It is generally not used to refer to the whole period of the Tudor dynasty, but in prestige buildings to the period roughly between 1500 and 1560. It followed the Late Gothic Perpendicular style and was superseded by Elizabethan architecture from about 1560 in domestic building of any pretensions to fashion, in this form the Tudor style long retained its hold on English taste. The four-centered arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature, some of the most remarkable oriel windows belong to this period. Mouldings are more out and the foliage becomes more naturalistic. During the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, many Italian artists arrived in England, their decorative features can be seen at Hampton Court Palace, Layer Marney Tower, Sutton Place, and elsewhere. However, in the reign of Elizabeth I, the influence of Northern Mannerism. Courtiers and other wealthy Elizabethans competed to build houses that proclaimed their status. The Dissolution of the Monasteries redistributed large amounts of land to the wealthy, resulting in a building boom.
The building of churches had already slowed somewhat before the English Reformation, after a boom in the previous century. Civic and university buildings became more numerous in the period. Tudor style buildings have features that separate them from Medieval. Castles and smaller manor houses often had moats and crenellations designed for archers to stand guard, with the arrival of gunpowder and cannons by the time of Henry VI, fortifications like castles became increasingly obsolete. The autumn of 1485 marked the ascension of Henry VII to the throne, until Henrys accession, England had been engaged in the Wars of the Roses that had left the royal coffers in deep trouble-Yorkists had raided the treasury just after the death of Edward IV. Henry Tudor was hellbent on repairing the damage done by decades of war, though this period is better known for the luxuries and excesses of his son and granddaughter, it was actually under Henry VII that the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance began.
In the early part of his reign, Henry Tudor favored a site at Sheen, someway down river from London and now known as Richmond Palace, as his primary residence. This had been one of the royal palaces since the reign of Edward II and this burnt to the ground at Christmas 1497, with the royal family in residence, and Henry began a new palace in a version of Renaissance style. This, called Richmond Palace and now completely lost, has described as the first prodigy house. During the reign of Henry VIII, architecture became a pastime of the king
Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm Duncker was a German publisher and bookseller. He was descended from a successful Berlin family of booksellers, born in Berlin and his brothers included historian and politician Maximilian Duncker, and publisher and pundit Franz Duncker, founder of a trade union with labor economist Max Hirsch. Another brother, Hermann Carl Rudolf Duncker was a member of the Prussian National Assembly, Dunckers father had founded the publishing firm Duncker & Humblot in 1809, running it alone after business partner Peter Humblot died in 1828. Alexander Duncker started his education in 1829, after apprenticeships with Friedrich Christoph Perthes and Johann Besser in Hamburg, Duncker founded his own firm, Verlag Alexander Duncker. His firm specialized in Belles lettres and visual arts, Duncker had far-reaching political connections and regularly corresponded with King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Later, he maintained contact with Emperor William I, from 1841 he held the title Royal Court Bookseller.
As a reserve officer attaining the rank of lieutenant colonel, he participated in the wars against Denmark, the series of 320 signatures in 16 volumes included 960 color lithographs measuring 20x15 cm. The project resumed with the issue of volume 47 in 2003, Duncker wrote works including,1851 The Patriots, National drama in three acts. 1867 Through Night to the Light, a time story 1877 Off the road. Poems of a vagabond 1886 Angiola Folimarino 1891 Her Picture 1897 The Swallows, Berlin 1918 Peter-Michael Hahn und Hellmut Lorenz, Herrenhäuser in Brandenburg und der Niederlausitz. Kommentierte Neuausgabe des Ansichtenwerks von Alexander Duncker, tausend Veduten zwischen Tilsit und Trier. Pp. 173–210 Loeck, Alexander Dunckers Werk über die ländlichen Wohnsitze der ritterschaftlichen Grundbesitzer Preußens - eine wertvolle Quelle zur pommerschen Geschichte, Baltische Studien - Pommersche Jahrbücher für Landesgeschichte. Edited by Gesellschaft für pommersche Geschichte, Altertumskunde und Kunst e. V
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Huub en Adelheid Kortekaas
Huub and Adelheid Kortekaas present themselves as artists duo since 1999, although they actually have worked together since their marriage in 1969. Huub Kortekaas, a Dutch sculptor, was born 17 July 1935 in s-Gravenzande and he initially chose the profession of teacher, but made at the age of 25 his first sculpture, a large statue of Erasmus for the university at Nijmegen. At 30 he chose definitely to be an artist, as an artist he is self-taught. Between 1960 and 1964 he worked in the Old Tower in Winssen, Adelheid van Swelm, born in 1947 in Nijmegen, and studied garden architecture with a passion for architecture. From on they worked closely together and from since 1999 as a duo. In 1970 their first joint artproject The Circle of Angels arose, since 1974 their work has the theme of The Plant as a metaphor for man. Starting in 1995 he has built together with his wife The Tempelhof, the Anima Mundi initiated project in 1984 and is in development for further realization. An already realised large project of them is The Unifying Spiritual Field of the World, since 2002 they have worked together on The Universal Spiritual Garden as an imagination of the five world religions, by which they find inspiration in the symbolism of numbers.
They are known for large projects but for many statues in the Netherlands and in other countries. Their works are mainly in the Netherlands but in Belgium, Germany, England, Dubai. The philosophy behind their work is in 2012 expressed in the Manifest Utopia, Life as Work of art. nl Huub en Adelheid Kortekaas
A keep is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility. The Anglo-Normans and French rulers began to stone keeps during the 10th and 11th centuries, these included Norman keeps, with a square or rectangular design. Stone keeps carried considerable political as well as military importance and could take up to a decade to build, during the 12th century, new designs began to be introduced – in France, quatrefoil-shaped keeps were introduced, while in England polygonal towers were built. In Spain, keeps were increasingly incorporated into both Christian and Islamic castles, although in Germany tall towers called Bergfriede were preferred to keeps in the western fashion, in the second half of the 14th century, there was a resurgence in the building of keeps. In France, the keep at Vincennes began a fashion for tall, heavily machicolated designs, tower keeps in England became popular amongst the most wealthy nobles, these large keeps, each uniquely designed, formed part of the grandest castles built during the period.
By the 16th century, keeps were slowly falling out of fashion as fortifications, many were destroyed in civil wars between the 17th and 18th centuries, or incorporated into gardens as an alternative to follies. During the 19th century, keeps became fashionable once again and in England, despite further damage to many French and Spanish keeps during the wars of the 20th century, keeps now form an important part of the tourist and heritage industry in Europe. Since the 16th century, the English word keep has commonly referred to large towers in castles. The word originates from around 1375 to 1376, coming from the Middle English term kype, meaning basket or cask, the term came to be used for other shell keeps by the 15th century. By the 17th century, the word keep lost its reference to baskets or casks. Early on, the use of the keep became associated with the idea of a tower in a castle that would serve both as a fortified, high-status private residence and a refuge of last resort. By the 19th century, Victorian historians incorrectly concluded that the etymology of the keep and tenazza were linked.
As a result of evolution in meaning, the use of the term keep in historical analysis today can be problematic. Contemporary medieval writers used various terms for the buildings we would today call keeps, in Latin, they are variously described as turris, turris castri or magna turris – a tower, a castle tower, or a great tower. The 12th-century French came to them a donjon, from the Latin dominarium lordship, linking the keep. Similarly, medieval Spanish writers called the buildings torre del homenaje, in England, donjon turned into dungeon, which initially referred to a keep, rather than to a place of imprisonment. This ambiguity over terminology has made historical analysis of the use of keeps problematic, while the term remains in common academic use, some academics prefer to use the term donjon, and most modern historians warn against using the term keep simplistically. The fortifications that we would today call keeps certainly did not necessarily part of a unified medieval style
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism, the Anglo-Catholicism tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals, as industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation, poems such as Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions, guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the Gothic order as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland, inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some features of the Scots baronial style. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to improve Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions, a younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Brittens series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt. to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, the categories he used were Norman, Early English and Perpendicular.
It went through numerous editions and was still being republished by 1881. The largest and most famous Gothic cathedrals in the U. S. A. are St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City and Washington National Cathedral on Mount St. Alban in northwest Washington, D. C. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate in Ontario, Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the Gothic Revival styles of architecture. The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture, classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace ant lattice work were applied to a range of Gothic Revival objects. Sir Walter Scotts Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the Regency Gothic style, parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, the illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery
Beginning on the night of March 23,1945 the 21st Army Group under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery launched Operation Plunder, as a part of a coordinated set of Rhine crossings. The crossing of the River Rhine was at Rees, Wesel and the United States Ninth Army, under Lieutenant General William H. Simpson. Preparations were hidden by a smoke screen from 16 March. The operation commenced on the night of March 23,1945 and it included the Varsity parachute and glider landings near Wesel, and Operation Archway, by the Special Air Service. The landing areas were flooded, deserted farmland rising to woodland, four thousand Allied guns fired for four hours during the opening bombardment. British bombers contributed with attacks on Wesel during the day and night of 23 March 1945, Bridge construction started at 9, 45am and by 4, 00pm the first truck crossed the floating Pontoon bridge. Over 1,152 feet of M2 treadway and 93 pneumatic floats were used in just six hours and fifteen minute construction project and it took twenty-five 2-and-a-half ton GMC CCKW trucks to transport the bridge parts to the construction site, part of the Red Ball Express.
Three Allied formations made the assault, the British XXX and XII Corps. These were the transports for the spearhead infantry, at 02,00 on 24 March, the 15th Infantry Division landed between Wesel and Rees. At first, there was no opposition, but ran into determined resistance from machine-gun nests. On the same day the 51st Divisions commander, Major General Tom Rennie, was killed by mortar fire, the British 1st Commando Brigade entered Wesel. The U. S. 30th Infantry Division landed south of Wesel, the local resistance had been broken by artillery and air bombardment. Subsequently, the U. S. 79th Infantry Division landed, German resistance to the Scottish landings continued with some effect, and there were armored counter-attacks. Landings continued, including tanks and other heavy equipment, US forces had a bridge across by the evening of 24 March. Operation Varsity started at 10,00 on 24 March, to disrupt enemy communications, despite heavy resistance to the airdrops and afterward, the airborne troops made progress and repelled counterattacks.
The hard lessons of Operation Market Garden were applied, in the afternoon, the 15th Division linked up with both airborne divisions. Fierce German resistance continued around Bienen, north of Rees, where the entire 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade was needed to relieve the Black Watch, the bridgehead was firmly established and Allied advantages in numbers and equipment were applied. By 27 March, the bridgehead was 35 miles wide and 20 miles deep, the Allied operation was opposed by the German 1st Parachute Army, commanded by General Alfred Schlemm, a part of Army Group H
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill KG OM CH TD PC DL FRS RA was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was an officer in the British Army, a historian. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, in 1963, he was the first of only eight people to be made an honorary citizen of the United States. Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough and his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young officer, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns, at the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, during the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign caused his departure from government.
He briefly resumed active service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, at the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister and he led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. After the Conservative Party suffered a defeat in the 1945 general election. He publicly warned of an Iron Curtain of Soviet influence in Europe, after winning the 1951 election, Churchill again became Prime Minister. His second term was preoccupied by foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, domestically his government laid great emphasis on house-building. Churchill suffered a stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955. Upon his death aged ninety in 1965, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral and his highly complex legacy continues to stimulate intense debate amongst writers and historians.
Born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the noble Spencer family, Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father. His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, Churchill was born on 30 November 1874, two months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire. From age two to six, he lived in Dublin, where his grandfather had been appointed Viceroy, Churchills brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill, was born during this time in Ireland
Cleves, is a town in the Lower Rhine region of northwestern Germany near the Dutch border and the River Rhine. From the 11th century onwards, Cleves was capital of a county, Cleves is the capital of the district of Cleves in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The city is home to one of the campuses of the Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Cleves consists of 14 subdivisions, Brienen, Donsbrüggen, Düffelward, Keeken, Materborn, Rindern, Schenkenschanz and Wardhausen. The native name Kleff probably derives from Middle Dutch clef, clif ‘cliff, bluff’, since the citys coat of arms displays three clovers, the citys name is sometimes linked by folk etymology to the clover, but the corresponding Dutch word is klever. Notably, Kleve was spelled with a c throughout its history until spelling reforms introduced in the 1930s required that the name be spelled with a k, as of 2008, the CDU announced ambitions to return the name to its original spelling. The Schwanenburg, where the dukes of Cleves resided, was founded on a steep hill and it is located at the northern terminus of the Kermisdahl where it joins with the Spoykanal, which was previously an important transportation link to the Rhine.
The old castle has a tower, the Schwanenturm 180 feet high. Medieval Kleve grew together from four parts — the Castle Schwanenburg, the village below the castle, the first city of Kleve on the Heideberg Hill, in 1242 Kleve received city rights. Kleves most famous native is Anne of Cleves, daughter of John III, Duke of Cleves, several local businesses are named after her, including the Anne von Kleve Galerie. The local line became extinct in the line in 1609. After the Thirty Years War, in 1648, the dispute was finally resolved with Cleves passing to the elector of Brandenburg. During the Thirty Years War the city had been under the control of the Dutch Republic and he approved a renovation of the Schwanenburg in the baroque style and commissioned the construction of extensive gardens that greatly influenced European landscape design of the 17th century. Significant amounts of his plan for Kleve were put into effect and have been maintained to the present. The mineral waters of Kleve and the parkland surrounding it made it a fashionable spa in the 19th century.
At this time, Kleve was named Bad Cleve, Kleve has long since lost its reputation as a fashionable getaway, though tourism remains a significant factor in the local economy. During World War II Kleve was the site of one of the stations that served the Knickebein radio targeting system. Luftwaffe bombers used signals from Kleve and from another station at Stolberg to determine the exact location, the Knickebein system was eventually jammed by the British and was phased out and replaced by the higher frequency X-Gerat system using antennae located on the channel coast of France. Horrocks said that this had been the most terrible decision I had ever taken in my life, many buildings were reconstructed, including most of the Schwanenburg and the Stiftskirche, the Catholic parish church
He saw action in the First World War as a junior officer of the Royal Warwickshire Regiment. At Méteren, near the Belgian border at Bailleul, he was shot through the lung by a sniper. He returned to the Western Front as a staff officer. He took part in the Battle of Passchendaele in late 1917 before finishing the war as chief of staff of the 47th Division. During the Second World War he commanded the British Eighth Army from August 1942 in the Western Desert until the final Allied victory in Tunisia in May 1943 and this command included the Second Battle of El Alamein, a turning point in the Western Desert Campaign. He subsequently commanded the British Eighth Army during the Allied invasion of Sicily and he was in command of all Allied ground forces during Operation Overlord from the initial landings until after the Battle of Normandy. He continued in command of the 21st Army Group for the rest of the campaign in North West Europe, as such he was the principal field commander for the failed airborne attempt to bridge the Rhine at Arnhem, and the Allied Rhine crossing.
On 4 May 1945 he took the German surrender at Lüneburg Heath in Northern Germany, after the war he became Commander-in-Chief of the British Army of the Rhine in Germany and Chief of the Imperial General Staff. He served as Deputy Supreme Commander of NATO in Europe until his retirement in 1958. Montgomery was born in Kennington, Surrey, in 1887, the child of nine, to an Ulster-Scots Church of Ireland minister, The Reverend Henry Montgomery. The Montgomerys, an Ascendancy gentry family, were the County Donegal branch of the Clan Montgomery and he was probably a descendant of Colonel Alexander Montgomery. Bernards mother, was the daughter of The V, rev. Frederic William Canon Farrar, the famous preacher, and was eighteen years younger than her husband. After the death of Sir Robert Montgomery, Henry inherited the Montgomery ancestral estate of New Park in Moville in Inishowen in Ulster. There was still £13,000 to pay on a mortgage, a debt in the 1880s. Despite selling off all the farms that were at Ballynally, there was enough to keep up New Park.
It was a relief of some magnitude when, in 1889, Henry was made Bishop of Tasmania, still a British colony. Bishop Montgomery considered it his duty to spend as much time as possible in the areas of Tasmania and was away for up to six months at a time. While he was away, his wife, still in her mid-twenties, gave her children constant beatings, of Bernards siblings, Sibyl died prematurely in Tasmania, and Harold and Una all emigrated
Gerhard Marcks was a German artist, known primarily as a sculptor, but who is known for his drawings, woodcuts and ceramics. Marcks was born in Berlin, where, at age 18, in 1914, he married Maria Schmidtlein, with whom he would raise six children. During World War I, he served in the German army, with architect Walter Gropius, Lyonel Feininger and others, Marcks was a member of two art-related political groups, the Novembergruppe and the Arbeitsrat für Kunst. He was affiliated with the Deutscher Werkbund, of which Gropius was a founding member, in 1919, when Gropius founded the Bauhaus, Marcks was one of the first three faculty members to be hired, along with Feininger and Johannes Itten. Specifically, Marcks was appointed the Formmeister of the school’s Pottery Workshop, the other teacher in that workshop, its Lehrmeister was Master Potter Max Krehan, the last of a long line of potters, whose workshop was in Dornburg. Krehan taught the students to throw pots on the wheel, to trim and glaze them, Marcks, in addition to duties in Weimar, taught the history of the practice, encouraged experimentation, and sometimes decorated pots.
Earlier, Marcks had made the models for a series of animal sculptures and his interest in animal forms is reflected in the work he made for his first Bauhaus portfolio, such as Die Katzen and Die Eule, both woodcuts. In time, his focus shifted to the figure. In September 1925, the Bauhaus was relocated to Dessau, Marcks moved instead to the Kunstgewerbeschule in Burg Giebichenstein near Halle. After the death of its director, Paul Thiersch, Marcks was named his replacement, despite such persecution, Marcks continued to live in Germany throughout World War II. In 1937, when twenty-four of his works were confiscated and destroyed by the Nazis, he was prohibited from exhibiting, during this period, he made several trips to Italy, where he worked in the Villa Romana in Florence and the Villa Massimo in Rome. In 1943, his studio in Berlin was bombed during an air raid, after World War II, Marcks became Professor of Sculpture at the Landeskunstschule in Hamburg, where he taught for four years, before retiring to Cologne.
He designed memorials for soldiers and civilians who had died in the war, in 1949, he was awarded the Goethe Medal, and in 1952, he was given the Knight of the Order Pour le Mérite, civil class. Marcks died in 1981 in Burgbrohl, Eifel, a decade earlier, the museum called Gerhard Marcks Haus, which houses a permanent exhibition of his artwork, was established in his honor in Bremen, Germany. In this museum are 12,000 of his sketches and preparatory drawings,900 prints, and all his sculptures. In the U. S. there is a collection of Marcks work at Luther College in Decorah, most of which were given to school by his former student. Of particular note is a monumental Marcks bronze statue titled Oedipus and Antigone, in 1914 Marcks participated in exhibitions of the Berlin Secession and the Deutscher Werkbund, after World War II at the Venice Biennale and the Documentas I, II and III in Kassel. In 1952 he was appointed a Knight of the Peace Class of the Order Pour le Mérite, in 1954 North Rhine-Westphalia awarded him its Grand Art Prize
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area. Its capital is Düsseldorf, the most populous city is Cologne, four of Germanys ten largest cities—Cologne, Düsseldorf and Essen—are located within the state, as well as the largest metropolitan area on the European continent, Rhine-Ruhr. North Rhine-Westphalia was formed in 1946 as a merger of the provinces of North Rhine and Westphalia, the state has been run by a coalition of the Social Democrats and Greens since 2010. The Ubii and some other Germanic tribes such as the Cugerni were settled on the west side of the Rhine in the Roman province of Germania Inferior, North of the Sigambri and the Rhine region were the Bructeri. By the 8th century the Frankish dominion was established in western Germany. But at the time, to the north, Westphalia was being taken over by Saxons pushing south. The Merovingian and Carolingian Franks eventually built an empire which controlled first their Ripuarian kin, the Ottonian dynasty had both Saxon and Frankish ancestry.
As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split into small independent principalities, each with its separate vicissitudes. Such struggles as the War of the Limburg Succession therefore continued to create military, Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, and the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked largely in German history. Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century Upper Guelders and Moers became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795 the whole of the bank of the Rhine was resigned to France. In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium, around 1 AD there were numerous incursions through Westphalia and perhaps even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements. The Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück and some of the Germanic tribes who fought at this came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in Paderborn and nearby parts and his Saxon Wars partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today.
Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Lemgo, Osnabrück, Widukind was buried in Enger, which is a subject of a legend. Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia was originally a district of the Duchy of Saxony, in 1180 Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa. The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only an area south of the Lippe River. Parts of Westphalia came under Brandenburg-Prussian control during the 17th and 18th centuries, the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, signed in Münster and Osnabrück, ended the Thirty Years War