Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are generally positioned on the field between their teams defenders and forwards, some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, and are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being mobile and efficient in passing, they are commonly referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box. The number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the teams formation, most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing teams attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who typically travel the greatest distance during a match, central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided roughly equally between attack and defence. When the opposing team has the ball, a midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward. The 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders, the 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, and in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder. The term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who have abilities and are skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots. A good box-to-box midfielder needs good passing, vision, control, stamina, tackling and marking in defence, left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch. They may be asked to cross the ball into the penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1, a notable example of a right midfielder is David Beckham. Defensive midfielders are players who focus on protecting their teams goal. These players may defend a zone in front of their teams defence, defensive midfielders may also move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude, The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someones position, great. A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of play, marking, tackling, interceptions, passing and great stamina. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their teams defence, a player in this role will try to protect their goal by disrupting the opponents attacking moves and stopping long shots on the goal. The holding midfielder may also have responsibilities when their team has the ball and this player will make mostly short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the teams strategy
Ebbsfleet United F.C.
Ebbsfleet United Football Club is a football club in Northfleet, Kent, England, which is in the National League South, the sixth tier of English football. The team plays matches at Stonebridge Road. Before 2007, the club was called Gravesend & Northfleet, from 1969 and 1971, Roy Hodgson, who later became manager of the national teams of Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, Finland and England, was a player at the club, making 59 appearances. In 1979, the team was one of the members of the Alliance Premier League. For the 1997–98 season, Gravesend & Northfleet left the Southern League, on 13 November 2007, it was announced that the website MyFootballClub had entered a deal in principle to take over the club. Approximately 27,000 MyFootballClub members each paid £35 to provide an approximate £700,000 takeover fund and all owned a share in the club. Members had a vote on transfers as well as player selection, because of the nature of MyFootballClub, it was announced that manager Liam Daish would become instead the first team head coach. His backroom staff would remain at the club, both resulted in overwhelming Yes votes,95. 89% voted to proceed with the takeover while 95. 86% voted to allow Daish to continue his transfer plans. The deal was ratified at an Extraordinary General Meeting of the board on 19 February. On 10 May 2008, Ebbsfleet United won the FA Trophy, defeating Torquay United 1–0 in the final on the clubs first trip to Wembley, becoming the first Kentish team to win this trophy. Ebbsfleet United went on to win the Kent Senior Cup in the same season, with a 4–0 victory over Cray Wanderers on 26 July 2008. After one year of ownership a majority of MyFC members failed to renew, the club had previously stated that 15,000 was the minimum required. As of September 2010, two and a years after the takeover, there were around 3,500 members. Both the manager and the club secretary opposed the change, Liam Daish subsequently departed as manager and the new ownership appointed Dover Athletic coach and former Charlton Athletic defender Steve Brown as the new manager. Steve Browns first competitive game was a draw at home to Havant & Waterlooville. A club record was broken just before Christmas as Browns team achieved nine wins in succession, Ebbsfleet eventually reached the playoffs, helped by goalkeeper Preston Edwards keeping eleven clean sheets at Stonebridge Road over the course of the season. The playoff semi-final first leg against Bromley at Stonebridge Road ended in a 4–0 win for the Fleet, despite Bromley winning the second leg, Browns side won 4–1 on aggregate. The playoff final was against Dover Athletic at Stonebridge Road in front of a 4,200 crowd, Dover dominated the encounter, winning 1–0 with a goal early in the second half from former Ebbsfleet striker Nathan Elder
Welling United F.C.
Welling United Football Club is a professional association football club, based in Welling, Greater London, England. The clubs first team play in the National League South, the tier of English football. Welling United Football Club was founded in 1963 in Welling, Kent and they began as a youth team playing in the Eltham & District Sunday League on a park pitch from 1963–64 to 1970–71. From 1971–72 to 1974–75 they played in the Metropolitan-London League Intermediate/Reserves Division, in 1975–76 they played in the London Spartan League Reserve Division One. They gained senior status in the London Spartan League in 1976 at Butterfly Lane and they finished 6th in Division 2 in 1976–77 and were promoted to the Premier Division. In 1977 Welling moved to the Park View Road ground, which had belonged to the defunct Bexley United. They joined the Athenian League in 1978, in 1981 they progressed to the Southern Football League Southern Division. After just one season at this level the club found itself in the Southern League Premier Division after the league was re-organised, in 1985–86 they won the league title by 23 points and were promoted to the Football Conference. They also made one third round appearance, losing 1–0 at Park View Road to Blackburn Rovers, the Wings dropped out of the Conference when they were relegated on the last day of the season in 1999–2000 and returned to the Southern League. The first season at this level proved a struggle, and with the Wings rooted to the foot of the table for the first three months of the season Parker left the club by mutual consent, pennock left the club at the end of the 2006–07 season. His last game managing the Wings finished in a 1–1 draw at home to Hayes, pennock joined Stoke City in a coaching position under his former Gillingham manager, Tony Pulis. On 16 May 2007, Welling United appointed Neil Smith as the new first team manager, however, after only seven months in charge Smith parted company with the club on 7 January 2008. It was mutually agreed between the club and Smith that his reign as Wings boss would end, andy Ford was appointed the new manager of the Wings on 31 January 2008. Despite losing 6–2 to Cambridge City in his first game in charge, Ford guided the Wings to safety, Welling finished 7th in the Conference South in 2008/09 under the guidance of Ford. After a poor start to the 2009–10 season Ford resigned stating he didnt think he could achieve what he wanted on the current budget, Jamie Day was announced as the new player/manager in November 2009. On 12 August 2010, the club was served with a petition by HMRC. The Wings were given 14 weeks to pay the debt to the HMRC. During this period, in a Football Conference Hearing on 16 September 2010, resultantly an immediate deduction of 5 points was enforced on the club together with a suspended £5,000 fine
Clermont Foot 63 is a French association football club based in Clermont-Ferrand. The first incarnation of the club was formed in 1911 and the current club was created in 1990 as a result of a merger. Clermont currently play in Ligue 2, the level of French football having achieved promotion to the league after winning the 2006–07 edition of the Championnat National. The club plays its matches at the Stade Gabriel Montpied located within the city. Clermont is managed by Corinne Diacre and captained by Cameroonian Eugène Ekobo, the club started in 1911 under the name Stade Clermontois. Despite little league success in the days, they reached the semi-finals of the Coupe de France during the 1945–46 season. Their professional status was repealed after the 1946–47 season due to financial difficulties, the club became professional again in 1966. 1984 saw an expansion, with Stade-Clermontois and AS Montferrand merging to form Clermont-Ferrand Football Club, the club was placed in the third division. The club was later renamed Clermont Foot Auvergne, having to start again in the Division Honneur, after 13 years, Clermont Foot got promoted multiple times, from the Division Honneur up to Ligue 2 in 1993. During these 13 years of success, the club had numerous successes in the Coupe de France, one notable cup run was in 1997, when the Auvergne club eliminated three professional sides, Martigues, Lorient and then Paris Saint-Germain, before succumbing to Nice. More recently, the won the Championnat National in 2007, being promoted to Ligue 2 again. In 2014, Clermont became the first French professional mens team to appoint a manager when they appointed Helena Costa. Less than a month after taking charge, Costa quit her role, Championnat National, Champions,2002,2007 As of 19 September 2016. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. 14 - Clément Pinault, Defender - posthumous honour, for a list of former Clermont Foot players, see Category, Clermont Foot players. Albert Rust Hubert Velud Olivier Chavanon Dominique Bijotat Marc Collat Didier Ollé-Nicolle Michel Der Zakarian Régis Brouard Helena Costa Corinne Diacre Official website
Vannes Olympique Club is a French football club based in Vannes. Vannes plays its matches at the Stade de la Rabine located within the city. The team is managed by Thierry Froger and captained by goalkeeper Antoine Petit, though formed in the late 1990s, Vannes developed into a solid football club. In the clubs first season of existence, it won the Division dHonneur of the Brittany region, almost a decade later, the club won the Championnat National, the third division of French football to ascend to Ligue 2. In cup competitions, Vannes surprisingly reached the final of the 2008–09 edition of the Coupe de la Ligue, the team defeated Ligue 1 clubs Nice and Auxerre on its way to the final, where Vannes lost to Bordeaux. The club remained in Ligue 2 for three seasons, but after relegation in 2012 the failed to return, and were declared bankrupt in 2014 and they reformed in the Brittany Region Division Supérieure Elite under order of the FFF. Two successive promotions brought the club back to CFA2 for the 2016–17 season, as of 10 March 2014 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, for a list of former Vannes players, see Category, Vannes OC players
Persitema stands for Persatuan Sepakbola Indonesia Temanggung. Persitema Temanggung is an Indonesian football club based in Temanggung, Central Java, club played in Liga Indonesia First Division. Persitema stadium named Bhumi Phala Stadium and its location was in downtown Temanggung, Central Java. This club has a fanatical supporter named TasMania, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality and they play their home matches in Bhumi Phala Stadium Support group they called Tasmania and Tasmanita for supporting women. Kitlec Sportindo Kitlec Sportindo Bank BUMD Provinsi Jawa Tengah PDAM Tirta Agung Kabupaten Temanggung Bank Jateng Apotek Waringin Mulya PD, BPR BKK Temanggung Official Blog Liga-Indonesia site
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Sinterklaas or Sint-Nicolaas is a historical figure with legendary, and folkloric origins based on Saint Nicholas. Other names for the figure include De Sint, De Goede Sint, and De Goedheiligman in Dutch, Saint Nicolas in French, Sinteklaas in Frisian and he is also well known in territories of the former Dutch Empire, including Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, and Suriname. He is the source of the popular Christmas icon of Santa Claus. Sinterklaas is an elderly, stately and serious man with white hair and he traditionally rides a white horse. In the Netherlands, the horse is called Amerigo, and in Belgium, it is named Slecht Weer Vandaag, Sinterklaas carries a big, red book, called The Book of Sinterklaas, in which is written whether each child has been good or naughty in the past year. Zwarte Piet is a companion of Sinterklaas, dressed up based on 16th-century clothes of nobles in colourful attire, often sporting a lace collar, among other things, the black represents the black-white difference, but also helps people playing Zwarte Piet to stay unrecognisable to the children. Children are told that Zwarte Piet is black due to the soot in the chimneys, according to Hélène Adeline Guerber and others, the origin of Sinterklaas and his helpers has been linked by some to the Wild Hunt of Wodan. Riding the white horse Sleipnir he flew through the air as the leader of the Wild Hunt and he was always accompanied by two black ravens, Huginn and Muninn. Those helpers would listen, just like Zwarte Piet, at the chimney – which was just a hole in the roof at that time – to tell Wodan about the good and bad behaviour of the mortals. Due to its character, however, this older Germanic theory has little support among present-day scholars. At the same time, it clear that the Saint Nicholas tradition contains a number of elements that are not ecclesiastical in origin. Some of the older Sinterklaas songs make mention of naughty children being put in the bag and this part of the legend refers to the times that the Moors raided the European coasts, and as far as Iceland, to abduct the local people into slavery. This quality can be found in other companions of Saint Nicholas such as Krampus, in recent years the roe has been absent, to adapt to modern times. Over the years many stories have been added, and Zwarte Piet has developed from a rather unintelligent helper into an assistant to the absent-minded saint. Traditionally Zwarte Piets face is said to be black because he is a Moor from Spain, Today, some prefer to say that his face is blackened with soot because he has to climb through chimneys to deliver gifts for Sinterklaas. The figure of Zwarte Piet is considered by some to be racist, as such, the traditions surrounding the holiday of Sinterklaas have been the subject of numerous editorials, debates, documentaries, protests and even violent clashes at festivals. Nevertheless, both Zwarte Piet and the holiday remain popular in the Netherlands, in a 2013 survey, 92% of the Dutch public did not perceive Zwarte Piet as racist or associate him with slavery, and 91% were opposed to altering the characters appearance. Despite Zwarte Piets popularity, many cities and television channels now only display Chimney Petes
Zwarte Piet is the companion of Saint Nicholas in the folklore of the Low Countries. The character first appeared in an 1850 book by Amsterdam schoolteacher Jan Schenkman, traditionally, Zwarte Piet is said to be black because he is a Moor from Spain. Those portraying Zwarte Piet typically put on blackface make-up and colourful Renaissance attire, in addition to curly wigs, red lipstick, in recent years, the character has become the subject of controversy, especially in the Netherlands. The Zwarte Piet character is part of the annual feast of St, the characters of Zwarte Pieten appear only in the weeks before Saint Nicholass feast, first when the saint is welcomed with a parade as he arrives in the country. The tasks of the Zwarte Pieten are mostly to children, and to scatter kruidnoten, pepernoten, and Strooigoed for those who come to meet the saint as he visits schools, stores. According to Hélène Adeline Guerber and others, the origin of Sinterklaas, riding the white horse Sleipnir he flew through the air as the leader of the Wild Hunt. He was always accompanied by two ravens, Huginn and Muninn. These helpers would listen, just like Zwarte Piet, at the chimney, due to its speculative character, however, this older Germanic theory has little support among present-day scholars, although it continues to be popular in non-scholarly sources. At the same time, it clear that the Saint Nicholas tradition contains a number of elements that are not ecclesiastical in origin. In medieval iconography, Saint Nicholas is sometimes presented as taming a chained devil and this chained and fire-scorched devil may have re-emerged as a black human in the early 19th-century Netherlands, in the likeness of a Moor and as a servant of Saint Nicholas. A devil as a helper of the saint can still be found in the Austrian Saint Nicholas tradition, the depiction of a holy man in this light was troubling to both teachers and priests. Some time after the introduction of Zwarte Piet as Sinterklaas servant, for example, they will take bad children and carry these children off in a burlap sack to their homeland of Spain, where, according to legend, Sinterklaas and his helper dwell out of season. The servant is depicted as a page, who appears as a person wearing clothes associated with Moors. The book also established another mythos that would become standard, the intocht or entry ceremony of Saint Nicholas, Schenkman has the two characters arrive from Spain, with no reference made to Nicholas historical see of Myra. In the 1850 version of Schenkmans book, the servant is depicted in white clothing with red piping. Starting with the edition in 1858, the page is shown in a much more colorful page costume reminiscent of the Spanish fashion of earlier days. The book stayed in print until 1950 and has had influence on the current celebration. J. On this occasion Saint Nicholas had been accompanied by Pieter me Knecht, a frizzy haired Negro, who, rather than a rod, wore a large basket filled with presents
The Sun (United Kingdom)
The Sun is a tabloid published in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Since The Sun on Sunday was launched in February 2012, the paper has been a seven-day operation, as a broadsheet, it was founded in 1964 as a successor to the Daily Herald, it became a tabloid in 1969 after it was purchased by its current owners. It is published by the News Group Newspapers division of News UK, the Sun had the largest circulation of any daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, but in late 2013 slipped to second largest Saturday newspaper behind the Daily Mail. It had a daily circulation of 2.2 million copies in March 2014. Approximately 41% of readers are women and 59% are men, the Sun has been involved in many controversies in its history, including its coverage of the 1989 Hillsborough football stadium disaster. Regional editions of the newspaper for Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are published in Glasgow, Belfast, on 26 February 2012, The Sun on Sunday was launched to replace the closed News of the World, employing some of its former journalists. Roy Greenslade issued some caveats over the May 2015 figures, the Sun was first published as a broadsheet on 15 September 1964, with a logo featuring a glowing orange disc. It was launched by owners IPC to replace the failing Daily Herald, the new paper was intended to add a readership of social radicals to the Heralds political radicals. Supposedly there was an immense, sophisticated and superior class, hitherto undetected and yearning for its own newspaper. As delusions go, this was in the El Dorado class, launched with an advertising budget of £400,000, the brash new paper burst forth with tremendous energy, according to The Times. Its initial print run of 3.5 million was attributed to curiosity and the advantage of novelty, by 1969, according to Hugh Cudlipp, The Sun was losing about £2m a year and had a circulation of 800,000. Seizing the opportunity to increase his presence on Fleet Street, he made an agreement with the print unions and he assured IPC that he would publish a straightforward, honest newspaper which would continue to support Labour. IPC, under pressure from the unions, rejected Maxwells offer and he would later remark, I am constantly amazed at the ease with which I entered British newspapers. Murdoch found he had such a rapport with Larry Lamb over lunch that other potential recruits as editor were not interviewed, Lamb wanted Bernard Shrimsley to be his deputy, which Murdoch accepted as Shrimsley had been the second name on his list of preferences. Lamb hastily recruited a staff of about 125 reporters, who were selected for their availability rather than their ability. This was about a quarter of what the Mirror then employed, Murdoch immediately relaunched The Sun as a tabloid, and ran it as a sister paper to the News of the World. The Sun used the printing presses, and the two papers were managed together at senior executive levels. The new tabloid Sun was first published on 17 November 1969, with a front page headlined HORSE DOPE SENSATION, an editorial on page 2 announced, Todays Sun is a new newspaper
Hull City A.F.C.
Hull City Association Football Club is a professional association football club based in Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The club participates in the Premier League, the top tier of English football – and their greatest achievement in cup competitions came in 2014, when the team reached the final of the FA Cup. In 2007–08 they achieved promotion to the top flight of English football for the first time in their history by winning the Championship play-off Final at Wembley Stadium and their highest league finish was for the 2013–14 season, in which they finished 16th in the Premier League table. Hull City play their games at the KCOM Stadium. They moved there in 2002 after playing their previous 56 seasons at Boothferry Park, Boothferry Park has since been demolished and been replaced by a housing development. Hull traditionally play in black and amber, often with a shirt design. The clubs mascots are Roary the Tiger and his sister Amber. C. and these early matches were played at the Boulevard, the home of Hull F. C. The clubs first competitive match was in the FA Cup preliminary round, drawing 3–3 with Stockton on 17 September. After disputes with landlords at the Boulevard, Hull City moved to Anlaby Road Cricket Ground, after having played 44 friendly fixtures the previous season, Hull City were finally admitted into the Football League Second Division for the 1905–06 season. Other teams competing in the league season included the likes of Manchester United and Chelsea, as well as Yorkshire rivals Barnsley, Bradford City. Hull defeated Barnsley 4–1 at home in their first game and finished the season in fifth place, the following season a new ground was built for Hull City across the road from the cricket ground. Still under the managership of Ambrose Langley, Hull continued to finish consistently in the top half of the table and they came close to promotion in the 1909–10 season, recording what would be their highest finish until they matched it in 2008. Hull finished third, level on points with second placed Oldham Athletic, Hulls greatest achievement in cup competitions until 2014 was in 1930, when they reached the FA Cup semi-finals. The cup run saw Hull knock out the champions of the Second and Third Divisions, Blackpool. They then knocked out Manchester City, to meet Newcastle United in the quarter-finals, the first game at St James Park finished as a 1–1 draw, but in the replay Hull beat Newcastle 1–0. The semi-final match against Arsenal took place at Elland Road in Leeds, the game ended 2–2, Arsenal knocked Hull out at Villa Park, the game ending 1–0. After the Second World War, the moved to another new ground. In the 1948–49 season, managed by former England international Raich Carter, Hull also became the first team in the world to go out of a cup competition on penalties, beaten by Manchester United in the semi-final of the Watney Cup on 1 August 1970
Paul McShane (footballer)
Paul David McShane is an Irish professional footballer who plays as a defender for Championship club Reading. McShane won the 2003 FA Youth Cup with Manchester United and he had stints with Brighton & Hove Albion, West Bromwich Albion and Sunderland before his transfer to Hull City. He worked his way into the Republic of Ireland national team and he was then called in from the international wilderness to the Irish squad for UEFA Euro 2012. Born in Wicklow, County Wicklow, McShane started his career with Greystones United, as well as playing for Newtown Juniors and his secondary school and he later joined St Josephs Boys, a club based in south Dublin. In the summer of 2002, he signed for Manchester United, in December 2004, he was loaned to Walsall, where he played four league matches and scored once against Sheffield Wednesday. He played for Manchester United in the final of the 2003 FA Youth Cup in which they defeated Middlesbrough by the score 3–1 and he played in pre-season friendly matches and was given the squad number 34, but did not make a full debut for Manchester United. In August 2005, he moved to Brighton & Hove Albion on an initial loan deal. The loan was extended for the whole of the 2005–06 season. P McShane was voted Player of the Season by the supporters. He made his debut for West Brom in a 3–0 win over Leyton Orient in the League Cup on 24 August 2006 and his goal against Leeds United in the FA Cup on 6 January 2007 sent Albion on their way to a 3–1 victory. It was the first of three goals he scored in 42 appearances for the club, on 26 July 2007, McShane joined Sunderland for an initial £1.5 million fee. McShanes first game for the Black Cats ended in success – his performance helping Sunderland to a clean sheet, on 29 August 2008, Sunderland accepted a loan offer for McShane from Hull City, who were newly promoted to the Premier League. While playing for Hull, he scored the goal at Anfield in a league match versus Liverpool on 13 December 2008. His last game during his spell for Hull was an FA Cup victory over Newcastle United on 14 January 2009. On 30 August 2009, McShane rejoined Hull on a permanent transfer for an undisclosed fee, on 16 February 2011, he joined Barnsley on a two-month loan, but Hull were given the option to recall him after 28 days. He scored his first goal for Barnsley in a 4–2 win over Bristol City on 9 April 2011, on 13 January 2012, McShane joined Crystal Palace on a one-month loan. McShanes loan at Palace was extended until the end of the 2011–12 season on 31 January 2012 and he scored his first goal in over four years on 1 December 2012, shouldering the ball home to help Hull to a 2–1 victory at Nottingham Forest. With his contract running out at the end of the season, however, McShane returned to the team unexpectedly before the end of the season. On 4 May 2013, McShane started on the day of the season in a match against Cardiff City
Ligue 2, also known as Dominos Ligue 2 due to sponsorship with Dominos Pizza, is a French professional football league. The league serves as the division of French football and is one of two divisions making up the Ligue de Football Professionnel, the other being Ligue 1, the countrys top football division. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with both Ligue 1 and the third division Championnat National, seasons run from August to May, with teams playing 38 games each totaling 380 games in the season. Most games are played on Fridays and Mondays, with a few games played during weekday, play is regularly suspended the last weekend before Christmas for two weeks before returning in the second week of January. Ligue 2 was founded a year after the creation of the first division in 1933 under the name Division 2 and has served as the division of French football ever since. The name lasted until 2002 before switching to its current name, since the league is a part of the LFP, it allows clubs who are on the brink of professionalism to become so. However, if a club suffers relegation to the Championnat National, the second division of French football was established in 1933, one year after the creation of the all-professional first division. The first year of the division consisted of twenty-three clubs and were divided into two groups. Fourteen of the clubs were inserted into the Nord section, while the nine were placed in Sud. Following the season, the winner of each group faced each other to determine which club would earn promotion, on 20 May 1934, the winner of the Nord group, Red Star Saint-Ouen, faced Olympique Alès, the winner of the Sud group. Red Star were crowned the inaugural champions following a 3–2 victory. Due to several clubs merging, folding, or losing their professional status, because of World War II, football was suspended by the French government and the Ligue de Football Professionnel. Following the end of the war, the division developed stability. Due to the increase in clubs, the league intertwined professional and amateur clubs. In 2002, the changed its name from Division 2 to Ligue 2. In November 2014, the presidents of Caen and Nîmes were amongst several arrested on suspicion of match fixing, the arrests followed a 1–1 draw between Caen and Nîmes in May 2014, a result very beneficial for each club. There are 20 clubs in Ligue 2, during the course of a season, usually from August to May, each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw, no points are awarded for a loss
Ligue de Football Professionnel
The Ligue de Football Professionnel, commonly known as the LFP, is a French governing body that runs the major professional football leagues in France. It was founded in 1944 and serves under the authority of the French Football Federation, the current president of the league is Nathalie Boy de la Tour. The league also organizes a cup competition, the Coupe de la Ligue. The history of the Ligue de Football Professionnel dates back before World War II when the primary motive was to ensure clubs in France pay players their wages. The chairman of the predecessor of the league was Emmanuel Gambardella. During the Vichy regime, professionalism in France was abolished, which led to clubs forming unpopular regional amateur leagues, under the current LFP hierarchy, the years 1939–1945 are non-existent. On 27 October 1944, the Ligue Nationale de Football was officially founded with Gambardella being installed as the organizations first president, the league changed its name back to Groupement des clubs autorisés shortly after and kept the name until 1970 before returning to Ligue Nationale de Football. In 2000, the changed its name to the Ligue de Football Professionnel. The Ligue de Football Professionnel describes itself through its mission statement, the LFP must, Organize, manage, and regulate all the aspects of professional football in France. Finance all operations or any actions that are likely to develop the resources of professional football in France, apply the sanctions imposed by its authority organizations vis-à-vis members of sports clubs and its licenses and any other person bounded by these articles. To defend the moral and material interests of French football in France, the 44 member clubs of the LFP are grouped into two divisions, Ligue 1 and Ligue 2. The LFP also oversee the clubs that suffer relegation to third-tier Championnat National. Currently, there are four clubs playing in the division that the league manages. This makes for a total of 38 games played each season in both leagues, clubs gain three points for a win, one for a draw, and none for a defeat. At the end of season, the club with the most points in Ligue 1 is crowned champion of France. Teams are ranked by points, then goal difference. If points are equal, the difference and then goals scored determine the winner. If still equal, teams are deemed to occupy the same position, if there is a tie for the championship, for relegation, or for qualification to other competitions, a play-off match at a neutral venue decides rank