The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1
A prescription drug is a pharmaceutical drug that requires a medical prescription to be dispensed. In contrast, over-the-counter drugs can be obtained without a prescription; the reason for this difference in substance control is the potential scope of misuse, from drug abuse to practicing medicine without a license and without sufficient education. Different jurisdictions have different definitions of. "Rx" is used as a short form for prescription drug in North America - a contraction of the Latin word "recipe" meaning "take". Prescription drugs are dispensed together with a monograph that gives detailed information about the drug; the use of prescription drugs has been increasing since the 1960s. In the U. S. 88% of older adults use at least 1 prescription drug, while 36% take at least 5 prescription medicines concurrently. In Australia, the Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons governs the manufacture and supply of drugs with several categories: Schedule 1 – Defunct Schedule 2 – Pharmacy Medicine Schedule 3 – Pharmacist-Only Medicine Schedule 4 – Prescription-Only Medicine/Prescription Animal Remedy Schedule 5 – Caution Schedule 6 – Poison Schedule 7 – Dangerous Poison Schedule 8 – Controlled Drug Schedule 9 – Prohibited Substance Unscheduled SubstancesLike in the UK, the patient visits a health practitioner, who may prescribe the drug.
Many prescriptions issued by health practitioners in Australia are covered by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, a scheme that provides subsidised prescription drugs to residents of Australia to ensure that all Australians have affordable and reliable access to a wide range of necessary medicines. When purchasing a drug under the PBS, the consumer pays no more than the patient co-payment contribution, which, as of January 1, 2018, is A$39.50 for general patients. Those covered by government entitlements and or under the Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme have a reduced co-payment, $6.40 in 2018. The co-payments are compulsory and can be discounted by pharmacies up to a maximum of A$1.00 at cost to the pharmacy. In the United Kingdom, the Medicines Act 1968 and the Prescription Only Medicines Order 1997 contain regulations that cover the supply of sale, use and production of medicines. There are three categories of medicine: Prescription-only medicines, which may be dispensed by a pharmacist if they are prescribed by a prescriber Pharmacy medicines, which may be sold by a pharmacist without a prescription General sales list medicines, which may be sold without a prescription in any shopThe possession of a prescription-only medicine without a prescription is legal unless it is covered by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.
A patient visits a medical practitioner or dentist, who may prescribe drugs and certain other medical items, such as blood glucose-testing equipment for diabetics. Qualified and experienced nurses and pharmacists may be independent prescribers. Both may prescribe all POMs, but may not prescribe Schedule 1 controlled drugs, 3 listed controlled drugs for the treatment of addiction. Schedule 1 drugs have little or no medical benefit, hence their limitations on prescribing. District nurses and health visitors have had limited prescribing rights since the mid-1990s. Once issued, a prescription is taken by the patient to a pharmacy. Most prescriptions are NHS prescriptions, subject to a standard charge, unrelated to what is dispensed; the NHS prescription fee was increased to £8.80 per item in England on 1 April 2018. The pharmacy charges the NHS the actual cost of the medicine, which may vary from a few pence to hundreds of pounds. A patient can consolidate prescription charges by using a prescription payment certificate capping costs at £29.10 per quarter or £104.00 per year.
Outside the NHS, private prescriptions are issued by private medical practitioner and sometimes under the NHS for medicines that are not covered by the NHS. A patient pays the pharmacy the normal price for medicine prescribed outside the NHS. Survey results published by Ipsos MORI in 2008 found that around 800,000 people in England were not collecting prescriptions or getting them dispensed because of the cost, the same as in 2001. In the United States, the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act defines what substances require a prescription for them to be dispensed by a pharmacy; the federal government authorizes physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners and other advanced practice nurses, veterinarians and optometrists to prescribe any controlled substance. They are issued unique Drug Enforcement Act numbers.
Excretion is a process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism. In vertebrates this is carried out by the lungs and skin; this is in contrast with secretion, where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell. Excretion is an essential process in all forms of life. For example, in mammals urine is expelled through the urethra, part of the excretory system. In unicellular organisms, waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell. During life activities such as cellular respiration, several chemical reactions take place in the body; these are known as metabolism. These chemical reactions produce waste products such as carbon dioxide, salts and uric acid. Accumulation of these wastes beyond a level inside the body is harmful to the body; the excretory organs remove these wastes. This process of removal of metabolic waste from the body is known as excretion. Green plants produce carbon water as respiratory products. In green plants, the carbon dioxide released during respiration gets utilized during photosynthesis.
Oxygen is a by product generated during photosynthesis, exits through stomata, root cell walls, other routes. Plants can get rid of excess water by guttation, it has been shown that the leaf acts as an'excretophore' and, in addition to being a primary organ of photosynthesis, is used as a method of excreting toxic wastes via diffusion. Other waste materials that are exuded by some plants — resin, latex, etc. are forced from the interior of the plant by hydrostatic pressures inside the plant and by absorptive forces of plant cells. These latter processes do not need added energy, they act passively. However, during the pre-abscission phase, the metabolic levels of a leaf are high. Plants excrete some waste substances into the soil around them. In animals, the main excretory products are carbon dioxide, urea, uric acid and creatine; the liver and kidneys clear many substances from the blood, the cleared substances are excreted from the body in the urine and feces. Aquatic animals excrete ammonia directly into the external environment, as this compound has high solubility and there is ample water available for dilution.
In terrestrial animals ammonia-like compounds are converted into other nitrogenous materials as there is less water in the environment and ammonia itself is toxic. Birds excrete their nitrogenous wastes as uric acid in the form of a paste. Although this process is metabolically more expensive, it allows more efficient water retention and it can be stored more in the egg. Many avian species seabirds, can excrete salt via specialized nasal salt glands, the saline solution leaving through nostrils in the beak. In insects, a system involving Malpighian tubules is utilized to excrete metabolic waste. Metabolic waste diffuses or is transported into the tubule, which transports the wastes to the intestines; the metabolic waste is released from the body along with fecal matter. The excreted material may be called ejecta. In pathology the word ejecta is more used. UAlberta.ca, Animation of excretion Brian J Ford on leaf fall in Nature
European Chemicals Agency
The European Chemicals Agency is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation and Restriction of Chemicals. ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern, it is located in Finland. The agency headed by Executive Director Bjorn Hansen, started working on 1 June 2007; the REACH Regulation requires companies to provide information on the hazards and safe use of chemical substances that they manufacture or import. Companies register this information with ECHA and it is freely available on their website. So far, thousands of the most hazardous and the most used substances have been registered; the information is technical but gives detail on the impact of each chemical on people and the environment.
This gives European consumers the right to ask retailers whether the goods they buy contain dangerous substances. The Classification and Packaging Regulation introduces a globally harmonised system for classifying and labelling chemicals into the EU; this worldwide system makes it easier for workers and consumers to know the effects of chemicals and how to use products safely because the labels on products are now the same throughout the world. Companies need to notify ECHA of the labelling of their chemicals. So far, ECHA has received over 5 million notifications for more than 100 000 substances; the information is available on their website. Consumers can check chemicals in the products. Biocidal products include, for example, insect disinfectants used in hospitals; the Biocidal Products Regulation ensures that there is enough information about these products so that consumers can use them safely. ECHA is responsible for implementing the regulation; the law on Prior Informed Consent sets guidelines for the import of hazardous chemicals.
Through this mechanism, countries due to receive hazardous chemicals are informed in advance and have the possibility of rejecting their import. Substances that may have serious effects on human health and the environment are identified as Substances of Very High Concern 1; these are substances which cause cancer, mutation or are toxic to reproduction as well as substances which persist in the body or the environment and do not break down. Other substances considered. Companies manufacturing or importing articles containing these substances in a concentration above 0,1% weight of the article, have legal obligations, they are required to inform users about the presence of the substance and therefore how to use it safely. Consumers have the right to ask the retailer whether these substances are present in the products they buy. Once a substance has been identified in the EU as being of high concern, it will be added to a list; this list is available on ECHA's website and shows consumers and industry which chemicals are identified as SVHCs.
Substances placed on the Candidate List can move to another list. This means that, after a given date, companies will not be allowed to place the substance on the market or to use it, unless they have been given prior authorisation to do so by ECHA. One of the main aims of this listing process is to phase out SVHCs where possible. In its 2018 substance evaluation progress report, ECHA said chemical companies failed to provide “important safety information” in nearly three quarters of cases checked that year. "The numbers show a similar picture to previous years" the report said. The agency noted that member states need to develop risk management measures to control unsafe commercial use of chemicals in 71% of the substances checked. Executive Director Bjorn Hansen called non-compliance with REACH a "worry". Industry group CEFIC acknowledged the problem; the European Environmental Bureau called for faster enforcement to minimise chemical exposure. European Chemicals Bureau Official website
Regulation of therapeutic goods
The regulation of therapeutic goods, drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. In some countries, such as the United States, they are regulated at the national level by a single agency. In other jurisdictions they are regulated at the state level, or at both state and national levels by various bodies, as is the case in Australia; the role of therapeutic goods regulation is designed to protect the health and safety of the population. Regulation is aimed at ensuring the safety and efficacy of the therapeutic goods which are covered under the scope of the regulation. In most jurisdictions, therapeutic goods must be registered. There is some degree of restriction of the availability of certain therapeutic goods depending on their risk to consumers. Modern drug regulation has historical roots in the response to the proliferation of universal antidotes which appeared in the wake of Mithridates' death. Mithridates had brought together physicians and shamans to concoct a potion that would make him immune to poisons.
Following his death, the Romans became keen on further developing the Mithridates potion's recipe. Mithridatium re-entered western society through multiple means; the first was through the Leechbook of the Bald, written somewhere between 900 and 950, which contained a formula for various remedies, including for a theriac. Additionally, theriac became a commercial good traded throughout Europe based on the works of Greek and Roman physicians; the resulting proliferation of various recipes needed to be curtailed in order to ensure that people were not passing off fake antidotes, which led to the development of government involvement and regulation. Additionally, the creation of these concoctions took on ritualistic form and were created in public and the process was observed and recorded, it was believed that if the concoction proved unsuccessful, it was due to the apothecaries’ process of making them and they could be held accountable because of the public nature of the creation. In the 9th century, many Muslim countries established an office of the hisba, which in addition to regulating compliance to Islamic principles and values took on the role of regulating other aspects of social and economic life, including the regulation of medicines.
Inspectors were appointed to employ oversight on those who were involved in the process of medicine creation and were given a lot of leigh weigh to ensure compliance and punishments were stringent. The first official'act', the'Apothecary Wares and Stuffs' Act was passed in 1540 by Henry VIII and set the foundation for others. Through this act, he encouraged physicians in his College of Physicians to appoint four people dedicated to inspecting what was being sold in apothecary shops. In conjunction with this first piece of legislation, there was an emergence of standard formulas for the creation of certain ‘drugs’ and ‘antidotes’ through Pharmacopoeias which first appeared in the form of a decree from Frederick II of Sicily in 1240 to use consistent and standard formulas; the first modern pharmacopoeias were the Florence Pharmacopoeia published in 1498, the Spanish Pharmacopoeia published in 1581 and the London Pharmacopoeia published in 1618. In the United States, regulation of drugs was a state right, as opposed to federal right.
But with the increase in fraudulent practices due to private incentives to maximize profits and poor enforcement of state laws, increased the need for stronger federal regulation. President Roosevelt signed the Federal Food and Drug Act in 1906 which established stricter standards. A 1911 Supreme Court decision, United States vs. Johnson, established that misleading statements were not covered under the FFDA; this directly led to Congress passing the Sherley Amendment which established a clearer definition of ‘misbranded’. Another key catalyst for advances in drug regulation were certain catastrophes that served as calls to the government to step in and impose regulations that would prevent repeats of those instances. One such instance occurred in 1937 when more than a hundred people died from using sulfanilamide elixir which had not gone through any safety testing; this directly led to the passing of the Federal, Food and Cosmetic Act in 1938. One other major catastrophe occurred in the late 1950s when Thalidomide, sold in Germany and sold around the world, led to 100,000 babies being born with various deformities.
The UK's Chief Medical Officer had established a group to look into safety of drugs on the market in 1959 prior to the crisis and was moving in the direction of address the problem of unregulated drugs entering the market. The crisis created a greater sense of emergency to establish safety and efficacy standards around the world; the UK started a temporary Committee on Safety of Drugs while they attempted to pass more comprehensive legislation. Though compliance and submission of drugs to the Committee on Safety of Drugs was not mandatory after, the pharmaceutical industry larger complied due to the thalidomide situation; the European Economic Commission passed a directive in 1965 in order to impose greater efficacy standards before marketing a drug. The United States congress passed the Drug Amendments Act of 1962 The Drug Amendments Act required the FDA to ensure that new drugs being introduced to the market had passed certain tests and standards. Both the EU and US acts introduced the requirements to ensure efficacy.
Of note, increased regulations and standards for testing led to greater innovation in pharm
Abbott Laboratories is an American health care company with headquarters in Lake Bluff, United States. The company was founded by Chicago physician Wallace Calvin Abbott in 1888 to formulate known drugs, it split off the research-based pharmaceuticals into AbbVie in 2013. In 2017, revenues were $27.39 billion. Abbott has a broad range of branded generic pharmaceuticals, medical devices and nutrition products; the company's in-vitro diagnostics business performs immunoassays and blood screening. Its medical tests and diagnostic instrument systems are used worldwide by hospitals, blood banks, physician offices to diagnose and monitor diseases such as HIV, cancer, heart failure and metabolic disorders, as well as assess other indicators of health. In 1985, the company developed the first HIV blood-screening test. Abbott Point-of-Care manufactures diagnostic products for blood analysis to provide health care professionals diagnostics information at the point of patient care. Abbott provides point-of-care cardiac assays to the emergency department.
In 1888 at the age of 30, Wallace Abbott, an 1885 graduate of the University of Michigan, founded the Abbott Alkaloidal Company in Ravenswood, Chicago. At the time, he owned a drug store, his innovation was the use of the active part of a medicinal plant an alkaloid, which he formed into tiny "dosimetric granules". This approach was successful since it produced more effective dosages for patients. In 1922 he moved the company from Ravenswood to Illinois. Abbott's first international affiliate was in London in 1907, the company added an affiliate in Montreal, Canada. Abbott started operations in Pakistan as a marketing affiliate in 1948. Two manufacturing facilities located at Landhi and Korangi in Karachi continue to produce pharmaceutical products. Expansion continued in 1962 when Abbott entered into a joint venture with Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. of Osaka, Japan, to manufacture radio-pharmaceuticals. In 1964, it merged with Ross Laboratories, making Ross a wholly owned subsidiary of Abbott, Richard Ross gained a seat on Abbott's board of directors until his retirement in 1983.
In 1965, Abbott's expansion in Europe continued with offices in France. Abbott Laboratories has been present in India for over 100 years through its subsidiary Abbott India Limited and it is India's largest healthcare products company.. According to Harvard professor Lester Grinspoon and Peter Hedblom, "In 1966 Abbott Laboratories sold the equivalent of two million doses of methamphetamine in powder form to a Long Island criminal dealer". In 2001, the company acquired Knoll, the pharmaceutical division of BASF. In 2002, it divested the Selsun Blue brand to Chattem. In 2002, the company sold Clear Eyes and Murine to Prestige Brands. In 2004, it spun off its hospital products division into a new 14,000 employee company named Hospira, acquired TheraSense, a diabetes-care company, which it merged with its MediSense division to become Abbott Diabetes Care. In 2006, Abbott assisted Boston Scientific in its purchase of Guidant Corporation; as part of the agreement, Abbott purchased the vascular device division of Guidant.
In 2007, Ross was renamed Abbott Nutrition. In 2007, Abbott acquired Kos Pharmaceuticals for $3.7 billion in cash. At the time of acquisition, Kos marketed Niaspan, which raises levels of “good,” or HDL, cholesterol and Advicor, a Niaspan combination drug for patients with multiple lipid disorders. In January 2007, the company agreed to sell its in vitro diagnostics and Point-of-Care diagnostics divisions to General Electric for more than $8 billion; these units were slated to be integrated into the GE Healthcare business unit. The transaction was approved by the boards of directors of Abbott and GE and was targeted to close in the first half of 2007. However, on July 11, 2007, Abbott announced that it had terminated its agreement with GE because the parties could not agree on the terms of the deal. On September 8, 2007, the company completed the sale of the UK manufacturing plant at Queenborough to Aesica Pharmaceuticals, a private equity-owned UK manufacturer. No announcements have been made restricting the movement of staff to Abbott unlike other sell outs.
On February 26, 2009, the company completed its acquisition of Advanced Medical Optics based in Santa Ana, California. In 2009, Abbott opened a satellite research and development facility at Research Park, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In February 2010, Abbott completed its $6.2 billion acquisition of the pharmaceuticals unit of Solvay S. A.. This provided Abbott with a large and complementary portfolio of pharmaceutical products and expanding its presence in key emerging markets. On March 22, 2010, the company completed its acquisition of a Hollywood, Florida-based LIMS company STARLIMS. Under the terms of the deal, Abbott Laboratories acquired the company for $14 per share in an all-cash transaction valued at $123 million. On May 21, 2010, Abbott Laboratories said it would buy Piramal Healthcare Ltd.'s Healthcare Solutions unit for $2.2 billion to become the biggest drug company in India. In October 2011, the company announced that it planned to separate into two companies, one research-based pharmaceuticals and the other in medical devices, generic drugs sold internationally, consumer products, with device company retaining the Abbott name.
The company announced that the other company would be named AbbVie in March
Route of administration
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include intravenous administration. Routes can be classified based on where the target of action is. Action may be enteral, or parenteral. Route of administration and dosage form are aspects of drug delivery. Routes of administration are classified by application location; the route or course the active substance takes from application location to the location where it has its target effect is rather a matter of pharmacokinetics. Exceptions include the transdermal or transmucosal routes, which are still referred to as routes of administration; the location of the target effect of active substances are rather a matter of pharmacodynamics. An exception is topical administration, which means that both the application location and the effect thereof is local. Topical administration is sometimes defined as both a local application location and local pharmacodynamic effect, sometimes as a local application location regardless of location of the effects.
Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration. Enteral/enteric administration includes oral and rectal administration, in the sense that these are taken up by the intestines. However, uptake of drugs administered orally may occur in the stomach, as such gastrointestinal may be a more fitting term for this route of administration. Furthermore, some application locations classified as enteral, such as sublingual and sublabial or buccal, are taken up in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract without reaching the intestines. Enteral administration can be used for systemic administration, as well as local, such as in a contrast enema, whereby contrast media is infused into the intestines for imaging. However, for the purposes of classification based on location of effects, the term enteral is reserved for substances with systemic effects. Many drugs as tablets, capsules, or drops are taken orally. Administration methods directly into the stomach include those by gastric feeding tube or gastrostomy.
Substances may be placed into the small intestines, as with a duodenal feeding tube and enteral nutrition. Enteric coated tablets are designed to dissolve in the intestine, not the stomach, because the drug present in the tablet causes irritation in the stomach; the rectal route is an effective route of administration for many medications those used at the end of life. The walls of the rectum absorb many medications and effectively. Medications delivered to the distal one-third of the rectum at least avoid the "first pass effect" through the liver, which allows for greater bio-availability of many medications than that of the oral route. Rectal mucosa is vascularized tissue that allows for rapid and effective absorption of medications. A suppository is a solid dosage form. In hospice care, a specialized rectal catheter, designed to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications provides a practical way to deliver and retain liquid formulations in the distal rectum, giving health practitioners a way to leverage the established benefits of rectal administration.
The parenteral route is any route, not enteral. Parenteral administration can be performed by injection, that is, using a needle and a syringe, or by the insertion of an indwelling catheter. Locations of application of parenteral administration include: central nervous systemepidural, e.g. epidural anesthesia intracerebral direct injection into the brain. Used in experimental research of chemicals and as a treatment for malignancies of the brain; the intracerebral route can interrupt the blood brain barrier from holding up against subsequent routes. Intracerebroventricular administration into the ventricular system of the brain. One use is as a last line of opioid treatment for terminal cancer patients with intractable cancer pain. Epicutaneous, it can be used both for local effect as in allergy testing and typical local anesthesia, as well as systemic effects when the active substance diffuses through skin in a transdermal route. Sublingual and buccal medication administration is a way of giving someone medicine orally.
Sublingual administration is. The word "sublingual" means "under the tongue." Buccal administration involves placement of the drug between the cheek. These medications can come in the form of films, or sprays. Many drugs are designed for sublingual administration, including cardiovascular drugs, barbiturates, opioid analgesics with poor gastrointestinal bioavailability and vitamins and minerals. Extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes nasal administration (th