics have nearly or died out; when founded the GAA organised a number of Gaelic athletics competitions but passed the responsibility to the National Athletic and Cycling Association in 1922. Tailteann Games with Gaelic athletics were held until 1932. GAA Derek Brady Trophy Official website of the Gaelic Athletic Association
Plantation (settlement or colony)
Plantation was an early method of colonisation where settlers went in order to establish a permanent or semi-permanent colonial base, for example for planting tobacco or cotton. Such plantations were frequently intended to promote Western culture and Christianity among nearby indigenous peoples, as can be seen in the early East-Coast plantations in America. Although the term "planter" to refer to a settler first appears as early as the 16th-century, the earliest true colonial plantation is agreed to be that of the Plantations of Ireland; the word "plantation" was applied to the large farms that were the economical basis of many of the 17th-century American colonies. The peak of the plantation economy in the Caribbean was in the 18th century for the sugar plantations that depended on slave labour. Most of that time Britain prospered as the top slaving nation in the Atlantic world. More than 2,500,000 slaves were transported to the Caribbean plantations between 1690 and 1807; because slave life was so harsh on these plantations and slaves died without reproducing themselves, a constant supply of new slaves from Africa was required to maintain the plantation economy against this "natural decrease".
In 1789 the French colony of Saint-Domingue, producer of 40 percent of the world's sugar, was the most valuable colony on earth. Slaves outnumbered whites and free people of colour by at least eight to one, but provided nearly all of the manual labour, all of it on the plantations. Slave labour made sugar production profitable. Importing sugar to Great Britain resulted in a dramatic change in the eating habits of Britons, one of the greatest in human history. In 1700, Britons used an average of four pounds of sugar a year, but by 1800 they used an average of 16 pounds a year; the Plantations of Ireland were an instrument of retribution and colonisation after several Irish rebellions against English rule throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. The largest settlement, the Plantation of Ulster in the northern part of the island, was established following the rebellion of Hugh Roe O'Donnell and Hugh O'Neill in the Nine Years' War; the plantations were seen as part of process that would Anglicise Ireland, as well as a means of maintaining English political control in Ireland.
Lands were seized from the native landowners both as punishment for rebellion and as punishment for remaining Catholic rather than conforming to the established church. These lands were given to English Protestant settlers who would be loyal to the Crown and keep the native Irish under control. During the Middle Ages, the Scottish government planted Scots-speaking lowland merchant colonies in the Gàidhealtachd, for example at Campbeltown and Cromarty. Jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in North America. During the 17th century, the Chesapeake Bay area was immensely hospitable to tobacco cultivation. Ships annually hauled 1.5 million pounds of tobacco out to the Bay by the 1630s, about 40 million pounds by the end of the century. Farmers responded to falling prices by growing more tobacco; the labour supply from Africa was expensive. In the 17th century, farmers relied on indentured servants for labour. To encourage settlement of the colonies, the Crown granted land to colonists who paid for workers and other settlers under a headrights system.
The planters replaced tobacco with other crops after the soils became exhausted in the coastal areas. Cotton was produced on plantations on the Sea Islands off South Georgia; the economy of the South changed markedly beginning in the early nineteenth century, as the invention of the cotton gin made cultivation of short-staple cotton profitable across vast areas of the upland Southeast. Settlers poured into what became known as the Deep South, putting pressure on the federal government to remove the Native American tribes from the Southeast. In the 1830s, the government forced most of the Five Civilised Tribes to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, leading to rapid development of extensive cotton plantations across the South to eastern Texas. Cotton was king, worldwide demand for American cotton resulted in growing wealth among planters in the South, wholly dependent on enslaved labour. European colonists did not regard the land as belonging to the tens of thousands of Native Americans who occupied it, because their patterns of use were so different.
The Plantations of New England were considered to occupy wilderness. The Plymouth Plantation, was settled to create a new beginning for English dissenters and, as such, was utopian. Plantations were more overtly entrepreneurial: European investors funded colonists in the expectation of good returns. Examples of the latter include the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the New Haven Colony, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam, the French in Canada, where they named their colony as New France. In the state of Maine, the old meaning has been preserved in the name of a type of local government jurisdiction, it is preserved in the full name of Rhode Island: Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Albert Galloway Keller, 1908, Colonization: A Study of the Founding of New Societies, Bastion: Ginn & Company
Donegal may refer to: County Donegal, a county in the Republic of Ireland, part of the province of Ulster Donegal Bay, an inlet in the northwest of Ireland bordering counties Donegal and Sligo Donegal, a town in County Donegal in Ulster, Ireland Donegal County Council, the authority responsible for local government in County Donegal County Donegal Railways Joint Committee, a railway system serving county Donegal from 1906 until 1960 Donegal Castle, a castle in Donegal Town in County Donegal Donegal Airport, an airport in north-west County Donegal Donegal GAA, County Board responsible for Gaelic games in County Donegal High Sheriff of Donegal, British Crown's judicial representative in County Donegal until 1922 Lord Lieutenants of Donegal, a list of people who served as Lord Lieutenant of County Donegal Donegal fiddle tradition, way of playing the fiddle, traditional in County Donegal List of townlands of County Donegal Donegal Borough, a constituency represented in the Irish House of Commons until 1800.
Donegal County, a constituency represented in the Irish House of Commons to until 1800 Donegal, a parliamentary constituency in the lower house of the Irish parliament since the 2016 Donegal East Donegal North Donegal South Donegal West Donegal Donegal, Perth County, Ontario, a community located in the township of North Perth, Perth County, Canada Donegal, Renfew County, Ontario, in Bonnechere Valley Donegal, Pennsylvania, a Borough in Westmoreland County, not to be confused with the Township in the same county Donegal Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania Donegal Township, Butler County, Pennsylvania Donegal Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania East Donegal Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania West Donegal Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania Donegal School District, a public school district in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania Donegal Senior Football Championship, annual GAA competition between football clubs in Donegal HMS Donegal, a 101-gun screw-driven first rate ship of the line HMS Donegal, a 74-gun ship of the line SS Donegal Midland Railway passenger ferry ship launched in 1904 and sunk in 1917 Donegal tweed, a handwoven tweed manufactured in County Donegal Donegal Carpets, a brand of handmade wool carpets Donegal Creameries, dairy company with operations in Ireland, the Netherlands and Brazil.