China–Mozambique relations date back to the 1960s, when China began to support the struggle of Mozambique's Marxist-oriented FRELIMO party against Portuguese colonialism. Diplomatic relations were formally established on 25 June 1975, soon after Mozambique gained independence from Portugal. In November 2006, Mozambique became the thirteenth African country to be added to China's official list of tourism destinations. Hu Jintao, president of the People's Republic of China, made an official visit to Mozambique in February 2007, during which he and Armando Guebuza, the president of Mozambique, pledged further cooperation in the areas of economy, agriculture and sports. Shanghai and Maputo share a sister city relationship. From 1992 to 2003, 22 Mozambicans went to China as international students. Estimates for the number of Chinese nationals residing in Mozambique as of 2007 ranged from 1,500 to 12,000. China's pattern of trade with Mozambique differs from that with their major trading partners on the African continent, such as Angola and Sudan.
China imports agricultural and fisheries products from Mozambique, but few raw materials, while exporting manufactured goods and machinery. Between 2004 and 2006, bilateral trade tripled in value from US$70 million to US$210 million, making China one of Mozambique's three largest trading partners, behind South Africa and Portugal. China has become a major buyer of Mozambican timber. Chinese businessmen are not involved in the actual practise of logging. China has become an important player in Mozambique's construction industry. Contractors from other countries, who have been losing out on business due to their higher costs, complain that the Chinese contractors make no effort to transfer skills or technology to locals, do not make use of local or regional labour subcontractors, instead preferring to import and manage their own workers. However, Chinese-run construction sites have a lower rate of pilferage. In the first 10 months of 2012, the value of trade was US$1.1 billion, with Mozambique being the 23rd largest trading partner of China.
In addition to trade, China has begun providing development aid to Mozambique as well. The Export-Import Bank of China have made soft loans to Mozambique for infrastructure construction, for example providing US$60 million in 2006, have twice cancelled large proportions of the country's debt to China, forgiving US$22 million in 2001 and US$30 million in 2007, they have built a number of government buildings and public facilities free of charge, such as the national parliament building and the national stadium. According to AidData, from 2000 to 2012, there are 52 Chinese official development finance projects identified in Zimbabwe through various media reports. Cardenal, Juan Pablo. La silenciosa conquista china. Barcelona: Crítica. Pp. 187–194, 225–228
Maputo named Lourenço Marques until 1976, is the capital and most populous city of Mozambique. Located near the southern end of the country, it is positioned within 120 km of the Eswatini and South Africa borders; the city has a population of 1,101,170 distributed over a land area of 347 km2. The Maputo metropolitan area includes the neighbouring city of Matola, has a total population of 2,717,437. Maputo is a port city, with an economy centered around commerce, it is noted for its vibrant cultural scene and distinctive, eclectic architecture. Maputo is situated on a large natural bay on the Indian Ocean, near where the rivers Tembe, Mbuluzi and Infulene converge; the city consists of seven administrative divisions, which are each subdivided into quarters or bairros. The city is surrounded by Maputo Province, but is administered as a self-contained, separate province since 1998. Maputo City is the most densely populated province in Mozambique. Maputo is a cosmopolitan city, with Bantu, and, to a lesser extent, Arabic and Chinese languages and cultures present.
The area on which Maputo stands was first settled as a fishing village in the 1500s. It was soon named Lourenço Marques, after the navigator of the same name who first explored the area in 1544; the modern city traces its origins to a Portuguese fort established on the site in 1781. A town grew around the fort starting around 1850, in 1877, it was elevated to city status. In 1898, the colony of Portuguese Mozambique relocated its capital there. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Lourenço Marques grew both in population and economic development as a port city. Upon Mozambican independence in 1975, the city was renamed Maputo. During the Mozambican Civil War, the city's economy was devastated; when the war ended, the FRELIMO government launched a program to revive the city's economy, to clean up the city by forcibly removing criminals and undocumented residents. Since Maputo's economy has recovered and stability has returned, though crime remains a problem. Maputo has a number of landmarks, including Independence Square, City Hall, Maputo Fortress, the central market, Tunduru Gardens, Maputo Railway Station.
Maputo is known an aesthetically attractive, if dilapidated, city. With wide avenues lined by jacaranda and acacia trees, it has earned the nicknames City of Acacias and the Pearl of the Indian Ocean; the city is known for its distinct, eclectic architecture, with Portuguese colonial Neoclassical and Manueline styles alongside modern Art Deco and Brutalist buildings. The historic Baixa de Maputo district is the downtown area. Maputo has a vibrant cultural scene, with many restaurants and performance venues, local film industry. Maputo's economy is centered around its port, through which much of Mozambique's imports and exports are shipped; the chief exports include cotton, chromite, sisal and hardwood. In addition to trade, the city has robust service sectors. Several colleges and universities are located in Maputo, including Pedagogical University, São Tomás University, Eduardo Mondlane University, the oldest in the country. On the northern bank of Espírito Santo Estuary of Delagoa Bay, an inlet of the Indian Ocean, Lourenço Marques was named after the Portuguese navigator who, with António Caldeira, was sent in 1544 by the governor of Mozambique on a voyage of exploration.
They explored the lower courses of the rivers emptying their waters into Delagoa Bay, notably the Espírito Santo. The forts and trading stations that the Portuguese established and reoccupied on the north bank of the river were all named "Lourenço Marques"; the existing town dates from about 1850, with the previous settlement having been destroyed by the natives. The town developed around a Portuguese fortress completed in 1787. On 9 December 1876, Lourenço Marques was elevated to the status of village, on the 10 November 1887 it became a city; the Luso-British conflict for the possession of Lourenço Marques ended on the 24th of July 1875 with Patrice de MacMahon, the French President, ruling in favour of Portugal. In 1871, the town was described as a poor place, with narrow streets good flat-roofed houses, grass huts, decayed forts, a rusty cannon, enclosed by a erected wall 1.8 metres high and protected by bastions at intervals. The growing importance of the Transvaal led, however, to greater interest being taken back in Portugal in the development of a port.
A commission was sent by the Portuguese government in 1876 to drain the marshy land near the settlement, to plant the blue gum tree, to build a hospital and a church. A city since 1887, it superseded the Island of Mozambique as the capital of Mozambique in 1898. In 1895, the opening of the NZASM railroad to Pretoria, South Africa, caused the city's population to grow; the Witwatersrand Gold Rush, which began in 1886, further increased the economic development of the city in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as Lourenço Marques served as the closest seaport for the export of gold from South Africa. In the early 20th century, with a well equipped seaport, with piers, landing sheds and electric cranes, enabling large vessels to discharge cargoes direct into the railway trucks, Lourenço Marques developed under Portuguese rule and achieved great importance as a lively cosmopolitan city, it was served by British and German liners, the majority of its imported goods were shipped at Southampton and Hamburg.
With the continuous growth of the city's population and its expanding economy centered on the seaport, from the 1940s, Portugal's administration built
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to
Malawi–United States relations
The transition from a one-party state to a multi-party democracy strengthened the cordial U. S. relationship with Malawi. Significant numbers of Malawians study in the United States; the United States has an active Peace Corps program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Servicess, an Agency for International Development mission in Malawi. U. S. and Malawian views on the necessity of economic and political stability in southern Africa coincide. Through a pragmatic assessment of its own national interests and foreign policy objectives, Malawi advocates peaceful solutions to the region's problems through negotiation. Malawi works to achieve these objectives in the United Nations, COMESA, SADC. Malawi is the first southern African country to receive peacekeeping training under the U. S.-sponsored African Crisis Response Force Initiative and has joined the successor program, African Contingency Operations Training Assistance. It has an active slate of peacetime engagement military-to-military programs.
The two countries maintain a continuing dialogue through diplomatic representatives and periodic visits by senior officials. In July 2011, the United States suspended direct aid funding; the US government agency responsible, the Millennium Challenge Corporation, suspended aid because it was'deeply upset' by the deaths of the 19 people during the July protests. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 60% of Malawians approve of U. S. leadership, with 25% disapproving and 15% uncertain. The United States has a substantial foreign assistance program in Malawi, with the U. S. Government providing $70 million annually in development assistance to Malawi under USAID's Country Strategic Plan; the primary goal of USAID assistance is poverty reduction and increased food security through broad-based, market-led economic growth, focusing on four areas: sustainable increases in rural incomes, increased civic involvement in the rule of law, improved access to and quality of health services, improved access to quality basic education.
The USAID program is implemented in partnership with the Government of Malawi, nongovernmental organizations, other U. S. Government agencies, U. S. private voluntary organizations and other partners, including the private sector through public-private partnerships. USAID's program to increase rural incomes includes training and technical assistance to increase smallholder productivity. USAID is encouraging smallholders to diversify into dairy production, a lucrative business in Malawi and well-suited to Malawi's limited land area. USAID grantee Land O' Lakes, partnering with World Wide Sires, continues to promote the growth of the dairy industry in Malawi through 55 dairy associations with over 6,376 members. USAID, through the Presidential Initiative to End Hunger in Africa, improved output markets for a total of 177,468 rural households. USAID-supported microfinance institutions provided financial services to 189,782 clients and disbursed 351,319 loans valued at $35,876,401. U. S. Government funding totaling $700,000 was leveraged to provide up to $13 million in agricultural financing through Malawi's first Development Credit Authority.
The Democracy and Governance portfolio continued to evolve in 2007, which proved to be an important transition year for the MCC Threshold Country Program. Activities under the TCP reaped positive results in fighting corruption, improving fiscal responsibility, establishing a more transparent and effective judiciary; as a result of successes gained under the TCP, the Government of Malawi was the only country in the world selected by MCC in December 2007 for Compact eligibility. Several other Democracy and Governance activities continued to fight corruption in the private sector, educate at-risk youth of their civic responsibilities, nurture Christian/Muslim dialogue and relationships; the Democracy and Governance office initiated a public-private partnership with the Financial Services Volunteer Corps to assist the Reserve Bank of Malawi and private banks to further develop risk-based banking supervision capacity. Chancellor College and a U. S.-based Historically Black College/University entered into a partnership to strengthen the government's legal aid programs.
As was the case in previous years, USAID continued to support the Sector Wide Approach to Health in 2007 through discrete initiatives aimed at "increased use of improved health behaviors and services" for maternal and reproductive health, including HIV/AIDS, malaria. These sustained efforts over the last 7 years have had substantial impact on health indicators in the country. In the area of HIV prevention, for example, the number of USAID-assisted counseling and testing centers increased from 3 in 2000 to 276 in 2007, while the number of clients assisted at these sites per year increased from about 22,000 in 2000 to more than 192,000 in 2007. In addition, according to a national Demographic and Health Survey completed in 2005 with support from USAID, USAID's Presidential Emergency Plan for HIV/AIDS Relief activities reached 1,351,404 people through ABC messages (abstinence from sexual activity, being faithful to a single partn
Mozambique–South Africa relations
Mozambique – South Africa relations refers to the bilateral relationship of Mozambique and South Africa. Governmental relations began in 1923, during the colonial era, when the Union of South Africa entered into formal agreements with the Portuguese Empire for the colony of Portuguese East Africa in regard to labour and commercial matters. Graça Machel, the inaugural First Lady of Mozambique from 1975 to 1986 married the first post-Apartheid-era President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, on July 18, 1998, Mandela's 80th birthday, they remained married until Mandela's death on December 5, 2013, at the age of 95. She was married to Mozambique's first president, Samora Machel, who died in a plane crash on October 19, 1986, aged 53. Although South Africa is preponderant in the region in terms of economic resources and military might, Mozambique is considered a second-tier state in Southern Africa and a crucial partner for Pretoria. White South Africans and Whites in Portuguese-controlled Mozambique enjoyed close relations during the colonial era.
When South Africa implemented the apartheid laws, the capital of Mozambique, became a destination for many Whites to go to escape the conservative social policies of the apartheid government. When Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975, thousands of Mozambique-born Whites moved across the border to South Africa, the descendants of which are today Portuguese South Africans; the Shangaan or Tsonga people live on both sides of the Mozambique–South Africa border. Black movement between the two states existed to a large extent due to the possibility of employment of Mozambicans in the mines of South Africa; the cross-border remissions form an important part of the Mozambican economy. South Africa played an important role in the Mozambican Civil War in supporting RENAMO against the FRELIMO government. South Africa and Mozambique signed the Nkomati Accord in 1984, which ended South Africa's role in the war, though it continued until the advent of Democracy in South Africa in 1994
Tanzania–Mozambique relations are bilateral relations between Tanzania and Mozambique. Mozambique and Tanzania have had cordial relations since Mozambique got its independence from Portugal. After independence, Civil war broke out between the ruling party, Front for Liberation of Mozambique and Mozambique Resistance Movement, who were backed by Rhodesia and South Africa. FRELIMO was formed in Tanzania with the help of the Tanzanian president Julius Nyerere to help the group fight the Portuguese government and was given land during the civil war to form military camps. After the end of the war, Tanzania continued to maintain good relationships with the country. With the recent boom in gas exploration in the region, Mozambique has boosted its exports to Tanzania in the recent years and Mozambique's major exports to the country include surveying equipment and machinery. Most of the trade between the country is conducted between Mtwara Port; the trade between both countries is set to grow in the future.
In 2013 Mozambique exported $75.4 million worth of goods to Tanzania and imported $63 million worth of goods. Major Tanzanian exports to Mozambique include Textiles, Tobacco products and low cost manufactured products. Mozambique and Tanzania share over an 800 km border however, no roads crossed the Ruvuma River into Mozambique; the Government of Tanzania did begin operating a ferry at Namoto, however in 2005 both countries agreed to build a bridge to facilitate cross border trade. The bridge was inaugurated in 2010. However, due to poor road infrastructure on the Mozambique side, cross border trade has been slow. With the increase of economic operations in the south of Tanzania, the Mtwara Development Corridor project would help develop the border region of Tanzania and Mozambique and increase commerce between the two nations. Both Tanzania and Mozambique have found large reserves of Gas around the border regions and has created a race for the exploration of the mineral. Both countries are trying to secure contracts to become the largest LNG supplier in Africa.
Though there is a race, both countries are still sharing skills to produce better legislation. Mozambique maintains a high commission in Dar es Salaam. Tanzania maintains an embassy in Maputo 18 May 2015 - President Filipe Nyusi of Mozambique makes a three-day state visit to Tanzania to address Mozambican population in the country and improve bilateral relations