North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
Fries is an incorporated town located on the New River in Grayson County, Virginia, 24 kilometers north-east of the county seat in Independence — in Virginia's Blue Ridge Highlands and on Virginia's musical heritage trail, The Crooked Road. Named after prominent cotton mill owner, Francis Henry Fries, the town is noted as the former site of Washington Mill. Fries was named after North Carolina cotton mill owner Colonel Francis Henry Fries. Jim'Pipe' Carico contacted Fries in 1900 and proposed Bartlett Falls on New River as a site for a hydroelectric dam that could power a cotton mill. Fries purchased the surrounding rural farmland hired a local labor force to build a dam, a cotton mill and a full-service company owned town. By 1901, the New River Train was extended to the mill site and Fries petitioned the Virginia State Legislature to incorporate the new town of Carico, VA in honor of Jim'Pipe' Carico. For reasons that are not well documented, the town name was instead legislatively changed to Fries and incorporated in 1902.
Despite the heavy reliance on manual labor and oxen, the town's construction progressed and the open call for employment spurred migration to the town. Around 300 houses, a post office, a church and a company commissary were wedged into the surrounding hillside before the mill began operation in February 1903 — with "the most sophisticated technology in the world."After changing hands numerous times, the mill closed in 1989. At the time the mill closed. Fries High School closed in 1989; the students from Fries, along with students from nearby Independence High School were combined to form Grayson County High School, located in Independence. The Stephen G. Bourne House, Fries Boarding Houses, Spring Valley Rural Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Although the entire Appalachian region is known for its Bluegrass and traditional, or "old-timey" music and musicians, the region around Mount Airy, North Carolina is one of the few areas of the United States where this music has remained prominent among young people.
The Old Fiddler's Convention, one of the most prominent traditional music contests in the United States, has been held annually in the nearby city of Galax since 1935. It has long attracted the best up-and-coming bluegrass musicians; the Blue Ridge Music Center with its amphitheater and music museum of old-time music is just a short distance away on the Blue Ridge Parkway at Milepost 213. Fries is located at 36°42′56″N 80°58′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 square miles, of which, 0.6 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 484 people, 255 households, 144 families residing in the town; the following data is from the census of 2000. The population density was 947.8 people per square mile. There were 337 housing units at an average density of 520.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.70% White, 0.65% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.16% from other races, 0.33% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.98% of the population. There were 298 households out of which 17.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.6% were non-families. 39.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.71. In the town, the population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 19.4% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, 28.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 75.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 72.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $21,250, the median income for a family was $30,250. Males had a median income of $27,946 versus $18,472 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,107. About 14.1% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 14.4% of those age 65 or over.
New River Trail State Park, a 57.7 miles rail trail park has a 5.5 spur from Fries Junction on the main trail to Fries, Virginia — giving Freies one of its three end points. The historic Fries Recreation Center is located in downtown Fries. In 1910 an increasing need was seen for a community center for the employees of the mill. A site was selected that would be central for the townspeople and construction was begun for the Fries Lyceum; the building provided reading rooms, a skating rink became the gathering place for the young people of the town. In 1923, the Lyceum was reorganized as a Young Men's Christian Association; the building now contained the only gymnasium in the Carroll-Grayson area, along with a movie theatre. The need to expand was seen again in the late 1940s, in 1948, a new lobby, bowling alley and dining area and additional game rooms were added; the swimming pool built in the front, facing new River, was the most popular addition. Through the years semi-professional baseball was sponsored by the "Y".
It has housed mee
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Virginia General Assembly
The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia, the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World, established on July 30, 1619. The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of a lower house, the Virginia House of Delegates, with 100 members, an upper house, the Senate of Virginia, with 40 members. Combined together, the General Assembly consists of 140 elected representatives from an equal number of constituent districts across the commonwealth; the House of Delegates is presided over by the Speaker of the House, while the Senate is presided over by the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. The House and Senate each elect sergeant-at-arms; the Senate of Virginia's clerk is known as the "Clerk of the Senate". The Republican Party holds a one-seat majority in the Senate and a two-seat majority in the House following gains by Democrats in the 2017 House election; the General Assembly meets in Virginia's capital of Richmond. When sitting in Richmond, the General Assembly holds sessions in the Virginia State Capitol, designed by Thomas Jefferson in 1788 and expanded in 1904.
During the American Civil War, the building was used as the capitol of the Confederate States of America, housing the Congress of the Confederate States. The building was renovated between 2005 and 2006. Senators and Delegates have their offices in the General Assembly Building across the street directly north of the Capitol; the Governor of Virginia lives across the street directly east of the Capitol in the Virginia Executive Mansion. The Virginia General Assembly is described as "the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World", its existence dates to its establishment at Jamestown on July 30, 1619 by instructions from the Virginia Company of London to the new Governor Sir George Yeardley. It was a unicameral body composed of the Company-appointed Governor and Council of State, plus 22 burgesses elected by the settlements and Jamestown; the Assembly became bicameral in 1642 upon the formation of the House of Burgesses. At various times it may have been referred to as the Grand Assembly of Virginia.
The General Assembly met in Jamestown from 1619 until 1699, when it first moved to the College of William & Mary near Williamsburg and met in the colonial Capitol building. It became the General Assembly in 1776 with the ratification of the Virginia Constitution; the government was moved to Richmond in 1780 during the administration of Governor Thomas Jefferson. The annual salary for senators is $18,000; the annual salary for delegates is $17,640. Under the Constitution of Virginia and Delegates must be 21 years of age at the time of the election, residents of the district they represent, qualified to vote for members of the General Assembly. Under the Constitution, "a senator or delegate who moves his residence from the district for which he is elected shall thereby vacate his office"; the state constitution specifies that the General Assembly shall meet annually, its regular session is a maximum of 60 days long in even-numbered years and 30 days long in odd-numbered years, unless extended by a two-thirds vote of both houses.
The governor of Virginia may convene a special session of the General Assembly "when, in his opinion, the interest of the Commonwealth may require" and must convene a special session "upon the application of two-thirds of the members elected to each house". Article II, section 6 on apportionment states, "Members of the... Senate and of the House of Delegates of the General Assembly shall be elected from electoral districts established by the General Assembly; every electoral district shall be composed of contiguous and compact territory and shall be so constituted as to give, as nearly as is practicable, representation in proportion to the population of the district." The Redistricting Coalition of Virginia proposes either an independent commission or a bipartisan commission, not polarized. Member organizations include the League of Women Voters of Virginia, AARP of Virginia, OneVirginia2021, the Virginia Chamber of Commerce and Virginia Organizing. Governor Bob McDonnell's Independent Bipartisan Advisory Commission on Redistricting for the Commonwealth of Virginia made its report on April 1, 2011.
It made two recommendations for each state legislative house that showed maps of districts more compact and contiguous than those adopted by the General Assembly. In 2011, the Virginia College and University Redistricting Competition was organized by Professors Michael McDonald of George Mason University and Quentin Kidd of Christopher Newport University. About 150 students on sixteen teams from thirteen schools submitted plans for legislative and U. S. Congressional Districts, they created districts more compact than the General Assembly's efforts. The "Division 1" maps conformed with the Governor's Executive Order, did not address electoral competition or representational fairness. In addition to the criteria of contiguity, the federal Voting Rights Act and communities of interest in the existing city and county boundaries, "Division 2" maps in the competition did incorporate considerations of electoral competition and representational fairness. Judges for the cash award prizes were Thomas Mann of the Brookings Institution and Norman Ornstein of the American Enterprise Institute.
In January 2015, Republican State Senator Jill Holtzman Vogel of Winchester and Democratic State Senator Louise Lucas of Portsmouth sponsored a Senate Joint Resolution to establish additional criteria for the Virginia Redistricting Commission of four identified members of political parties, three other independent public officials. The criteria began with respecting existing political boundaries
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only, doing so by complete immersion. Baptist churches generally subscribe to the tenets of soul competency/liberty, salvation through faith alone, scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ordinances: baptism and the Lord's supper. Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest "Baptist" church to 1609 in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect.
Thomas Helwys formulated a distinctively Baptist request that the church and the state be kept separate in matters of law, so that individuals might have freedom of religion. Helwys died in prison as a consequence of the religious conflict with English dissenters under King James I. In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the First and Second Great Awakening increased church membership in the United States. Baptist missionaries have spread their faith to every continent. Baptist historian Bruce Gourley outlines four main views of Baptist origins: the modern scholarly consensus that the movement traces its origin to the 17th century via the English Separatists, the view that it was an outgrowth of Anabaptist traditions, the perpetuity view which assumes that the Baptist faith and practice has existed since the time of Christ, the successionist view, or "Baptist successionism", which argues that Baptist churches existed in an unbroken chain since the time of Christ.
Modern Baptist churches trace their history to the English Separatist movement in the 1600s, the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations. This view of Baptist origins has the most historical support and is the most accepted. Adherents to this position consider the influence of Anabaptists upon early Baptists to be minimal, it was a time of considerable religious turmoil. Both individuals and churches were willing to give up their theological roots if they became convinced that a more biblical "truth" had been discovered. During the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church. There were some Christians who were not content with the achievements of the mainstream Protestant Reformation. There were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses. Of those most critical of the Church's direction, some chose to stay and try to make constructive changes from within the Anglican Church.
They are described by Gourley as cousins of the English Separatists. Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists. Historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor. Three years earlier, while a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, he had broken his ties with the Church of England. Reared in the Church of England, he became "Puritan, English Separatist, a Baptist Separatist," and ended his days working with the Mennonites, he began meeting in England with 60–70 English Separatists, in the face of "great danger." The persecution of religious nonconformists in England led Smyth to go into exile in Amsterdam with fellow Separatists from the congregation he had gathered in Lincolnshire, separate from the established church. Smyth and his lay supporter, Thomas Helwys, together with those they led, broke with the other English exiles because Smyth and Helwys were convinced they should be baptized as believers.
In 1609 Smyth first baptized himself and baptized the others. In 1609, while still there, Smyth wrote a tract titled "The Character of the Beast," or "The False Constitution of the Church." In it he expressed two propositions: first, infants are not to be baptized. Hence, his conviction was that a scriptural church should consist only of regenerate believers who have been baptized on a personal confession of faith, he rejected the Separatist movement's doctrine of infant baptism. Shortly thereafter, Smyth left the group, layman Thomas Helwys took over the leadership, leading the church back to England in 1611. Smyth became committed to believers' baptism as the only biblical baptism, he was convinced on the basis of his interpretation of Scripture that infants would not be damned should they die in infancy. Smyth, convinced that his self-baptism was invalid, applied with the Mennonites for membership, he died while waiting for membership, some of his followers became Mennonites. Thomas Helwys and others kept their Baptist commitments.
The modern Baptist denomination is an outgrowth of Smyth's movement. Baptists rejected the name Anabaptist. McBeth writes that as late as the 18th century, many Baptists referred to themselves as "the Christians commonly—though falsely—called Anabaptists."Another milestone in the early dev
New River (Kanawha River tributary)
The New River is a river which flows through the U. S. states of North Carolina and West Virginia before joining with the Gauley River to form the Kanawha River at the town of Gauley Bridge, West Virginia. Part of the Ohio River watershed, it is about 360 miles long; the origins of the name are unclear. Possibilities include being a new river, not on the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia, an Indian name meaning "new waters", or the surname of an early settler. Despite its name, the New River is one of the five oldest rivers in the world geologically; this low-level crossing of the Appalachians, many millions of years old, has long been a biogeographical corridor allowing numerous species of plants and animals to spread between the lowlands of the American East Coast and those of the Midwest. Portions of this corridor are now used by various railroads and highways, some segments of the river have been dammed for hydroelectric power production; the New River Gorge is not only quite scenic, but offers numerous opportunities for white-water recreation such as rafting and kayaking.
Many open ledges along the rim of the gorge offer popular views, with favorites including Hawks Nest State Park and various overlooks on lands of the New River Gorge National River. The New River Gorge and the U. S. 19 bridge crossing it are shown on the West Virginia State Quarter, minted in 2005. This ancient river begins in the mountains of North Carolina near the Tennessee state line, flows northeastward across the Blue Ridge Mountains, Great Appalachian Valley and Valley Province, the Allegheny Front in western North Carolina and Virginia, before turning and following a more northwestward course into West Virginia, where it cuts through the Appalachian Plateau to meet the Gauley River and become the Kanawha River in south-central West Virginia; the Kanawha flows into the Ohio River at Point Pleasant, West Virginia. Much of the river's course is lined with steep cliffs and rock outcrops in its gorge in West Virginia; the New River is formed by the confluence of the South Fork New River and the North Fork New River on the Ashe County-Alleghany County line in North Carolina.
It flows through Alleghany County into southwestern Virginia, passing near Galax, Virginia. It is impounded by three small dams between Galax and Ivanhoe: at Fries, by Byllesby Dam, by Buck Dam. Continuing north, the river enters Pulaski County, where it is impounded by Claytor Dam, creating Claytor Lake. North of the dam the New River accepts the Little River and passes the city of Radford, Virginia before passing through Walker Mountain via a narrow water gap. After flowing north through Giles County and the town of Narrows, the river crosses into West Virginia; the New River is impounded by Bluestone Dam, creating Bluestone Lake in Summers County, West Virginia. The Bluestone River tributary joins the New River in Bluestone Lake. Just below the dam the Greenbrier River joins the New River, which continues its northward course into the New River Gorge. Near the end of the gorge the river flows by the town of West Virginia. A few miles northwest of Fayetteville, much of the New River's flow is diverted through the 3-mile Hawks Nest Tunnel for use in power generation.
The water re-enters the river just upstream of Gauley Bridge, where the New merges with the Gauley River to form the Kanawha River. The Kanawha is a tributary of the Ohio River. Few highways cross the gorge, with the most dramatic bridge by far being the New River Gorge Bridge on U. S. 19, a steel arch bridge spanning 1,700 feet, with the roadway 876 feet above the average level of the river. This structure is the third-longest single-arch bridge in the world, is the world's twenty-third-highest vehicular bridge, the fourth highest in the Americas; the New River is considered by some geologists to be one of the oldest rivers in the world. And one of the oldest rivers in North America; the New River flows in a south-to-north course, at times cutting across the southwest-to-northeast-trending ridges and geological texture of the Appalachian Mountains, flows directly across the Appalachian Plateau, contrasting with the west-to-east flow of most other major rivers to the east and northeast in Virginia and North Carolina, on the west side of the Appalachians on the Plateau.
It may have been in its present course for at least 65 million years. In the geologic past, the New River was a much longer stream. Geologists have named it the Teays; the last advance of Pleistocene continental glacial ice buried most of this river. At that time, the waters of the New were diverted into rivers created by the glaciers. On its journey through the New River Gorge, the New River passes through an extensive geological formation. Emergent rocks, rock outcrops and coal mines are found to provide diverse habitat producing rich and abundant flora and fauna species. In the gorge, there is a 1000 feet difference in elevation between the river bottom and the adjacent plateau; the New River dissects all physiographic provinces of the Appalachian Mountains, therefore is believed to be a corridor facilitating the movement of southern plant and animal species into West Virginia. In addition to serving as a refuge for some species, New River Gorge provides a geographical barrier that limits the east-west distribution of other species.
Because the New River is so old, its habitats and wildlife have been able to achieve a form of stability. Millions of years of available passage have allowed many species
Independence is a town in Grayson County, United States. The population was 947 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Grayson County. Independence is home to a major town celebration on July 4 every year, held in front of the 1908 courthouse, it features bluegrass and old-time music and dance, crafts and a wild pony sale. The courthouse is the location of the Mountain Foliage Festival, held in the autumn and featuring a parade, crafts and music, as well as a race in which contestants use outhouses, the Grand Privy Race; the Brookside Farm and Mill and Grayson County Courthouse are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Independence is located at 36°37′22″N 81°9′6″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.3 square miles, all land. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Independence has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2000, there were 971 people, 426 households, 226 families residing in the town. The population density was 415.1 people per square mile. There were 497 housing units at an average density of 212.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.73% White, 6.80% African American, 1.24% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.68% of the population. There were 426 households out of which 19.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.9% were non-families. 44.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 27.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.98 and the average family size was 2.73. In the town, the population was spread out with 14.4% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 21.1% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 34.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51 years.
For every 100 females there were 81.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $18,264, the median income for a family was $30,441. Males had a median income of $21,058 versus $16,705 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,137. About 10.5% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.7% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over. Wade Ward, old-time musician. Fussell, Fred C.. Blue Ridge Music Trails: Finding a Place in the Circle. North Carolina Folklife Institute. 080785459X. Town website