Nathan George Horwitt
Nathan George Horwitt was an American industrial designer. He is most renowned for his Museum watch, which featured a black dial with a single silver circle situated at 12 o'clock; the Museum watch is part of the permanent collection of New York's Museum of Modern Art. The watch was intended to suggest the most ancient form of keeping time. Horwitt was born c. 1898 in Russia and emigrated to the United States as a child, where he attended the City College of New York and New York University. He attended the Art Students League of New York and served in the United States Army during World War I, he was hired as an advertising copywriter by the pharmaceutical firm E. R. Company. Horwitt was promoted to become the firm's director of advertising; the firm of Design Engineers in Manhattan was established by Horwitt in the late 1920s, a company that lasted for three years. After that he developed patents. In the 1960s and 1970s, Horwitt ran an organic farm in Massachusetts. Among Horwitt's designs were the Beta chair, featured in the collection of the Brooklyn Museum.
He held a total of 18 patents in the United States, including a frameless picture frame that he invented, intended to focus attention on the picture. His best known design was for the "Museum Watch", which features a black dial without any numbers, symbols or lines to mark hours and minutes; the only mark on the watch was a single gold dot at the twelve o'clock position, intended to be evocative of a sun dial. The original Museum Watch, designed in 1947, manufactured by Vacheron & Constantin-Le Coultre Watches, Inc. Switzerland, was added to the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in 1960. Movado started copying Horwitt's design. Movado settled with Horwitt in 1975 with a payment of $29,000. Following Horwitt's death, Movado started heavy promotion of Horwitt and the design of the Museum Watch. A wall clock of this design was created in the late 1960s for the Howard Miller Clock Company. Horwitt supported the creation of the State of Israel, serving as a member of the board of the American League for a Free Palestine.
For his efforts towards the establishment of the Jewish state, he was awarded the Jabotinsky Medal by Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin in 1980. Horwitt was rumored to have made his farm in Stockbridge, Massachusetts available for training exercises for the Jewish underground force, the Irgun, between 1945 and 1948. Horwitt died at age 92 on June 13, 1990 of natural causes at his home in Stockbridge, Massachusetts
Concord Watch Company is a Swiss luxury goods company, part of the Movado group, which produces and distributes Movado, Ebel and Hugo Boss-branded watches. Founded in 1908, Concord was purchased in 1970 by the North American Watch Company, which distributed the Piaget and Corum lines of watches. From the late 1970s to the late 1980s, Concord produced what would become some of the most marketed and respected luxury quartz watches on the market. Concord watches became recognized in large cities as status symbols and were noted for their innovation and design. Flagship quartz models such as the Concord Centurion and Concord Delirium ranged from $2,000 to $20,000, surpassing the price of base automatic Rolex and Omega wristwatches. By the 1990s, Concord watches fell out of style and grew obsolete amidst the rebranding of the company. While the brand still exists today, it never regained its market position nor visibility that it once had. Founded in 1908 in Biel, the brand was created to design watches with the American market in mind.
Concord has made several innovations in its history, such as being one of the first “private label” luxury watches to incorporate precious metals and gems in its watches. It was the first company to make a wristwatch made of coins. In 1915, Concord started working with companies like Van Cleef & Arpels, Tiffany & Co. and Cartier on providing them with high quality watches made out of precious metals and gems. In 1942, President Truman gifted Concord watches to Stalin and Churchill during World War II peace talks, solidifying their position as a leading luxury watch. In 1970, Concord was purchased by the North American Watch Company. While the company struggled it transitioned into a luxury quartz watch company, during the quartz crisis it attained a large market share despite other competitors like Rolex. Throughout the 1980s, Concord watches became some of the most recognizable watches on the American luxury watch market, seeing massive sales in luxury stores throughout the Americas. While the majority of Swiss watch makers were in financial trouble due to the quartz crisis Concord took advantage of the situation by producing some of the most expensive quartz watches on the market.
By the early 1980s, the North American Watch Company had the largest advertising budget of any Swiss watch company, spending over $14 million annually to attract celebrity endorsements from Jimmy Connors, Bjorn Borg, Joe Montana, Tom Landry and Martha Graham in such expensive publications like the New York Magazine, Texas Monthly, Architectural Digest and Country and Business Week while appearing on TV shows such as Miami Vice, Charlie's Angels, The Love Boat and Hill Street Blues. In 1979, it had a major breakthrough with the invention of the Delirium Watch, the thinnest watch made at the time at 1.98 mm thick. Subsequently, a Delirium 2 was released, thinner at 1.5 mm. Another notable watch was the Concord Centurion, an ultra-thin sports watch introduced in 1979 that bore a resemblance to the Piaget Polo, the latter billed as the most expensive mass-produced luxury watch. By the 1990s, Concord watches began to fade as the quartz crisis came to a close and the bold Concord look fell out of favor.
In addition the parent of Concord, the North American Watch Company sought to focus more on mid- to high-range watches suited to middle class Americans, as opposed to luxury watches for the select few. The company faced a setback when in 1996, the North American Watch Company rebranded as Movado, a mid range watch company, purchased in 1984 by the North American Watch Company; this robbed the company of their exclusive luxury watch branding. Further turmoil happened in 2004 when Movado purchased financially troubled luxury Swiss watch maker Ebel, causing Concord to be shunned in favor of their new acquisition. In 2007, the company made a drastic change in its vision, it closed most of its existing dealerships as sluggish sales and lack of a specific market created a huge grey market that hurt the company’s reputation. The launch of the C1 was touted and targeted the ever-popular luxury sport market; the style and pricing were designed to compete with watches such as Panerai, Audemars Piguet and Hublot.
With only a couple of hundred dealers worldwide Concord was hoping for a grand relaunch into the Luxury sector. In 2008, watches ranged from between $3,500 to $30,000 in pricing. In 2008, Concord created two new C1 pieces; the C1 worldtimer and the C1 Gravity Tourbillion. The won the prestigious “Grand Prix d’Horlogerie de Geneve” as “Best design of the year 2008”. Whether this success will lead to ultimate success remains to be seen. In 2009, Alex Grinberg was appointed as the worldwide CEO of Concord. Pre 1996 La Costa: Luxury Dress Watch. 18K Gold or 18 K Gold with Stainless Steel, Partly with Tiffany Dial. Competition in Style and Design with Cartier's Santos Watches Centurion: Luxury Sportsawatch: 18K with Stainless Steel, 18K Delirium: Ultrathin Quartz Dresswatch: Leather, 18K, Often with Diamonds Mariner: Sports Activity Watch1996-2007 La Scala: Luxury Contemporary watch Saratoga: Luxury Sports watch2007–Present C1 – Oversize luxury sport watch; this is the basis of the entire new collection.
All new models revolve around this base case design. Movado Swiss Made Concord Watch Cartier Watch
Edward Jean Steichen was a Luxembourgish American photographer and art gallery and museum curator. Steichen was the most shown photographer in Alfred Stieglitz's groundbreaking magazine Camera Work during its run from 1903 to 1917. Together Stieglitz and Steichen opened the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, which became known as 291 after its address, his photos of gowns for the magazine Art et Décoration in 1911 are regarded as the first modern fashion photographs published. From 1923 to 1938, Steichen was a photographer for the Condé Nast magazines Vogue and Vanity Fair while working for many advertising agencies including J. Walter Thompson. During these years, Steichen was regarded as the best known and highest paid photographer in the world. In 1944, he directed the war documentary The Fighting Lady, which won the 1945 Academy Award for Best Documentary. From 1947 to 1961, Steichen served as Director of the Department of Photography at New York's Museum of Modern Art. While at MoMA, he curated and assembled the exhibit The Family of Man, seen by nine million people.
Steichen was born Éduard Jean Steichen in Bivange, the son of Jean-Pierre and Marie Kemp Steichen. Jean-Pierre Steichen first immigrated to the United States in 1880. Marie Steichen brought the infant Éduard along once Jean-Pierre had settled in Chicago, in 1881; the family, with the addition of Éduard's younger sister Lilian, moved to Milwaukee in 1889, when Steichen was 10. In 1894, at fifteen, Steichen began attending Pio Nono College, a Catholic boy's high school, where his artistic talents were first noticed, he quit high school to begin a four-year lithography apprenticeship with the American Fine Art Company of Milwaukee. After hours, he would sketch and draw, began to teach himself to paint. Having come across a camera shop near his work, he visited until he persuaded himself to buy his first camera, a secondhand Kodak box "detective" camera, in 1895. Steichen and his friends who were interested in drawing and photography pooled together their funds, rented a small room in a Milwaukee office building, began calling themselves the Milwaukee Art Students League.
The group hired Richard Lorenz and Robert Schade for occasional lectures. Steichen was naturalized as a U. S. signed the naturalization papers as Edward J. Steichen. Steichen married Clara Smith in 1903, they had two daughters and Mary. In 1914, Clara accused her husband of having an affair with artist Marion H. Beckett, staying with them in France; the Steichens left France just ahead of invading German troops. In 1915, Clara Steichen returned to France with her daughter Kate, staying in their house in the Marne in spite of the war. Steichen returned to France with the Photography Division of the American Army Signal Corps in 1917, whereupon Clara returned to the United States. In 1919, Clara Steichen sued Marion Beckett for having an affair with her husband, but was unable to prove her claims. Clara and Eduard Steichen divorced in 1922. Steichen married Dana Desboro Glover in 1923, she died of leukemia in 1957. In 1960, aged 80, Steichen married 27-year-old Joanna Taub and remained married to her until his death, two days before his 94th birthday.
Joanna Steichen died on July 24, 2010, in Montauk, New York, aged 77. Clarence H. White thought Stieglitz should meet. White produced an introduction letter for Steichen and Steichen met Alfred Stieglitz in New York City in 1900. In that first meeting, Stieglitz expressed praise for Steichen's background in painting and bought three of Steichen's photographic prints. In 1902, when Stieglitz was formulating what would become Camera Work, he asked Steichen to design the logo for the magazine with a custom typeface. Steichen was the most shown photographer in the journal. In 1904, Steichen began experimenting with color photography, he was one of the first people in the United States to use the Autochrome Lumière process. In 1905, Stieglitz and Steichen created the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, which became known as 291 after its address, it presented some of the first American exhibitions of Henri Matisse, Auguste Rodin, Paul Cézanne, Pablo Picasso, Constantin Brâncuși. In 1911, Steichen was "dared" by Lucien Vogel, the publisher of Jardin des Modes and La Gazette du Bon Ton, to promote fashion as a fine art by the use of photography.
Steichen took photos of gowns designed by couturier Paul Poiret, which were published in the April 1911 issue of the magazine Art et Décoration. According to Jesse Alexander, this is "... now considered to be the first modern fashion photography shoot. That is, photographing the garments in such a way as to convey a sense of their physical quality as well as their formal appearance, as opposed to illustrating the object."Serving in the US Army in World War I, Steichen commanded significant units contributing to military photography. After World War I, during which he commanded the photographic division of the American Expeditionary Forces, he reverted to straight photography moving into fashion photography. Steichen's 1928 photo of actress Greta Garbo is recognized as one of the definitive portraits of Garbo; the initial publication of Ansel Adams' image Moonrise, New Mexico was in U. S. Camera Annual 1943, after being selected by Steichen, serving as photo judge for the publication; this gave Moonrise an audience before its first formal exhibition at the Museum of Mode
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was US$169 billion in 2013; the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007; the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, it was part of NYSE Euronext, formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with Euronext. The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation; the earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement.
Securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. On May 17, 1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales; the earliest securities traded were governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock, although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance.
After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space for securities trading, taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. Several locations were used between 1865, when the present location was adopted; the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Open Board of Stock Brokers was established in 1864 as a competitor to the NYSE. With 354 members, the Open Board of Stock Brokers rivaled the NYSE in membership "because it used a more modern, continuous trading system superior to the NYSE’s twice-daily call sessions." The Open Board of Stock Brokers merged with the NYSE in 1869. Robert Wright of Bloomberg writes that the merger increased the NYSE's members as well as trading volume, as "several dozen regional exchanges were competing with the NYSE for customers. Buyers and dealers all wanted to complete transactions as and cheaply as technologically possible and that meant finding the markets with the most trading, or the greatest liquidity in today’s parlance.
Minimizing competition was essential to keep a large number of orders flowing, the merger helped the NYSE to maintain its reputation for providing superior liquidity." The Civil War stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. By 1869 membership had to be capped, has been sporadically increased since; the latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics and crashes. Government regulation of securities trading was seen as necessary, with arguably the most dramatic changes occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated the Great Depression; the Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building; the NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21, 2005, in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company.
NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6, 2005, became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8, 2006. A little over one year on April 4, 2007, the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euronext, the European combined stock market, thus forming NYSE Euronext, the first transatlantic stock exchange. Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, financial industry firms". The principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, insurance. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. Presently, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher. In 2016, NYSE owner Intercontinental Exchange Inc. earned $419 million in listings-related revenues.
The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I, but it re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds, reopened for stock tradin
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree