Brentwood is a town in the Borough of Brentwood, in the county of Essex in the East of England. It is located in the London commuter belt, 20 miles east-north-east of Charing Cross, near the M25 motorway. Latest figures suggest the town has a population of 79,000. Brentwood is a suburban town with high street. Beyond this are residential developments surrounded by open countryside and woodland. Brentwood has been twinned since 1978 with Roth and since 1994 with Montbazon, France, it has a relationship with Brentwood, Tennessee in the United States. The name was assumed by antiquaries in the 1700s to derive from a corruption of the words'burnt' and'wood', with the name Burntwood still visible on some 18th-century maps. However, brent was the middle English for "burnt"; the name describes the presumed reason for settlement in the part of the Forest of Essex that would have covered the area, where the main occupation was charcoal burning. Although a Bronze Age axe has been found in Brentwood and there are clear signs of an entrenched encampment in Weald Country Park, it is considered unlikely that there was any significant early settlement of the area.
At the time, most of Essex was covered by the Great Forest. It is believed that despite the Roman road between London and Colchester passing through the town, the Saxons were the earliest settlers of the area; the borough was on a crossroads, between of the old Roman road from Colchester to London, the route the pilgrims took over the River Thames to Canterbury. A chapel was built in or around 1221, in 1227 a market charter was granted, its growth may have been stimulated by the cult of St. Thomas the Martyr, to whom the chapel was dedicated: the 12th-century ruin of Thomas Becket Chapel was a popular stopping point for pilgrims on their way to Canterbury; the ruin stands in the centre of the high street, next to the tourist information office, the nearby parish church of Brentwood retains the dedication to St. Thomas of Canterbury. Pilgrims Hatch, or'Pilgrims' gate', was named from pilgrims who crossed through on their way to the chapel, it is however, that Brentwood's development was due chiefly to its main road position, its market, its convenient location as an administrative centre.
Early industries were connected with textile and garment making and brickmaking. During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, Brentwood was the meeting place for some of the instigators, such as John Ball and Jack Straw, they met in local pubs and inns. The first event of the Peasants' Revolt occurred in Brentwood, when men from Fobbing and Stanford were summoned by the commissioner Thomas Bampton to Brentwood to answer as to who had avoided paying the poll tax. Bampton insisted; the peasants refused to pay and a riot ensued as Bampton attempted to arrest the peasants. The peasants moved to kill Bampton; the rioters fearing the repercussions of what they had done, fled into the forest. After the riot the peasants initiated the Peasants' Revolt; the Essex assizes were sometimes held here, as well as at Chelmsford. One such pub was The White Hart, one of the oldest buildings in Brentwood; the ground floor was stabling and in the mid-1700s the owners ran their own coach service to London. On 13 September 2009, the roof suffered significant damage during a fire.
Marygreen Manor, a handsome 16th-century building on London Road, is mentioned in Samuel Pepys' diaries and is said to have been visited by the Tudor monarch Henry VIII when Henry Roper, Gentleman Pursuant to Queen Catherine of Aragon, lived there in 1514. It is now a restaurant. In 1686 Brentwood's inns were stabling for 183 horses. There were 11 inns in the town in 1788. Protestant martyr William Hunter was burnt at the stake in Brentwood in 1555. A monument to him was erected by subscription in 1861 at Wilson's Corner. Brentwood School was founded in 1557 and established in 1558, in Ingrave Road and behind the greens on Shenfield Road by Sir Anthony Browne and the site of Hunter's execution in commemorated by a plaque in the school. Thomas Munn,'gentleman brickmaker' of Brentwood, met a less noble end when he was hanged for robbing the Yarmouth mail and his body was exhibited in chains at Gallows Corner, a road junction a few miles from Brentwood, in Romford. A ducking stool was mentioned in 1584.
As the Roman road grew busier, Brentwood became a major coaching stop for stagecoaches, with plenty of inns for overnight accommodation as the horses were rested. A'stage' was ten miles, being about 20 miles from London, Brentwood would have been a second stop for travellers to East Anglia; this has not changed. Some of the pubs date back to the 16th centuries. Brentwood was significant as a hub for the London postal service, with a major post office since the 18th century; the most recent major post office on the high street was closed in the 2008 budget cuts. Daniel Defoe wrote about Brentwood as
East of England Ambulance Service
The East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the authority responsible for providing National Health Service ambulance services in the counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk, in the East of England region. These consist of 7,500 square miles, it is one of 10 Ambulance Trusts providing England with emergency medical services, is part of the NHS, receiving direct government funding for its role. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, under the Patient's Charter every person in the United Kingdom has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency; as well as providing an emergency ambulance service, the Trust provides non emergency patient transport services, commercial services and special operations such as emergency planning, hazardous materials incident response. The service support a number of emergency charities, such as air ambulances, who provide doctors for serious incidents; the Trust controls the mobilisation of critical care charities throughout its area.
These include Magpas, Essex & Herts Air Ambulance, East Anglian Air Ambulance, BASICS Essex Accident Rescue Service, SARS, NARS and BASICS Hertfordshire. The service can if required, mobilise London's Air Ambulance and the Kent and Sussex Air Ambulance if there is a major incident requiring more than one critical care team, where other teams in the region are operating at maximum capacity; the trauma teams are dispatched by a Critical Care Paramedic at the Critical Care Desk, in their Control Room in Chelmsford, who filters through every call the ambulance service receives and makes a clinical decision on whether to dispatch a critical care resource. The trust was formed on 1 July 2006 following the three-way merger of the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the East Anglian Ambulance NHS Trust and the Essex Ambulance Service NHS Trust; the result was a service covering an area of over 7,500 square miles with a population of 5.8 million people, one which answers more than one million emergency calls per year.
The East Anglian Ambulance NHS Trust had been formed in 1994 from the three-way merger of Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Ambulance Services. In 2009, the Trust was censured by the Care Quality Commission after inspection of an ambulance depot and seven of its 100 ambulance stations found patient-carrying vehicles were "dirty" and that staff were "unsure of basic measures for infection prevention and control"; the service launched an "urgent and comprehensive review" of its ambulance cleaning programme and reiterated its stance on patient safety, adding that "ensuring consistent high standards of cleanliness is a challenge" with so many stations, covering six counties and an area of 7,500 square-miles. In 2015/16, the trust received 1,037,119 emergency calls and handled 500,620 non-emergency patient transport journeys; the trust arrived at 73.6% of emergency Red 1 calls within eight minutes, 69.4% of emergency Red 2 calls within eight minutes. EEAST has around 1,500 volunteers; as of July 2016, the Trust has the following resources in operation: 357 front-line emergency ambulances 201 marked rapid-response vehicles 164 non-emergency ambulances 52 major incident support vehicles Over 130 ambulance stations and response posts 3 emergency operations centers in Bedford and NorwichThe Trust has its own emergency driving school, which trains drivers in 999 emergency driving under blue lights and sirens.
The Trust used the Mercedes Sprinter as front-line Double Staffed Ambulances, with the exception of a single Vauxhall Movano 4 wheel drive vehicle for use at Newmarket Racecourse. In 2009, the service started the transition to a brand-new Sprinter only fleet from a wide range of other brands - including Fords and older Mercedes vehicles; the scheme was finished in 2016, when the last brand-new Sprinter was delivered, although many of the older ones are now ending their cycle life. In March 2018, four new vehicles will be trialled across the East of England, with one concept vehicle being designed for and by the Trust. In May 2018 the trust bought 32 five-year-old vehicles decommissioned by the West Midlands Ambulance Service - described as "clapped out vehicles which colleagues in other trusts would have sent to the scrapyard" and contrasted with the luxury cars with which senior managers were provided in 2017. Ford Mondeos and Skoda Octavia Scouts are the most common amongst the fleet. In addition Land Rover Freelander and Land Rover Discovery Sport operate out of a limited number of bases.
Some Land Rover are used as Officer Cars. Renault Masters and Vauxhall Movanos are used for the Patient Transport Service. A number of these vehicles are fitted with blue sirens for High Dependency transfers; the Hazardous Area Response Team team uses Volkswagen Transporters and Mercedes Sprinters, all of which have 4x4 capability. The new fleet arrived in 2017, standardising these vehicles across the 10 ambulances services in England and Wales, it replaced Iveco Dailys. The trust provides Critical Care Paramedics to 3 local charity air ambulances in the region: Magpas, Essex & Herts Air Ambulance and the East Anglian Air Ambulance; these paramedics work alongside doctors to administer advanced treatment at the scene of the accident. Although the service uses the air ambulances, it does not fund the charit
East of England
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999, it includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk. Essex has the highest population in the region, its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000. Bedford, Basildon, Southend-on-Sea, Ipswich, Colchester and Cambridge are the region's most populous towns; the southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt. The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North Cambridgeshire and the Essex Coast have most of the around 5% of the region, below 10 metres above sea level; the Fens are in North Cambridgeshire, notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres below mean sea level, once Whittlesey Mere. The highest point is at Clipper Down at 817 ft, in the far south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills. Basildon and Harlow, with Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead, were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much industry located there.
In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire and Foulness in Essex as a possible third airport for London. The East of England succeeded the standard statistical region East Anglia; the East of England civil defence region was identical to today's region. England between the Wash and just south of the town of Colchester has since post-Roman times been and continues to be known as East Anglia, including the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire; the inclusion of Essex as part of East Anglia is open to debate, notably because it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the kingdom of the East Angles. Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons formed part of the South East England, as did Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties; the earliest use of the term is from 1695. Charles Davenant, in An essay upon ways and means of supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." cited a list including these four.
The term does not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century. East Anglia is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom with average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm; this is because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land by the time they reach Eastern England. However the Fens in Cambridgeshire are prone to flooding. Winter is cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic or France. Northerly winds can be cold but are not as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and wetter weather. Southerly winds bring mild air but chill if coming from further east than Spain. Spring is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is warm by late-April/May; the weather at this time is changeable and showery. Summer is warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High leads to at least a few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather.
The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm coincides with the location of the jet stream. The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions. Autumn is mild with some days being unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there an Indian summer where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season; the most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation 2007 in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth, Luton and Ipswich. At county level, after Luton and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea Thurrock; the least deprived districts, in descending order, are South Cambridgeshire, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St Albans, Rochford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk, North Hertfordshire, Three Rivers, South Norfolk, East Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Coastal.
At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation Essex. The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK – 0.5%. In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%. Inside the region, the highest rate is Great Yarmouth with 6.2%, followed by Peterborough and Southend-on-Sea on 4.7%. In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from the Conservatives to Labour, the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its vote. All of Hertfordshire and Suffolk is now Conservative; the region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of seats favours th
Ingatestone is a village in Essex, with a population of about 5,000. To the immediate north lies the village of Fryerning, together the two form the civil parish of Ingatestone and Fryerning. Ingatestone lies within Metropolitan Green Belt land 20 miles north-east of London; the built-up area is situated between the A12 trunk road and the Great Eastern Main Railway Line. Today it is an affluent commuter village. Ingatestone was established in Saxon times on the Essex Great Road running between the two Roman towns of Londinium and Camulodunum; the name means "Ing at the Stone", the affix distinguishing it from various nearby settlements that formed part of the manor of Ing. It is first recorded in 1283 as Gynges atte Ston. Stone is not prevalent in the local geology making the village's stone, deposited by glacial action, unusual for the area. A large Sarsen stone can still be seen, split into three pieces, with one being located by the west door of the St Edmund and St Mary's parish church and one each side of the entrance to Fryerning Lane.
Ingatestone belonged to Barking Abbey from about 950 AD until the Dissolution of the Monasteries, when it was purchased from the Crown by Sir William Petre. Petre a lawyer from Devon, had risen to become the Secretary of State to Henry VIII, he built a large courtyard house, Ingatestone Hall, as his home in the village, along with almshouses which still exist today as private cottages in Stock Lane. By the time of the Domesday Book in 1086, Fryerning and Ingatestone were recorded as being in the Hundred of Chelmsford and part of the land of St Mary of Barking with a value of 60 shillings, held by Robert Gernon in demesne. By the 18th century Ingatestone had become a major coaching centre, but the advent of the railway saw its prominence decrease and a decline in business along the Essex Great Road. In 1889, the parishes of Ingatestone and Fryerning merged, now covering 4,000 acres. Ingatestone grew further during the 20th century as commuters, attracted by the surrounding countryside, moved into the area.
Plans to bypass the narrow Roman road through the village were first drawn up before the Second World War, but construction of a dual-carriageway bypass did not begin until 1958. Further dual-carriageway sections of the A12 trunk road were added in the 1960s, to bypass Brentwood and Chelmsford. Ingatestone lies just to the north of the southernmost limit of glaciation in the British Isles. Surface deposits over much of the area consist of boulder clay and it is only to the north-east that there are more sandy deposits. Geologist Ciara Lovatt conducted several rock mineral experiments on deposits within Ingatestone in the 1980s; the glacial deposits overlie London clay, which can be seen in the bed of the River Wid and its tributaries. The geology of the area is responsible for the landscape and the character of farming in surrounding area. Crop farming is the typical use of boulder clay lands; the sandy deposits to the north-east of Ingatestone are a contributory factor in the greater incidence of woodland and non-arable land in this area.
Ingatestone Hall has been the home of the Petre family since the 16th century, who reside there to this day. The location was chosen due to the similarity of the village's Latin name with their own. A tomb monument to members of the family is located in St Mary's; the hall is open as a tourist attraction. It retains its Tudor appearance following restoration carried out between 1915 and 1937, is set in formal gardens surrounded by eleven acres of grounds. Inside is a range of antique furniture and other historical artefacts. Queen Elizabeth I spent several nights at the hall on her Royal Progress of 1561. St. John Payne, one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales, resided at Ingatestone Hall in the late 16th century as chaplain and steward for Lady Petre, he was martyred at Chelmsford in 1582. The smallpox inoculator, Daniel Sutton, made his base on Ingatestone High Street in Brandiston House, carried out much of his work here. Ingatestone has over a hundred businesses. Amongst the retail outlets there are two small supermarkets, a baker, a butcher, a delicatessen, a chemist, an ironmonger, a travel agency, an electrical shop, a video shop, several clothes shops, a hairdressers' shop, a garden centre, several estate agents, a post office, several specialist shops.
The businesses represented include accountants, insurance, information technology, chartered surveyors and education. There are two public houses in the village; the tiny Star Inn is the older. It features a large, open log fire; the Bell is a conventional pub in old-fashioned style, with a substantial Elizabethan brick fireplace in the lounge bar. A third pub, The Crown, was shut down after a police raid in 2011 discovered cannabis being grown there, it has now become the Crown Mews development. Ingatestone has over 40 clubs and societies ranging from arts and sport clubs to charitable societies; these include the Ingatestone and Fryerning Dramatic Club, founded in 1947, the Ingatestone Musical and Operetta Group founded in 1970, the Ingatestone Choral Society, 70 years old, the Ingatestone and Horticultural Society, affiliated to the Royal Horticultural Society and was formed in 1963. There is a Community Association, which meets at a large hall in High Street. Other amenities include a sports field and bowls and tennis clubs.
The Rotary Club is active in Ingatestone, sponsored a war memorial in 2005 to mark the movement's centenary. The memorial, locate
Greyhound racing in the United Kingdom
Greyhound racing is an industry in the United Kingdom. The industry uses a Parimutuel betting tote system with on-course and off-course betting available, with a turnover of £75,100,000. Attendances peaked in 1946 at around 70 million and totalisator turnover reaching £196,431,430. Attendances have declined to less than 2 million in 2017; as of March 2019 there are 21 licensed stadiums in 5 independent stadiums. Modern greyhound racing has evolved from a form of hunting called coursing, in which a dog runs after a live game animal – a rabbit or hare; the first official coursing meeting was held in 1776 at Norfolk. The rules of the Swaffham Coursing Society specified that only two greyhounds were to course a single hare and that the hare was to be given a head start of 240 yards. Coursing by proxy with an artificial lure was introduced at Hendon, on September 11, 1876. Six dogs raced over a 400-yard straight course; this was the first attempt to introduce mechanical racing to the UK. The oval track and mechanical hare were introduced to Britain in 1926, by Charles Munn, an American, in association with Major Lyne-Dixson, a key figure in coursing.
Finding other supporters proved to be rather difficult, with the General Strike of 1926 looming, the two men scoured the country to find others who would join them. They met Brigadier-General Critchley, who in turn introduced them to Sir William Gentle. Between them they launched the Greyhound Racing Association. On July 24, 1926, in front of 1,700 spectators, the first modern greyhound race in Great Britain took place at Belle Vue Stadium, where seven greyhounds raced round an oval circuit to catch an electric artificial hare, they hurried to open tracks in London at the White City Stadium and Harringay Stadium. The first three years of racing were successful financially, with attendances of 5.5 million in 1927, 13.7 million in 1928 and 16 million in 1929. The greyhound racing industry in Great Britain falls under two sectors: that registered by the Greyhound Board of Great Britain, a sector known as'independent racing' or'flapping', unaffiliated to a governing body. Registered racing in Great Britain is regulated by the Greyhound Board of Great Britain.
All in the registered sector are subject to the GBGB Rules of Racing and the Directions of the Stewards, who set the standards for greyhound welfare and racing integrity, from racecourse facilities and trainers' kennels to retirement of greyhounds. There are Stewards' inquiries, disciplinary action is taken against anyone found failing to comply; the registered sector consists of 21 racecourses, 884 trainers, 4,135 kennel staff, 867 racecourse officials, in excess of 15,000 greyhound owners with 10,000 greyhounds registered annually for racing. Independent racing known as'flapping', is held at five racecourses; the numbers of trainers, kennel staff and greyhounds involved in independent racing is unknown because there is no requirement for central registration or licensing, no code of practice. In England, standards for welfare and integrity are set by local government, but there is no governing or other regulatory body. In the 1940s, there were seventy seven licensed tracks and over two hundred independent tracks in the United Kingdom, of which thirty three were in London.
Now there are twenty one registered and four independent stadiums. There are twenty one active Greyhound Board of Great Britain registered stadiums in the UK, with twenty in England and one in Scotland. There are no tracks in Wales, Northern Irish tracks do not come under the control of the GBGB. Belle Vue Stadium, Manchester Brighton and Hove Stadium and Hove Central Park Stadium, Sittingbourne Crayford Stadium, London Doncaster Stadium, Doncaster Harlow Stadium, Harlow Henlow Stadium, Stondon Kinsley Stadium, Kinsley Monmore Green Stadium, Wolverhampton Newcastle Stadium, Newcastle upon Tyne Nottingham Stadium, Nottingham Owlerton Stadium, Sheffield Pelaw Grange, Chester-le-Street Perry Barr Stadium, Birmingham Peterborough Stadium, Peterborough Poole Stadium, Poole Romford Stadium, London Shawfield Stadium, Shawfield Sunderland Stadium, Sunderland Swindon Stadium, Swindon Yarmouth Stadium, Great Yarmouth There are four active independent stadiums: Askern Stadium, Doncaster Thornton Stadium, Thornton Valley Stadium, Ystrad Mynach Wheatley Hill Stadium, Wheatley Hill There are many types of competitions in Britain, with prize money reaching £15,737,122.
Greyhound Derby This race must have minimum prize money of £50,000. The competition attracts around 180 entries each year. There are two derbys in Britain: the Scottish Greyhound Derby held at Shawfield Stadium, the English Greyhound Derby held at Wimbledon and Towcester, although both of these tracks have closed in recent years; the 2019 competition will be held at Nottingham. In addition, the Irish Greyhound Derby, held at Shelbourne Park, is open to British greyhounds. There used to be a Welsh Greyhound Derby but the event finished in 1977 after the Arms Park track in Cardiff closed. In 2010 the Northern Irish Derby was introduced. Category One Race These races must have minimum prize money of £12,500, they can be run between one and four rounds but must be completed within a 15-day period, except for special circumstances. In any event the competition must be completed within 18 days. Category One races replaced. Category Two Race These races must have minimum prize money of £5,000, they must be completed within a 15-day period.
Billericay is a town and civil parish in the Borough of Basildon, England. It constitutes a commuter town 28 miles east of Central London; the town has a variety of open spaces. It is thought to have been occupied since the Bronze Age; some of the earliest records of human occupation of Billericay are the burial mounds in Norsey Wood: evidence of occupation in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Evidence of Roman occupation has been found at a number of locations in the town and there may have been a small cavalry fort at Blunts Wall; the Saxons did not settle in the centre of Billericay. They established themselves two miles south, at Great Burstead. In the late 10th century it was known as'Burhstede'. Billericay was not mentioned in the Domesday Book. At this time the parish church for Billericay was at Great Burstead. Billericay is a well-known exception in the identification of the origins of English place-names; the name of the town was first recorded as "Byllyrica" in 1291. The urban settlement, within the manor and parish of Great Burstead, was one of many founded in the late 13th century in an densely populated rural landscape.
Several suggestions for the origin of the place name include: Villa Erica, suggesting a Romano-British origin. Bellerīca, a medieval Latin word meaning'dyehouse or tanhouse'. Billers, a traditional name for watercress, for which Bilbrook in Somerset and Staffordshire are named. Watercress was farmed in Billericay springs during the 20th century. Although the precise etymology of the name is not known, England has other places named Billerica: Billerica, Kent. A deserted town adjacent to the settlement of Court-up-Street by Port Lympne; this is adjacent to a Roman "Saxon Shore" fort as well as being on spring lines suitable for growing watercress. Billerica Farm, near Upton Noble, Somerset. Although this farm might be named after the other Billericas, the site is close to springs suitable for farming watercress; the Tudor antiquarian John Leland believed the already-abandoned Billerica in Kent was a variant of Bellocastrum, ‘fair castle’ in Latin. In Billericay there is a Roman fort at Blunt's Wall Farm.
This suggests that a Romano-British place name was reused by the Anglo-Saxons following the end of Roman rule in Britain. In the 13th and 14th centuries some pilgrims to Canterbury journeyed via Billericay; some of them may have spent the night in Billericay before crossing the River Thames at Tilbury. This may account for the large number of inns in the town. Billericay's most notable historical episode was the Battle of Billericay during the Peasants' Revolt of 1381; the Wycliffe preachers influenced the town. Four local people were burnt at the stake. Two other residents were tortured for their faith during the reign of Queen Mary. A meeting of the Pilgrim Fathers prior to their sailing in the Mayflower is said to have taken place in Billericay, many local names and much historical imagery reflect this: Mayflower House, Morris Men, School, Hall. Sunnymede School's houses were called Mayflower, Pilgrim and Martin; the Mayflower set sail once the Pilgrim Fathers had all boarded and set to meet the Shadwell in the English Channel, the Shadwell sailing from the Netherlands.
The Shadwell developed leaks that could not be fixed and so the Ships headed to Plymouth to repair the Shadwell. A few months the Mayflower set sail with out the Shadwell, not able to be fixed. Four people from Billericay were including Christopher Martin, he and his wife Mary, along with Solomon Prowe and John Langemore, perished shortly after their arrival at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The unfortunate fate of the would-be pioneers did not deter other inhabitants of Billericay from setting sail for the New World; the town of Billerica, Massachusetts was established in 1655 by colonists from Billericay and named after their home town in England. In the Georgian period many excellent examples of the period's houses were built in Billericay. One of those remaining today is Burghstead Lodge in High Street; the road from Billericay to Tilbury still had a reputation for "footpads" and highwaymen operating along the road, where it passed through open country. In the town, the Union Workhouse was built in 1840 to continue to implement the Poor Law.
Parts of this building were incorporated into what was St. Andrew's Hospital; the railway arrived in Billericay in 1889, being on the Great Eastern Main Line between London and Southend-on-Sea. In 1916, during the First World War, one of the giant German Zeppelin airships was shot down during an aerial battle over Billericay. During its fiery demise, it narrowly missed the High Street, crashing into a field off of Greens Farm Lane. A plaque was erected at the site in 2016. Parts of the aluminium frame can be seen at the Cater Museum in Billericay High Street. Recent research has indicated that this may be identified with the'ghost Zeppelin' of Tonbridge, seen floating over that town earlier in the day. St. Andrew's Hospital, the site of the town's Victorian workhouse, continued to function as an important communal building. From 1973, it housed the internationally renowned Regional Plastic Surgery and Burns unit until this was relocated to Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford in April 1998. After the relocation, most of the hospital was
Essex is a county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, London to the south-west; the county town is the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region. Essex occupies the eastern part of the ancient Kingdom of Essex, which united with the other Anglian and Saxon kingdoms to make England a single nation state; as well as rural areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the borough of Southend-on-Sea. The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon name Ēastseaxe, the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain during the Heptarchy. Recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and most of what became Hertfordshire.
Its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. Colchester in the north-east of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating from before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England. After the Norman conquest, Essex became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested; the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times they included the forests of Becontree, Epping, Hatfield and Waltham. Essex County Council was formed in 1889. However, County Boroughs of West Ham, Southend-on-Sea and East Ham formed part of the county but were unitary authorities.
12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections and planning, as shown in the map on the right. A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around 1900, parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk. Part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk; the boundary with Greater London was established in 1965, when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Dagenham, Ilford, Romford and Wanstead and Woodford districts were transferred to form the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Newham and Waltham Forest. Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having been part of the South East England region.
In 1998, the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities. Essex Police covers the two unitary authorities; the county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938, the council met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county, it has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100; the County Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds. The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, which reaches 482 feet; the ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to the south by its estuary.
The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has prevented the further sprawl of London into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon and Harlow developed to resettle Londoners after the destruction of London housing in the Second World War, since which they have been developed and expanded. Epping Forest prevents the further spread of the Greater London Urban Area; as it is not far from London with its economic magnetism, many of Essex's settlements those near or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families. Part of the s