Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
Uri Zvi Greenberg
Uri Zvi Greenberg was an acclaimed Israeli poet and journalist who wrote in Yiddish and Hebrew. Uri Zvi Greenberg was born in the Galician town Bilyi Kamin, in Austria-Hungary, into a prominent Hasidic family, he was raised in Lemberg. In 1915 he was fought in the First World War, his experience at the fording of the Save River, where many of his comrades in arms died or were wounded, affected him and appeared in his future writings for years to come. After returning to Lemberg, he was witness to the pogroms of November 1918. Greenberg and his family miraculously escaped being shot by Polish soldiers, celebrating their victory over the Ukrainians, an experience which convinced him that all Jews living in the “Kingdom of the Cross” faced physical annihilation. Greenberg moved to Warsaw in 1920, where he wrote for the radical literary publications of young Jewish poets. After a brief stay in Berlin, he immigrated to Mandatory Palestine in 1923. Greenberg spent most of the 1930s in Poland, working as a Revisionist-Zionist activist until the time when the Second World War erupted in 1939.
At the outset of the war was able to escape and return home to Mandatory Palestine. His parents and sisters remained behind, were subsequently murdered during the Holocaust. In 1950, Greenberg married Aliza, with whom he had three sons, he added "Tur-Malka" to the family name, but continued to use "Greenberg" to honor family members who perished in the Holocaust. Some of his poems in Yiddish and Hebrew were published when he was 16, his first works were published in 1912 in the Labor Zionist weekly Der yudisher arbayter in Lemberg and in Hebrew in Hashiloah in Odessa. His first book, in Yiddish, was published in Lwów. In 1920, Greenberg moved with its lively Jewish cultural scene, he was one of the founders of the Chaliastra, a group of young Yiddish writers that included Melech Ravitch. He edited a Yiddish literary journal, Albatros. In the wake of his iconoclastic depictions of Jesus in the second issue of Albatros his prose poem Royte epl fun veybeymer, the journal was banned by the Polish censors and Grinberg fled to Berlin to escape prosecution in November 1922.
The magazine incorporated avant-garde elements both in content and typography, taking its cue from German periodicals like Die Aktion and Der Sturm. Grinberg published the last two issues of Albatros in Berlin before renouncing European society and immigrating to Palestine in December 1923. In his early days in Palestine, Greenberg wrote for Davar, one of the main newspapers of the Labour Zionist movement. In his poems and articles he warned of the fate in store for the Jews of the Diaspora. After the Holocaust, he mourned the fact, his works represent a synthesis of traditional Jewish values and an individualistic lyrical approach to life and its problems. They draw on Jewish sources such as the Bible, the Talmud and the prayer book, but are influenced by European literature. In the second and third issues of Albatros, Greenberg invokes pain as a key marker of the modern era; this theme is illustrated in Royte epl fun vey beymer and Veytikn-heym af slavisher erd. In 1930, Greenberg joined the Revisionist camp, representing the Revisionist movement at several Zionist congresses and in Poland.
After the 1929 Hebron massacre he became more militant. With Abba Ahimeir and Joshua Yeivin, he founded Brit HaBirionim, a clandestine faction of the Revisionist movement which adopted an activist policy of violating British mandatory regulations. In the early 1930s, its members disrupted a British-sponsored census, sounded the shofar in prayer at the Western Wall despite a British prohibition, held a protest rally when a British colonial official visited Tel Aviv, tore down Nazi flags from German offices in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv; when the British arrested hundreds of its members the organization ceased to exist. He believed that the Holocaust was a'tragic but inevitable outcome of Jewish indifference to their destiny.' As early as 1923, "Grinberg envisioned and warned of the destruction of European Jewry."Following Israeli independence in 1948, he joined Menachem Begin's Herut movement. In 1949, he was elected to the first Knesset, he lost his seat in the 1951 elections. After the Six-Day War he joined the Movement for Greater Israel, which advocated Israeli sovereignty over the West Bank.
In 1947, 1954 and 1977, Greenberg was awarded the Bialik Prize for literature. In 1957, Greenberg was awarded the Israel Prize for his contribution to literature. In 1976, the Knesset held a special session in honor of his eightieth birthday. A Great Fear and the Moon, Hedim, 1925 Manhood on the Rise, Sadan, 1926 A Vision of One of the Legions, Sadan, 1928 Anacreon at the Pole of Sorrow, Davar, 1928 House Dog, Hedim, 1929 A Zone of Defense and Address of the Son-of-Blood, Sadan, 1929 The Book of Indictment and Faith, Sadan, 1937 From the Ruddy and the Blue, Schocken, 1950 Streets of the River, Schocken, 1951 In the Middle of the World, In the Middle of Time, Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 1979 Selected Poems, Schocken, 1979 (Mivhar Shir
Aluf Dan Tolkowsky is a retired Israeli military officer who served as commander of the Israeli Air Force from 1953 to 1958. A noted investor, he helped start the first Israeli venture capital fund. Tolkowsky was educated at the Herzliya Hebrew Gymnasium. In 1936 he joined the Haganah. In 1938 he went to London to study at Imperial College London and graduated with a BSc. in engineering in 1941. In 1942 Tolkowsky volunteered for the Royal Air Force, he was part of a group of Palestinian-Jewish RAF pilots sent to train at a flight school in Southern Rhodesia. He earned his wings in 1943, being the first in his group to complete the course, went on to serve as a fighter pilot and in reconnaissance aircraft, he saw action in the Mediterranean theatre and France. At the end of World War II, he served as a transport pilot, was stationed in Palestine at RAF Lydda, in Lydda, he was discharged from the RAF in June 1946 with the rank of Flight Lieutenant. After his discharge, Tolkowsky worked as a mechanical engineer.
In December 1947 he secretly began helping efforts to purchase aircraft for Sherut Avir, the Haganah's air arm and forerunner of the Israeli Air Force. In 1948, a few days before the Israeli Declaration of Independence, Tolkowsky returned to Palestine, he served in the Israeli Air Force during the Israeli War of Independence, participating in bombing attacks on the Egyptian front. He was discharged from the IAF, but reenlisted in 1951, he first served as Inspector-General, as Chief of Staff to the Commander. He was appointed Commander of the IAF in May 1953 and served until July 1958. During his time as commander, the IAF received its first fighter jets and took part in the Suez Crisis, he was seconded to the Israeli Ministry of Defense in 1958-1959. He holds the rank of major-general in the Israel Defense Forces. In 1959 Tolkowsky joined the Discount Bank Investment Corporation an arm of the Bank a public company in Israel, he was appointed as Managing Director in 1965 and Vice-Chairman in 1980.
Beginning in 1962, DBIC was the first financial institution in Israel to invest in local hi-tech industry. Tolkowsky helped Uzia Galil start the technology holding company Elron Electronic Industries in 1962. In 1985 Tolkowsky, in partnership with his son Gideon and Frederick Adler, a noted American venture capital investor, founded Athena, the first venture fund in Israel, to invest in Israeli and American ventures hi-tech, which operated until 1997. Tolkowsky held a series of minor government posts. In 1963 he joined the National Council for Development, he served as Chairman of the Subcommittee on Radiation and Radioisotopes of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission. In 1970 he headed a commission of inquiry. From 1978-1980 he was a member of the Israel Securities Authority plenum. In 1997 he served on the Ciechanover Commission, which investigated a failed Mossad assassination attempt against Hamas leader Khaled Mashal in Jordan, he was a member of a committee examining the organizational structure of higher education institutions.
Tolkowsky is a Commandeur of the French Legion d’Honneur, holds a Doctorate Honoris Causa from the Technion Israel Institute of Technology, holds an award from the joint US-Israel Science and Technology Authority named after Yitzhak Rabin. He is married to Miriam and has a daughter and two sons, Roni and Gideon. Jews from Palestine are sent to the RAF pilot course in IAF Official Site. Accessed June 9, 2006
Israel Eldad, was an Israeli Revisionist Zionist philosopher and member of the pre-state underground group Lehi. Israel Scheib was born in 1910 in Galicia in a traditional Jewish home; the Scheibs wandered as refugees during the First World War. In 1918, in Lvov, young Scheib witnessed a funeral procession for Jews murdered in a pogrom. After high school, Scheib enrolled at the Rabbinical Seminary of Vienna for religious studies and the University of Vienna for secular studies, he completed his doctorate on "The Voluntarism of Eduard von Hartmann, Based on Schopenhauer," but never took his rabbinical exams at the seminary. Meanwhile, he attended, with his father, a protest demonstration in front of the local British Consulate following the 1929 Arab riots in Palestine; the next year he read a poem by Uri Zvi Greenberg, "I'll Tell It to a Child," about a messiah who cannot redeem his people because they are not ready to accept redemption. Two or three years Scheib met Greenberg at a speech Greenberg was giving entitled “The Land of Israel Is in Flames.”
Scheib's first job after graduation was high school teaching in Volkovisk. He published articles in Revisionist Zionist journals and became the commander of a local Betar section. Scheib joined the staff of the Teachers Seminary in Vilna in 1937 while this city was part of Poland, where he stayed for two years. During that time he rose in the Betar ranks to the position of regional staff officer. In 1938, at the Third Betar Conference in Warsaw, when the Revisionist leader Zeev Jabotinsky attacked the militant stance of Poland's Betar leader Menachem Begin, Scheib spoke in Begin's defense; the next year, when the Second World War broke out and Begin escaped together from Warsaw. Begin was arrested by the Soviet police in the middle of a chess game with Scheib, it was several years before they met again in British Mandatory Palestine, where Scheib was a leader of the Lehi underground and Begin would soon command the Irgun; the Lehi was at that point waging a violent struggle for freedom from British rule and the Irgun would, under Begin, soon join the revolt in hopes of turning Palestine into a Jewish state.
Scheib adopted several aliases while living underground, including "Sambatyon" and "Eldad". He worked in 1942 directly with Lehi founder Avraham Stern. After Stern's killing by the British, Eldad became one of a triumvirate of Lehi commanders, serving with Natan Yellin-Mor and future prime minister Yitzhak Shamir, it was in this role that, in September 1948, Eldad participated in ordering the assassination of Folke Bernadotte, a United Nations mediator, as he subsequently admitted. Yellin-Mor was the diplomatic "foreign minister," Shamir the operations man, Eldad the ideologue. For the next six years Eldad wrote articles for various underground newspapers, some of which he edited. Eldad wrote some of the speeches delivered in court by Lehi defendants. Eldad was arrested by the British fleeing from a Tel Aviv apartment, he continued his political and philosophical writing from Cell 18 of the hospital ward at the Jerusalem Central Prison. Eldad healed enough to escape while on a visit in a dentist's clinic, from which several Lehi fighters spirited him away.
During Israel's War of Independence, Eldad was critical of Menachem Begin's Irgun for what he thought of not fighting against the Israel Defence Forces during the Altalena Affair. He was critical of the IDF for not fighting harder to conquer Jerusalem's Old City and critical of Lehi fighters who did not rush to fight in Jerusalem. Towards the end of the war, Eldad disguised himself as a foreign journalist in order to sneak past Israeli military roadblocks and join the battle for Jerusalem; the Lehi veterans organized politically as the Fighters' List. The party dissolved afterwards. At one party meeting, Eldad lectured on Sulam, Jacob's ladder, thus beginning the next chapter in his life. For 14 years he published Sulam. Eldad spent half of 1949 writing his memoirs, entitled Maaser Rishon. Eldad got a job teaching Bible and Hebrew literature in an Israeli high school, until Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion intervened and had him dismissed. Ben-Gurion was afraid. Eldad went to court and won, but found few people willing to hire him after Ben-Gurion had labeled him a danger to the state.
Eldad turned to literary work, wrote histories of underground battles, a biography of the mayor of Ramat Gan, a newspaper-style review of Jewish history called Chronicles, a book of Bible commentary, Hegionot Mikra, weekly newspaper columns, many more books, encyclopedia entries and other works. In 1962, Eldad was made a lecturer at the Technion in Haifa, he taught there for twenty years. Since 1982 was a lecturer at the Ariel University Center of Samaria. In 1988, Eldad was awarded Tel Aviv's Bialik Prize for his contributions to Israeli thought. By the 1990s, Eldad was known as the doyen of Israeli nationalists, he died on the first day of the Hebrew month of Shevat, in January 1996. His funeral was attended by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, former prime minister Yitzhak Shamir and Knesset Speaker Dov Shilansky. Eldad was buried on the Mount of Olives, at the foot of the grave of his mentor and friend, Uri Zvi Greenberg. Eldad did not believe, he considered the state a tool to be used in realizing the goal of Zionism, which he called Malkhut Yisrael (the King
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Shas is an ultra-Orthodox religious political party in Israel. Founded in 1984 under the leadership of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, a former Israeli Sephardi chief rabbi, who remained its spiritual leader until his death in October 2013, it represents the interests of Haredi Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews; the party works to end prejudice and discrimination against the Sephardic community, highlights economic issues and social justice. A small ethnic political group, Shas is Israel's seventh-largest party in the Knesset. Since 1984, it has always formed a part of the governing coalition, whether the ruling party was Labor or Likud; as of 2019, Shas members sit with Likud in the government. The party's name is an acronym for Shomeri Torah Sfaradim, or "Torah-Observant Sephardim", it is a reference to the six orders of the Mishnah and the Talmud). Both works are simply called Shas in Haredi circles. Shas was founded in 1984 prior to the elections to the eleventh Knesset in the same year, in protest over the small representation of Sephardim in the Ashkenazi Agudat Yisrael, through the merger of regional lists established in 1983.
It was known as Worldwide Sephardic Association of Torah Keepers'. The party was formed under the leadership of former Israeli Chief Sephardi Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, who established a four-member Council of Torah Sages and remained the party's spiritual leader until his death. In founding the party, Yosef received strategic help and guidance from Rabbi Elazar Shach, leader of Israel's non-Hasidic Haredi Ashkenazi Jews. Yosef founded the party in 1984 on the platform of a return to religion, as a counter to an establishment dominated by Ashkenazi Jews of European extraction. Not all Shas voters are themselves ultra-Orthodox. Many of its voters are Modern Orthodox and traditional Mizrahi and Sephardi Jews, due to its alignment with the promotion of an "authentic Middle Eastern" Israeli culture, which fits with traditional Zionist beliefs of a revival of authentic, non-Europeanized Jewish culture. However, it still represents the Mizrahi Haredi Jewish sectors in the Knesset. Shas has at times been able to exert disproportionate influence by gaining control of the balance of power in the Knesset within the context of the traditionally narrow margin between Israel's large parties.
Like its Labor Zionist counterparts that gain votes from the kibbutz movement, Shas gains votes and supports from moshavim that are inhabited by Mizrahi and Sephardi Jews, either Orthodox or non-Orthodox. Since it became a member of World Zionist Organization, it gains votes from Orthodox settlers in the West Bank. Since 1999, the three cities where Shas garners the most votes are El'ad, Yarka. In the elections to the eleventh Knesset in 1984, Shas won four seats. Following Aryeh Deri's conviction on corruption charges in 1999, Shas gained 17 seats in the 1999 elections, its strongest showing since its formation. Although 26 seats were projected for the following election had it run in 2001, Shas was reduced to 11 seats in the 2003 election because the two-ballot system was amended. In the 2006 elections, it gained one more seat after running what the BBC called "an aggressive campaign that targeted the neo-conservative economic policies of the previous government", joined Ehud Olmert's coalition government, alongside Kadima, Gil, between October 2006 and January 2008, Yisrael Beiteinu.
In the government, Shas party leader Yishai was minister of industry and labor, deputy prime minister, while Ariel Atias was minister of communications, Meshulam Nahari and Yitzhak Cohen were ministers without portfolio. Following the 2009 elections, in which Shas won eleven seats, it joined Benjamin Netanyahu's coalition government and held four cabinet posts. Eli Yishai, who led the party at that time, was one of four deputy prime ministers, minister of internal affairs. On 4 December 2011, Shas launched its United States affiliate, American Friends of Shas, based in Brooklyn, New York. Shas won 11 seats in the 2013 elections, but chose to form part of the Labor opposition to Netanyahu's new government. Yair Lapid of the Yesh Atid party and Naftali Bennett of The Jewish Home, who had won more seats and joined the coalition, both favored conscription of the exempt Haredi men into Israel's national service and a reduction in state financial support for Haredi families, policies Shas opposes.
In December 2014, Eli Yishai left the Shas party. He said he would lead a new religious party in the election scheduled for March 2015, his departure from Shas and Aryeh Deri did not come as a surprise. The party that he formed, failed to pass the election threshold. In the 2015 elections, Shas was accused of tampering with the ballots of Yachad, they were accused of creating a straw party with the symbols of Otzma Yehudit, running on list with Yachad during the election. During the 2015 election, Shas won 7 seats. In 2017, opinion polling showed that Shas was falling under the election threshold of 3.25%. In response, Shas leader said. In the same year, a tape was leaked of the party's former spiritual leader, criticizing current Jerusalem Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar; the stated purpose of the party is to "return the crown to the former glory", meaning to protect the religious and cultural heritage of Sephardic Jewry, to rectify what it sees as the "continued economic and social discrimination against the Sephardic population of Israel".
Focusing on the needs of Sephardic Orthodox Israelis, Shas established its own gove
Isser Harel was spymaster of the intelligence and the security services of Israel and the Director of the Mossad. In his capacity as Mossad director he oversaw the capture and covert transportation to Israel of Holocaust organizer Adolf Eichmann. Isser Halperin was born in Russia to a large, wealthy family; the exact date of his birth was not passed on to him because the book of Gemara in which the date was recorded was lost in the migrations of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and World War I. The family had a vinegar factory in Vitebsk, it was a gift of his maternal grandfather, who had a concession to make vinegar in large parts of Tsarist Russia. Young Isser was five years old when the revolution broke out and Vitebsk passed several times between the Whites and the Reds. On one occasion he saw; the Harel family faced hardship. In 1922 they emigrated from the Soviet Union to Daugavpils in independent Latvia. On the way, Soviet soldiers stole their suitcases. In Daugavpils, Isser began his formal studies, completed primary school, began secondary school.
As he grew, a Jewish national consciousness grew within him and he joined a Zionist youth organization. When he was 16, Harel began preparations to emigrate to British Mandate for Palestine. During this preparatory year he worked in agriculture with the aspiration to join a kibbutz. With the outbreak of the 1929 Hebron massacre, his friends decided to move up their emigration date in order to reinforce the Jewish settlement in Palestine. Documents were prepared for the 17-year-old Harel stating that he was 18 and eligible for a British visa. At the beginning of 1930 he immigrated to Palestine, he crossed Europe from north to south to board a ship in Genoa, carrying a pistol that he concealed in a loaf of bread. Harel's powerful position stood in contrast to his personal life, his neighbors took him for a minor government official. Harel and his wife Rivka had one daughter, named two grandsons and one granddaughter. After the creation of Israel in 1948, Harel founded and became the first director of Israel's internal security agency, Shin Bet.
He took over the Mossad a year after it was created in 1951. As chief of two of the nation's three intelligence agencies, Harel wielded considerable power in Israel's first 15 years. In 1957, members of the West German government provided Israel with information that Adolf Eichmann was hiding in Argentina under the name "Ricardo Klement". Eichmann, as director of Department IV-B4 of the Third Reich's Reich Main Security Office during the Second World War, had played a crucial role in the planning and execution of the so-called "Final Solution to the Jewish Question". Israeli prime minister David Ben-Gurion believed that seeking Eichmann's extradition from Argentina by legal and diplomatic methods would be unsuccessful. In 1959, he placed Harel in charge of the operation to locate and secretly extract Eichmann from Argentina, with the intention of returning him to Israel to stand trial. In April 1960, Harel's team of agents arrived in Buenos Aires, tracked Eichmann to a residence in the San Fernando neighborhood of the city.
Harel followed soon after. On May 11, they kidnapped Eichmann. Days Eichmann was drugged and clandestinely placed on an Israeli diplomatic aircraft, disguised as a crew member, he was flown to Tel Aviv. According to Harel himself, when he arrived back in Israel with the captured Eichmann, Harel went to Ben-Gurion's office and told the prime minister: "I've brought you a present. Eichmann is here."Harel stated that it was his belief that if the Eichmann operation had begun some weeks earlier, the Mossad may have had a chance to apprehend Dr. Josef Mengele, the notorious physician who presided over the selections on the train platform at Auschwitz, his book about the operation, The House on Garibaldi Street, became a TV Movie. Harel was responsible for the intelligence coup that cemented the Mossad's reputation with Western intelligence agencies. In March 1956, three years after the death of Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, his successor Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalin's "cult of personality" and brutal paranoia in a speech before a closed session of the Communist Party's 20th Congress.
Word spread of this event, but U. S. intelligence agencies were unable to obtain the text of the so-called "Secret Speech". The Soviet politburo delivered copies of the speech to a few Eastern-bloc countries. Grayevsky, Jewish, had visited Israel and had decided to emigrate. Harel shared the speech with his counterparts in other Western intelligence offices, most notably counterintelligence spymaster James Jesus Angleton of the American CIA. Harel was forced to resign from Mossad in March 1963, while conducting Operation Damocles, a covert operation to dissuade German rocket scientists from working for Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser's heavy rocket program; the Mossad's tactics included arranging assassination attempts. Ben-Gurion demanded Harel's resignation after these tactics injured several people other than the scientists and seemed to be ineffective in preventing their cooperation with the Egyptians. After leaving Mossad, Harel turned to politics, he joined David Ben-Gurion's newly created National List prior to the 196