Rurrenabaque is a small town in the North of Bolivia on the Beni River. It is the capital of Rurrenabaque Municipality. In recent years it has become popular with international tourism as it is an easy gateway for visits to Madidi National Park, as well as the surrounding pampas. Locals refer to the town by its shortened nickname, "Rurre." Rurrenabaque is located in José Ballivián Province in Bolivia. Rurrenabaque Municipality, the fourth of José Ballivián Province, had 19,195 inhabitants, of which 13,446 lived in urban Rurrenabaque itself in 2012. Rurrenabaque is reached by 410 km from La Paz, by hired taxi or by airplane. Three airlines have flights to Rurrenabaque: Aerocon and TAM - Transporte Aéreo Militar; the buses from La Paz pass through 70 km from La Paz. A new road on this route opened at the end of 2006, decreasing most motorized traffic on the older, more dangerous'Death Road,' now popular for mountain bike tours. The'Death Road' is called the Yungas Road. Rurrenabaque Airport was paved in 2010.
Low clouds over nearby mountains can prevent planes from landing. A nearby airport can be used, Reyes Airport, 32 kilometres and about one hour by bus. There are no mountains near Reyes, the airport has better weather and fewer low clouds. Reyes is the capital of José Ballivián Province in the Beni Department. Rurrenabaque lies on the east bank of the Beni River, it is expected that a bridge will be built over the river to connect with the town San Buenaventura on the west bank. The planned bridge is a part of a regional road project, promoted as a way to improve the economic relationship between the two towns, described as stunted because of limited and expensive transport by boat. An argument in favor of the proposed bridge is that the shallows and strong currents at the San Buenaventura section limit the types of boats and motors capable of crossing the stretch of river, representing an investment beyond the means of most individual Bolivian families; as of 2017, the bridge had not yet been built.
A possible reason for the delay is that the local population resists the planned scheme for road and bridge placement. Researchers cite economic and social harm for the area because of environmental damage from the road project and the planned location of the bridge, which would reduce the town's appeal as a destination/gateway for eco-tourists. From Rurrenabaque popular tours go to the pampas; the jungle/rainforest is south and west of Rurrenabaque, the tours leave by boat and foot. There are many tour agencies in the town offering similar tours. Rurrenabaque is a starting point for ecotourism, some eco-lodges are found in the area; the following is a list of the community based Eco-Lodges-: Mashaquipe. Weather in Rurrenabaque Travel Resources
Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory
Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory is a protected area and Native Community Land in Bolivia situated between the north of the Cochabamba Department and the south of the Beni Department. It protects part of the Bolivian Yungas ecoregion; the indigenous people living within the park belong to the Tsimané, Yuracaré, Mojeño-Trinitario peoples. The southern portion of the park has been colonized by agricultural settlers coca farmers, since the 1970s; the Bolivian government estimates. The park was made into a National Park by Supreme Decree 7401 on November 22, 1965 and recognized as an indigenous territory through Supreme Decree 22610 on September 24, 1990, following pressure by local native peoples and the March for Territory and Dignity organized by the Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of the Bolivian East. Indigenous residents had organized the Subcentral Indígena del TIPNIS in July 1988. Following clearing by the National Agrarian Reform Institute, operative collective title to the Isiboro Securé TCO, consisting of 1,091,656 hectares was awarded to the Subcentral TIPNIS on 13 June 2009.
Some 124,000 hectares inside the park were adjudicated to agrarian colonists, most in the southern Polygon 7. Another 137,783 hectares are held by ranchers in the Beni department portion of the park; the territory includes four major ecosystems: Flooded savannas of the Moxos plain or llano, which are characterized by varied relief and are similar to the llanos of Colombia and the Pantanal in southeast Bolivia Sub-Andean Amazonian forest Pre-Andean Amazonian forest Bolivian-Peruvian Yungas Mammals: 218 species Birds: 992 species Amphibians: 157 species Reptiles: 131 species TIPNIS is home to three indigenous peoples who have ancestrally lived in the region. At the 2001 census, there were 12,388 indigenous inhabitants, living in 64 communities: 1.809 from the Yuracaré people. In the colonized zone of the south, there are some 20 thousand families belonging to 52 agrarian unions, which are organized into 8 centrales; these unions are members of the Federation of the Tropic of Cochabamba, itself one of the Six Federations, the Chapare coca growers' union organization.
The area is part of portion of the Amazon Basin. The Sécure River is one of the principal tributaries of the Mamoré and the Isiboro River itself flows into the Sécure. Both the Sécure and Isiboro flow through TIPNIS, are located in the north and south of the park, respectively; the Ichoa River, a tributary of the Isiboro, flows through the central part of the park and receives water from various smaller streams. The Sécure and Isiboro drainages correspond the Yungas Mountainous Humid Forest and Madeira Humid Forest bioregions; the Isiboro, Sécure, Ichoa rivers are the principal axes of transportation in the region, through which visitors reach the attractions of the park. They make up part of the landscape observed by visitors as well as the route for navigation; the rivers are home to much of the fauna of the park the pink river dolphins. The Laguna Bolivia is a major site for observing wildlife, it is accessed by water, entering through the Black arroyo from the Sécure river during high water season, or by land on foot or horse from the communities of Dulce Nombre or Limoncito.
The water route lacks a formal port from. The land route is by way of the road through the southern colonized area of TIPNIS from Isinuta to Aroma. TIPNIS has experienced substantial deforestation in the region of the park outside the red line, known as Polygon 7, where agricultural colonization has taken place since the 1970s. Continuing colonization is expected to remove 43% of the forest cover in TIPNIS by 2030; the park was slated as the site of the Segment Two of the proposed Villa Tunari–San Ignacio de Moxos Highway, which would provide the first direct highway link between Cochabamba and Beni Departments. While the highway has been discussed for decades, a $332 million loan from Brazil's National Bank for Economic and Social Development, approved by Bolivia in 2011, will make construction possible; the project has an expected overall cost of $415 million and extends 306 kilometers, divided into three segments: Segment I from Villa Tunari to Isinuta, Segment II from Isinuta to Monte Grande, Segment III from Monte Grande to San Ignacio de Moxos.
In May 2010, the a meeting of TIPNIS Subcentral and corregidores throughout the territory stated their "overwhelming and unrenounceable opposition" to the project. In June 2011, President Evo Morales inaugurated the project with a ceremony at Villa Tunari. However, neither a final design nor environmental approval have been completed for Segment Two. In July 2011, the Subcentral, the Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Bolivia, the highland indigenous confederation CONAMAQ announced they would participate in a national march from Villa Tunari to La Paz opposing the project. A major concern about the impact of the road is its contribution to deforestion: "Empirical evidence has shown that highways are motors for deforestation" concluded a study of the project by the Program for Strategic Investigation in Bolivia; the study projected that the road would markedly accelerate deforestation in the park, leaving up to 64% of TIPNIS deforested by 2030. A technical report submitted by the Bolivian Highway Administration established that the d
Municipalities of Bolivia
Municipalities in Bolivia are administrative divisions of the entire national territory governed by local elections. Municipalities are the third level of administrative divisions, below provinces; some of the provinces consist of only one municipality. In these cases the municipalities are identical to the provinces. Municipalities in Bolivia are each led by an executive office. Mayors were appointed by the national government from 1878 to 1942 and from 1949 to 1987. Local elections were held under the 1942 municipal code, in force until 1991; the 1985 Organic Law of Municipalities restored local elections for mayor and created a legislative body, the municipal council. In 1994, the entire territory of Bolivia was merged into municipalities, where only urban areas were organized as municipalities; as an effect of decentralization through the 1994 Law of Popular Participation the number of municipalities in Bolivia has risen from an initial twenty-four to 327, to 337, to 339. Of the 327 municipalities existing after 2005, 187 are inhabited by indigenous population.
New municipalities must have 5,000 in the case of border areas. The municipalities are as follows ordered by department: Baures Municipality Exaltación Municipality Guayaramerín Municipality Huacaraje Municipality Loreto Municipality, Beni Magdalena Municipality, Beni Puerto Siles Municipality Reyes Municipality Riberalta Municipality Rurrenabaque Municipality San Andrés Municipality, Beni San Borja Municipality San Ignacio Municipality, Beni San Javier Municipality, Beni San Joaquín Municipality, Beni San Ramón Municipality, Beni Santa Ana Municipality, Beni Santa Rosa Municipality, Beni Trinidad Municipality, Beni Aiquile Municipality Alalay Municipality Anzaldo Municipality Arani Municipality Arbieto Municipality Arque Municipality Ayopaya Municipality Bolívar Municipality, Cochabamba Capinota Municipality Chimoré Municipality Cliza Municipality Cocapata Municipality Cochabamba Municipality Colcapirhua Municipality Colomi Municipality Cuchumuela Municipality Entre Ríos Municipality, Cochabamba Mizque Municipality Morochata Municipality Muela Municipality Omereque Municipality Pasorapa Municipality Pocona Municipality Pojo Municipality Puerto Villarroel Municipality Punata Municipality Quillacollo Municipality Sacaba Municipality Sacabamba Municipality San Benito Municipality Santivañez Municipality Shinahota Municipality / Shinaota Municipality / Sinahota Municipality Sicaya Municipality Sipe Sipe Municipality Tacachi Municipality Tacopaya Municipality Tapacarí Municipality Tarata Municipality Tiquipaya Municipality Tiraque Municipality Toco Municipality Tolata Municipality Totora Municipality Tunari Municipality Vacas Municipality Vila Vila Municipality Vinto Municipality Azurduy Municipality Camargo Municipality, Chuquisaca Culpina Municipality El Villar Municipality Huacareta Municipality Huacaya Municipality Icla Municipality Incahuasi Municipality Mojocoya Municipality Camataqui Municipality Las Carreras Municipality Macharetí Municipality Monteagudo Municipality Padilla Municipality Poroma Municipality Presto Municipality San Lucas Municipality Sopachuy Municipality Sucre Municipality, Bolivia Tarabuco Municipality Tomina Municipality Villa Alcalá Municipality Villa Charcas Municipality Villa Serrano Municipality Villa Vaca Guzmán Municipality Villa Zudañez Municipality Tarvita Municipality Yotala Municipality Yamparáez Municipality Achacachi Municipality Achocalla Municipality Alto Beni Municipality Ancoraimes Municipality Apolo Municipality Aucapata Municipality Ayata Municipality Ayo Ayo Municipality Batallas Municipality Cairoma Municipality Cajuata Municipality Calacoto Municipality Calamarca Municipality Caquiaviri Municipality Caranavi Municipality Catacora Municipality Chacarilla Municipality Charaña Municipality Chúa Cocani Municipality Chulumani Municipality Chuma Municipality Collana Municipality Colquencha Municipality Colquiri Municipality Comanche Municipality Combaya Municipality Copacabana Municipality, La Paz Coripata Municipality Coro Coro Municipality Coroico Municipality Curva Municipality Desaguadero Municipality El Alto Municipality, La Paz Escoma Municipality General Juan José Pérez Municipality Guanay Municipality Guaqui Municipality Huatajata Municipality Huarina Municipality Humanata Municipality Ichoca Municipality Inquisivi Municipality Irupana Municipality Ixiamas Municipality La Asunta Municipality La Paz Municipality Laja Municipality Licoma Pampa Municipality Luribay Municipality Malla Municipality Mecapaca Municipality Mocomoco Municipality Nazacara de Pacajes Municipality Palca Municipality Palos Blancos Municipality Papel Pampa Municipality Patacamaya Municipality Pelechuco Municipality Pucarani Municipality Puerto Acosta Municipality Puerto Carabuco Municipality Puerto Pérez Municipality Quiabaya Municipality Quime Municipality San Buenaventura Municipality, La Paz San Pedro de Curahuara Municipality San Pedro de Tiquina Municipality Santiago de Callapa Municipality Santiago de Huata Municipality Santiago de Machaca Municipality Sapahaqui Municipality Sica Sica Municipality Sorata Municipality Tacacoma Municipality Tiwanaku Municipality Tipuani Municipality Tito Yupanqui Municipality Umala Municipality Viacha Municipality Waldo Ballivián Municipality Yaco Municipality Yanacachi Municipality Andamarca Municipality Antequera Municipality Belén de Andamarca Municipality Caracollo Municipality Carangas Municipality Challapata Municipality Chipaya Municipality Choquecota Municipality Coipasa Municipality Corque Municipality Cruz de Machacamarca Municipality Curahuara de Carangas Municipality El Choro Municipalit
Villa Tunari – San Ignacio de Moxos Highway
The Villa Tunari – San Ignacio de Moxos Highway known as the Cochabamba–Beni Highway is a road project in Bolivia connecting the towns of Villa Tunari and San Ignacio de Moxos. It would provide the first direct highway link between the two departments; the project has an expected overall cost of $415 million and extends 306 kilometres, divided into three segments: Segment I from Villa Tunari to Isinuta, Segment II from Isinuta to Monte Grande, Segment III from Monte Grande to San Ignacio de Moxos. Opposition to the highway by local indigenous communities, environmentalists, as well as shifting relations between the Bolivian government and the project's builders and funders interrupted construction of Segment I from October 2011 until October 2013, indefinitely delayed Segment II, postponed construction of Segment III until June 2015; the government has pledged to improve standards of living in the region before continuing with Segment II. While the highway has been discussed for decades, a $332 million loan from Brazil's National Bank for Economic and Social Development, approved by Bolivia in 2011, facilitated the start of construction.
Under the terms of the loan, the Brazilian construction firm OAS was to build the road. In June 2011, President Evo Morales inaugurated the project with a ceremony at Villa Tunari. However, neither a final design nor environmental approval had been released for Segment II. Opposition from indigenous residents in the Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory and environmentalists led to a protracted public conflict about the highway, ending with the prohibition of highway passing through the park. President Morales has stated that the controversy over the highway has "instilled fear" in potential financial backers of other highway projects in the country; the government has remained publicly committed to the project. The segment of the road from Villa Tunari to Insinuta was built between 2013 and 2016. While Segment II within TIPNIS remains prohibited, initial construction work on the highway there was carried out in 2017. An August 2017 law repealed special protections for the park and authorized the drafting of a transportation plan for TIPNIS.
Proposals for a highway linking the region of San Ignacio de Moxos with Cochabamba have been raised perennially in the history of the region. Ignacio Flores, the Spanish governor of Mojos proposed opening a road from Cochabamba to Mojos via the Chapare in 1780; the purpose of the proposal was threefold: to encourage re-settlement of Cochabambinos in the region, where they could grow coca and other crops. The proposed 306 kilometres route is divided into three segments, numbered from south to North. Segment I from Villa Tunari to Isinuta, Segment II from Isinuta to Santo Domingo, Segment III from Santo Domingo to San Ignacio de Moxos. Current work on Segment III begins at Monte Grande. OAS, a Brazilian infrastructure corporation, won the contract to build the highway in 2008. Bolivia and the Brazilian Development Bank signed Financial Collaboration Contract N° 10219991 on February 15, 2011, in which the bank extended a $332-million loan to support construction. OAS' work on the road lasted from June 2011 to April 2012, although Segment II was halted in October 2011.
On April 10, 2012, President Morales announced the cancellation of the contract, citing delays in construction as well as other technical failures on the part of OAS. The Brazilian development bank, which had agreed to the loan financing the bulk of the project contingent on the use of OAS withdrew its funding and has stated that not one dollar of the loan was disbursed. On October 6, 2012, a new contract assigned $32.5 million for the construction of the 47-km Segment I from Villa Tunari and Insinuta. The newly created state-owned Bolivian Enterprise for Construction and the local, cocalero-owned Association for Road Maintenance were awarded the contract, they resumed construction on October 24, 2013, are obligated to complete their work by September 9, 2015. As of December 2013, the firms reported 30% completion of their work on the segment. Segment II was completed in 2016, was formally opened on September 11. On June 27, 2015, a binational Bolivian-Venezuelan military unit began construction of Segment III from San Ignacio de Moxos to Santo Domingo.
The government announced. On May 29, 2016, President Morales announced a $20 million government investment through the Agency for the Development of Macroregions and Frontier Zones to build the earthen platform and embankment of this road in the northern 76 kilometer stretch of this road, from Monte Grande to San Ignacio de Moxos. Construction passed to the Social Engineering Directorate of ADEMAF. In April 2017, ADEMAF described the platform as 60 to 80% complete, "despite the rains and whirlwind which had wiped out". In July 2017, TIPNIS community members reported that construction is underway on two bridges for Segment II of the highway inside the park, offered photogr
For other places and things named Trinidad, see Trinidad. Trinidad La Santísima Trinidad, is a city in Bolivia, capital of the department of Beni; the population is 130,000. The city was founded in 1686 by Father Cipriano Barace. In 1769 the town moved to its current location, 9 miles away, due to flooding; the original city was on the Mamoré River, but flooding and disease forced a move on the location of the city. It is located in the province of one of Beni's eight provinces. Sited on the southern edge of the Amazon basin on the Llanos de Moxos/Mojos, the climate is hot and humid at all times. One of the more notable features of the city is the open drains that surrounds every block of buildings; these are linked together thence to the local river. These are necessary due to the heavy rainfall that occurs between May. Trinidad, located in the Bolivian tropics, is hot and humid most of the year; this region of the country is forested and many large rivers run through Beni. Like most cities in Bolivia, it is built around a central plaza with a large Catholic cathedral as its centerpiece.
Trinidad was a small Jesuit town but is now a large city with over 100,000 inhabitants. Its mission-style church was demolished and rebuilt in 1923. Despite these changes, many of the original religious relics and statues are still housed in the cathedral, which faces the main plaza; the City is surrounded by rivers and lagoons. There are restaurants and resorts around the city's main lagoons. Trinidad is one of the first five Jesuit mission towns established and these are now part of the Misiones tour includes visits to San Javier, San Pedro and San Ignacio de Moxos as well. Trinidad and San Ignacio de Moxos both take part in the International Baroque Music Festival every two years in Bolivia. Under the Köppen climate classification, Trinidad has a tropical monsoon climate with a lengthy rainy season and a short dry season. Trinidad has two singular museums; the Museo Itícola is the third largest of its kind in South America and houses over 400 specimens of fish species found in the region’s lakes and lagoons.
It is located on the UAB University campus and is interesting. Here you can see tiny fish, a preserved pink river dolphin; the Kenneth Lee Ethno-Archeological Museum is a great place to visit. Here you can see exhibits of pottery and tools, textiles and other implements used by the Moxos culture. Of interest to ornithologists, the endangered blue-throated macaw in the surrounding countryside. Expeditions to see these can be locally arranged. Airport: Teniente Jorge Henrich Arauz Lat: 14° 48' 0 S Lon: 64° 46' 0 W Alt: 509 feet Weather in Trinidad Bolivian Yellow Pages Trinidad
Beni, sometimes El Beni, is a northeastern department of Bolivia, in the lowlands region of the country. It is the second-largest department in the country, covering 213,564 square kilometers, it was created by supreme decree on November 18, 1842 during the administration of General José Ballivián, its capital is Trinidad. With a population of 420,000, Beni is the second least-populated of the nine departments of Bolivia, after Pando. Although Beni is rich in natural resources, the poverty level of its inhabitants is high as a result of centuries of exploitation of native populations by European-descended elites; the main economic activities are agriculture and cattle. In addition, an underground economy linked to illegal narcotics activities flourished in the area during the last decades of the 20th century, with many cocaine laboratories hidden behind the façade of remote cattle ranches; the Beni region is wide and flat, featuring many large mounds connected by straight earthen causeways, which are believed by researchers to have been built by ancient inhabitants.
The earthwork mounds provide raised living areas and enable the growth of trees that could not survive otherwise in the flooded lowland area. In the 21st century and anthropologists such as Americans Clark Erickson and William Balée believe these earthwork structures are evidence of a large and sophisticated indigenous civilization that flourished for thousands of years before European colonization; the first European settlers in this area were Spanish Jesuit missionaries during the 18th century, sent to convert the native inhabitants, chiefly in the southern half of the department. The religious origins of many of the Beni's towns can be attested to by the centrality of the local church in most of the communities, in the names of the towns: Trinidad, Santa Ana, San Borja, etc. Today, the Beni region is the seat of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of El Beni; the importance of cattle ranching is prominent in the regional culture. Cowboys, or "vaqueros", still play an important role in Beni society, comprising a large portion of the working class.
Other industries significant to the region include logging, small-scale fishing and hunting, in recent years, eco-tourism. Though the Beni lies in the southern reaches of the Amazon Basin, an area renowned for tropical disease, the population has fewer health problems than in the Andes Region those related to malnutrition; the inhabitants are descendants of Cruceños who streamed north following the course of navigable rivers, native peoples. The Beniano diet consists of rice, bananas and fish; some popular dishes include Majao and others, many featuring cured/salted meats. The white/mestizo Benianos have traditionally been mistrustful, somewhat contemptuous, of Andean culture, they identify as being lighter skinned and of more Spanish ancestry than the Quechua and Aymara-speaking populations of the highlands. Considerable resentment existed against the central government, which did little to build roads or integrate the Beni into the economy and political life of Bolivia; these attitudes persisted although Beni residents benefited by the Agrarian Reform instituted following the 1952 Revolution, with many citizens gaining ownership of significant tracts of land.
Most of these turned to cattle ranching. The absence of a reliable road linking the department to the main centers of power in the country continued to contribute to the Benianos' perception of isolation, as did a downturn in the cattle industry; as a result, both the white/mestizo population and departmental authorities supported the Santa Cruz-led effort to federalize the country and devolve powers to the departments at the expense of the central government. Considerable social unrest took place in 2007 and 2008, leading some to consider separatism as plausible. Beni was a important center of a pre-Columbian civilization known as the hydraulic culture of Las Lomas, a culture that constructed over 20,000 man-made artificial hills, all interconnected by thousands of square kilometers of aqueducts, embankments, artificial lakes and lagoons, as well as terraces. Between about 4000 BC and the 13th Century AD this region was settled by sophisticated and organized groups of human societies, their civil structures were based, both environmentally and economically, on the use of specific environmental characteristics.
Miles of these channels and man-made earthworks are visible from the air. When the Spanish arrived, the region had been in decline for about three hundred years. However, this is where many products that are now used worldwide originated in native cultivation: among them tobacco, cotton, cassava and sweet potatoes; the Spanish were intensely interested in this area. During the first century of colonization, they believed the mythical city of El Dorado could be found in this region. However, they never found this legendary city of gold and they soon lost interest in the area, which would remain marginalized for several centuries after. Between the 19th and 20th centuries northern Beni became Bolivia's rubber capital; the abundance of rubber trees attracted many people to the region, many of them adventurers and workers to work in the huge rubber plantations that arose. The worl
The Mojeños known as Moxeños, Moxos, or Mojos, are an indigenous people of Bolivia. They lived in south central Beni Department, on both banks of the Mamore River, on the marshy plains to its west, known as the Llanos de Mojos; the Mamore is a tributary to the Madeira River in northern Bolivia. Mojeños were traditionally hunter-gatherers, as well as farmers and pastoralists.. Jesuit missionaries established towns in the Mojos plains beginning in 1682, converting native peoples to Catholicism and establishing a system of social organization that would endure well beyond the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767. Mojeño ethnic identification derives from a process of ethnogenesis as a result of this encounter between a number of pre-existing ethnic groups in this mission environment; this process occurred in several different mission towns, resulting in distinct Mojeño identities, including Mojeño-Trinitarios, Mojeño-Loretanos, Mojeño-Javerianos, Mojeño-Ignacianos. They numbered some 30,000 in the first decade of the 20th century.
Many Mojeño communities are affiliated with the Central de Pueblos Indígenas del Beni and/or the Central de Pueblos Étnicos Mojeños del Beni. In addition to Spanish, many Mojeño people speak one of several indigenous languages, belonging to the Arawakan language family, including Ignaciano language. In many communities, the language is used in daily life and taught in beginning primary school grades. A dictionary of Ignaciano Mojeño has been published, the New Testament was translated into the language in 1980, they are known as Mojos, Moxos or Moxeños. The previous inhabitants of the region, which before the independence of Bolivia was a single territory called Mojos, were the aboriginal Itonama, Canichana and Movima. Afterwards, the Moxos or the Moxeños arrived; the Moxos were from the Arawak ethnic group, an ethnic group which developed a more complex culture between the Amazon rainforest and Los Llanos. For unknown reasons, between the 15th Century B. C. and the 8th Century B. C. agricultural Arawak groups from the lowlands abandoned their lands and migrated to the west and south, bringing with them a tradition of incised ceramics.
The Moxos, who were part of this population stream, built irrigation canals and crop terraces as well as ritual sites. Thousands of years before the Common Era, the Arawak migrated north and populated the islands of the Caribbean Sea; this slow expansion resulted in their arrival at the islands of Hispaniola. Pottery pieces found in the countryside of the department of Santa Cruz, in the present-day precinct of the city Santa Cruz de la Sierra, reveal that the region was populated by an Arawak tribe with a ceramic-making culture. Writers such as Diego Felipe de Alcaya, tell of a group living between the last buttresses of the Andes Mountains and the central arm of the Guapay River; the communities all throughout this great plain region and along the banks of the river were established and allied under the superior command of a leader, whom Alcaya describes with the title of king. This king, called by the dynastic name of Grigotá, had a comfortable dwelling and wore a vividly-colored shirt. Chiefs, named as Goligoli and Vitupué, were subordinate to Grigotá and had control of hundreds of warriors.
As a result, the first Jesuits in Moxos encountered a developed, ancient civilization. Thousands and thousands of artificial hills up to 60 feet high dotted the landscape, along with hundreds of artificial rectangular ponds up to three feet deep, all part of a system of cultivation and irrigation; the people used the built-up high ground for farming and dug canals to unite ponds and rivers that caught water in this flood-prone region. All these architectural and structural masterpieces can be attributed to the ancestors of the present-day Moxeños, who include the Arawak, the most extensive ethnic group in the area; the Moxos language belongs to a language family called Arawakan. The Arawak have always been famous architects, indeed the great hydraulic works of their ancient empire is located in the territory of Moxos. Today one speaks of the "Amazonian cultures" as a block, despite the differences between the various peoples; the Amazonian cosmos includes a tripartite world: the sky above, the earth here, the underworld below.
These cultures believe that the earth is controlled by a father creator, in collaboration with created spirits or dueños, masters, of places or things and with ancestors who help to maintain justice and balance. Slipping from the norm brings about a spiritual sickness, cured by a communal search for the cause and by a variety of religious rituals, including prayers and natural remedies. In Moxos the principal dueños are the spirits of the jungle and of the water. Many rich dances renew the life of the universe. Jesuit priests arriving from Santa Cruz de la Sierra began evangelizing native peoples of the region in the 1670s, they set up a series of missions near the Mamoré River for this purpose beginning with Loreto. The principal mission was established at Trinidad in 1686; the Jesuit missionaries who first encountered the Moxeños found a people with a strong belief in God as father and creator. The Jesuits accepted in their catechism the names the indigenous peoples gave to God in their own languages, trying to embrace all aspects of the culture not contrary to Christian faith or custom.
Moxos Province This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Moxos". Encyclopædia Brita