The Appalachian Mountains called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period, they once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before experiencing natural erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east–west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east–west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians; the United States Geological Survey defines the Appalachian Highlands physiographic division as consisting of thirteen provinces: the Atlantic Coast Uplands, Eastern Newfoundland Atlantic, Maritime Acadian Highlands, Maritime Plain, Notre Dame and Mégantic Mountains, Western Newfoundland Mountains, Blue Ridge and Ridge, Saint Lawrence Valley, Appalachian Plateaus, New England province, the Adirondack areas. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which geologically belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians.
The mountain range is in the United States but it extends into southeastern Canada, forming a zone from 100 to 300 mi wide, running from the island of Newfoundland 1,500 mi southwestward to Central Alabama in the United States. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, which comprise an overseas territory of France; the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the highest point in the United States east of the Mississippi River; the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range. Most broadly, it refers to the entire mountain range with its surrounding hills and the dissected plateau region; the term is used more restrictively to refer to regions in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains including areas in the states of Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, as well as sometimes extending as far south as northern Alabama and western South Carolina, as far north as Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, parts of southern upstate New York.
The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were part of the Appalachians as well but became disconnected through geologic history. While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, Florida whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen; the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian," it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves; the first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrez's map of 1562. The name was not used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century.
A competing and more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", "Alleghania". In the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the southern regions of the Appalachians, the word is pronounced, with the third syllable sounding like "latch". In northern parts of the mountain range, it is pronounced or. There is great debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is, with the last two syllables "-ian" pronounced as in the word "Romanian"; the whole system may be divided into three great sections: Northern: The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. It includes the Long Range Mountains and Annieopsquotch Mountains on the island of Newfoundland, Chic-Choc Mountains and Notre Dame Range in Quebec and New Brunswick, scattered elevations and small ranges elsewhere in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the Longfellow Mountains in Maine, the White Mountains in New Hampshire, the Green Mountains in Vermont, The Berkshires in Massachusetts and Connecticut.
The Metacomet Ridge Mountains in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts, although contained within the Appalachian province, is a younger system and not geologically associated with the Appalachians. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are unassociated with the Appalachians. Central: The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia, it comprises the Valley Ridges between the Allegheny Front of the Allegheny Plateau and the Great Appalachian Valley, the New York–New Jersey Highlands, the Taconic Mountains in New York, a large portion of the Blue Ridge. Southern: The southern section runs from the New River onwards, it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, the Cumberland Plateau. The Adirondack Mountains in New Y
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Independence is a town in Grayson County, United States. The population was 947 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Grayson County. Independence is home to a major town celebration on July 4 every year, held in front of the 1908 courthouse, it features bluegrass and old-time music and dance, crafts and a wild pony sale. The courthouse is the location of the Mountain Foliage Festival, held in the autumn and featuring a parade, crafts and music, as well as a race in which contestants use outhouses, the Grand Privy Race; the Brookside Farm and Mill and Grayson County Courthouse are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Independence is located at 36°37′22″N 81°9′6″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.3 square miles, all land. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Independence has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2000, there were 971 people, 426 households, 226 families residing in the town. The population density was 415.1 people per square mile. There were 497 housing units at an average density of 212.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.73% White, 6.80% African American, 1.24% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.68% of the population. There were 426 households out of which 19.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.9% were non-families. 44.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 27.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.98 and the average family size was 2.73. In the town, the population was spread out with 14.4% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 21.1% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 34.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51 years.
For every 100 females there were 81.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $18,264, the median income for a family was $30,441. Males had a median income of $21,058 versus $16,705 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,137. About 10.5% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.7% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over. Wade Ward, old-time musician. Fussell, Fred C.. Blue Ridge Music Trails: Finding a Place in the Circle. North Carolina Folklife Institute. 080785459X. Town website
Troutdale is a town in Grayson County, United States. The population was 178 at the 2010 census. Troutdale is located at 36°42′3″N 81°26′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.1 square miles, all land. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Troutdale has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps. Troutdale was chartered as a town by the Virginia Legislature in 1906 and remains an incorporated town with a council and mayor; the Troutdale town limit is a circle of 1 mile radius. In 1930, Carrie Wright was elected as mayor the first female mayor in Virginia; the original 2000 census listed Troutdale with a population of 1,230, a sharp increase from 192 in 1990. This, the anomalous figure of 30.89% African-American population, was the result of a tabulation error in which much of the population of Wise County's correctional facilities were counted as Troutdale residents.
Census revision As of the census of 2000, there were 1,230 people, 79 households, 56 families residing in the town. The population density was 395.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 111 housing units at an average density of 35.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 67.80% White, 30.89% African American, 0.41% Asian, 0.81% from other races, 0.08% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.89% of the population. There were 79 households out of which 21.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 22.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.93. The median income for a household in the town was $38,438, the median income for a family was $45,833. Males had a median income of $24,258 versus $16,250 for females.
The per capita income for the town was $18,139. About 3.2% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.6% of those under age 18 and 2.9% of those age 65 or over. The Troutdale Fire Department sponsors "Troutdale Days" on the second Saturday of August each year, including a parade, contests and food; the American writer Sherwood Anderson lived here during the summers from 1927 and full-time in his years. His Ripshin Farm has been designated as a National Historic Landmark. Fussell, Fred C.. Blue Ridge Music Trails: Finding a Place in the Circle. North Carolina Folklife Institute. 080785459X. Clayton, Ed. A History of Troutdale Virginia: Living In the Land of the Rhododendron, the Balsam Tree, the Mountain Trout. David Combs. Troutdale Boy: The story of a correctional worker from Appalachia. Waldenhouse Publishers, Inc
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Virginia State Route 16
State Route 16 is a primary state highway in the southwest part of the U. S. state of Virginia. It runs from the North Carolina border at North Carolina Highway 16 north to the West Virginia border at West Virginia Route 16, passing through the towns of Troutdale and Tazewell. SR 16 begins at the North Carolina state line near the community of Grassy Creek, where North Carolina Highway 16 ends. SR 16 heads in a general east-northeasterly direction alongside minor creeks until it reaches Wilson Creek, it crosses that creek and heads east alongside it to the junction with U. S. Route 58 at Mouth of Wilson. SR 16 and US 58 overlap northwest from Mouth of Wilson next to a minor creek and next to Wilson Creek, this time heading upstream. At Volney, US 58 turns west, along with Wilson Creek, SR 16 continues uphill and northwestward past Grant and Troutdale, to its crossing of the Tennessee Valley Divide at Dickey Gap between Hurricane Mountain and Straight Mountain in the Iron Mountains. Soon after crossing the divide, State Route 650, once the alignment of U.
S. Route 58, splits off to the west, while SR 16 heads downhill to Sugar Grove. After a flat area near Sugar Grove, SR 16 again heads uphill and northwest across Brushy Mountain and the Appalachian Trail, it runs northwest, following Staley Creek downhill past Attoway and Furnace Hill and through several gaps into Marion. Between Sugar Grove and Trout Dale SR 16 share a routing concurrency with US Bicycle Route 76. SR 16 enters the town of Marion on Commerce Street, meeting Interstate 81 and State Route 217. At Main Street, SR 16 turns overlapping US 11 out of downtown to Park Boulevard. There it turns northwest to the city limits; the road again heads uphill, passing the west shore of Hungry Mother Lake and the entrance to Hungry Mother State Park. SR 16 crosses Walker Mountain in a curving route, coming down into the Rich Valley and crossing the North Fork Holston River at Chatham Hill and State Route 42 soon after at Black Hill. Again SR 16 heads uphill. Another twisty descent takes SR 16 down Brushy Mountain into the Freestone Valley, but immediately it must rise again to cross Clinch Mountain.
This time, a single hairpin turn takes it into the wide Thompson Valley, where it passes the community of Thompson Valley. A gap between Knob Mountain and Rich Mountain leads to U. S. Route 19/460 Business at Frog Level, just east of the north end of State Route 91. SR 16 turns northeast along US 19/460 Business into Tazewell, meeting the State Route 16 Alternate shortcut along the way; the overlapped routes pass through downtown Tazewell on Fincastle Turnpike. It crosses the U. S. Route 19/U. S. Route 460 bypass of Tazewell on its way to the west end of State Route 61 at North Tazewell, still inside the town of Tazewell. SR 16 turns west where it meets SR 61, paralleling the Clinch River to the north end of SR 16 Alternate at River Jack. There it leaves Tazewell. SR 16 begins to rise again, passing Adria on its way to the community of Stony Ridge crossing the Tennessee Valley Divide again there; the road descends the ridge to the northwest, crossing into West Virginia and becoming West Virginia Route 16 near the community of Bishop.
One of the first two pieces of current SR 16 to be added to the state highway system was the road from Mouth of Wilson north to State Route 650 north of Troutdale, part of State Route 12 by 1923. Part of this, from Mouth of Wilson to Volney, still carries US 58. At the other end, the State Highway Commission recommended that the General Assembly add the road from Tazewell north to North Tazewell to the state highway system in late 1921, as part of a relocation of State Route 11 to serve North Tazewell rather than Tazewell; the relocation was not made, but the spur and its continuation north to West Virginia was added, was numbered State Route 117 in the 1923 renumbering. By 1927, SR 117 had become part of State Route 105, which continued south from Tazewell to Glade Spring along current State Route 91; this part of SR 16 north of Tazewell, along with the road south to Glade Spring, was renumbered State Route 112 in the 1928 renumbering and State Route 81 in the 1933 renumbering, not being split at Tazewell until 1940.
In 1928, the next piece of SR 16, running north and south from State Route 10 (now U. S. Route 11 in Marion, 6.8 miles in each direction, was added to the state highway system as State Route 113. Further extensions were added south to SR 12 in 1930 and 1931 and north for 1.90 miles and 3.00 miles in 1931 and 1932 respectively. In 1932, a 4.78-mile piece on the other side of Brushy Mountain was added, from SR 11 near Tazewell south to SR 602 at Criggers. Both pieces of SR 113 - through Marion and south from Tazewell - became State Route 88 in the 1933 renumbering. In 1933 and 1934, the Marion section was extended north to State Route 42; the final piece in Smyth County was added in 1936. The whole piece of present SR 16 from State Route 12 at Mouth of Wilson southwest to North Carolina Highway 681 was added in 19
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ