Matthew Abraham Groening is an American cartoonist, producer and voice actor. He is the creator of the comic strip Life in Hell and the television series The Simpsons and Disenchantment; the Simpsons is the longest-running U. S. primetime-television series in history and the longest-running U. S. animated sitcom. Groening made his first professional cartoon sale of Life in Hell to the avant-garde Wet magazine in 1978. At its peak, the cartoon was carried in 250 weekly newspapers. Life in Hell caught the attention of James L. Brooks. In 1985, Brooks contacted Groening with the proposition of working in animation for the Fox variety show The Tracey Ullman Show. Brooks wanted Groening to adapt his Life in Hell characters for the show. Fearing the loss of ownership rights, Groening decided to create something new and came up with a cartoon family, the Simpson family, named the members after his own parents and sisters—while Bart was an anagram of the word "brat"; the shorts would be spun off into their own series The Simpsons.
In 1997, Groening and former Simpsons writer David X. Cohen developed Futurama, an animated series about life in the year 3000, which premiered in 1999, running for four years on Fox picked up by Comedy Central for additional seasons. Groening developed a new series for Netflix titled Disenchantment, which premiered in August 2018. Groening has won 12 Primetime Emmy Awards, ten for The Simpsons and two for Futurama as well as a British Comedy Award for "outstanding contribution to comedy" in 2004. In 2002, he won the National Cartoonist Society Reuben Award for his work on Life in Hell, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 14, 2012. Groening was born on February 15, 1954 in Portland, the middle of five children, his Norwegian American mother, Margaret Ruth, was once a teacher, his German Canadian father, Homer Philip Groening, was a filmmaker, advertiser and cartoonist. Homer, born in Main Centre, Canada, grew up in a Mennonite, Plautdietsch-speaking family. Matt's grandfather, Abraham Groening, was a professor at Tabor College, a Mennonite Brethren liberal arts college in Hillsboro, Kansas before moving to Albany College in Oregon in 1930.
Groening grew up in Portland, attended Ainsworth Elementary School and Lincoln High School. From 1972 to 1977, Groening attended The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, a liberal arts school that he described as "a hippie college, with no grades or required classes, that drew every weirdo in the Northwest." He served as the editor of the campus newspaper, The Cooper Point Journal, for which he wrote articles and drew cartoons. He befriended fellow cartoonist Lynda Barry after discovering that she had written a fan letter to Joseph Heller, one of Groening's favorite authors, had received a reply. Groening has credited Barry with being "probably biggest inspiration." He first became interested in cartoons after watching the Disney animated film One Hundred and One Dalmatians, he has cited Robert Crumb, Ernie Bushmiller, Ronald Searle and Charles M. Schulz as inspirations. In 1977, at the age of 23, Groening moved to Los Angeles to become a writer, he went through what he described as "a series of lousy jobs," including being an extra in the television movie When Every Day Was the Fourth of July, busing tables, washing dishes at a nursing home, clerking at the Hollywood Licorice Pizza record store, landscaping in a sewage treatment plant, chauffeuring and ghostwriting for a retired Western director.
Groening described life in Los Angeles to his friends in the form of the self-published comic book Life in Hell, loosely inspired by the chapter "How to Go to Hell" in Walter Kaufmann's book Critique of Religion and Philosophy. Groening distributed the comic book in the book corner of Licorice Pizza, a record store in which he worked, he made his first professional cartoon sale to the avant-garde Wet magazine in 1978. The strip, titled "Forbidden Words," appeared in the September/October issue of that year. Groening had gained employment at the Los Angeles Reader, a newly formed alternative newspaper, delivering papers, typesetting and answering phones, he showed his cartoons to the editor, James Vowell, impressed and gave him a spot in the paper. Life in Hell made its official debut as a comic strip in the Reader on April 25, 1980. Vowell gave Groening his own weekly music column, "Sound Mix," in 1982. However, the column would actually be about music, as he would write about his "various enthusiasms, pet peeves and problems" instead.
In an effort to add more music to the column, he "just made stuff up," concocting and reviewing fictional bands and nonexistent records. In the following week's column, he would confess to fabricating everything in the previous column and swear that everything in the new column was true, he was asked to give up the "music" column. Among the fans of the column was Harry Shearer, who would become a voice on The Simpsons. Life in Hell became popular immediately. In November 1984, Deborah Caplan, Groening's then-girlfriend and co-worker at the Reader, offered to publish "Love is Hell", a series of relationship-themed Life in Hell strips, in book form. Released a month the book was an underground success, selling 22,000 copies in its first two printin
Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by The Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox is available for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, BSD, illumos and Solaris operating systems, its sibling, Firefox for Android, is available. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards. In 2017, Firefox began incorporating new technology under the code name Quantum to promote parallelism and a more intuitive user interface. An additional version, Firefox for iOS, was released on November 12, 2015. Due to platform restrictions, it uses the WebKit layout engine instead of Gecko, as with all other iOS web browsers. Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename "Phoenix" by the Mozilla community members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suite bundle. During its beta phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed and add-ons compared to Microsoft's then-dominant Internet Explorer 6.
Firefox was released on November 9, 2004, challenged Internet Explorer's dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is the spiritual successor of Netscape Navigator, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL. Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009, with version 3.5 overtaking Internet Explorer 7, although not Internet Explorer as a whole. Usage declined in competition with Google Chrome; as of January 2019, Firefox has 9.5% usage share as a "desktop" browser, according to StatCounter, making it the second-most popular such web browser. Firefox is still the most popular desktop browser in a few countries including Cuba and Eritrea with 72.26% and 83.28% of the market share, respectively. According to Mozilla, in December 2014, there were half a billion Firefox users around the world; the project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt, Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser.
To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird; the community-driven SeaMonkey was formed and replaced the Mozilla Application Suite in 2005. The Firefox project has undergone several name changes, it was titled Phoenix, which carried the implication of the mythical firebird that rose triumphantly from the ashes of its dead predecessor, in this case from the "ashes" of Netscape Navigator after it had been killed off by Microsoft Internet Explorer in the "First Browser War". Phoenix was renamed due to trademark issues with Phoenix Technologies. In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser would always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion. After further pressure, on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox.
The name Firefox was said to be derived from a nickname of the red panda, which became the mascot for the newly named project. For the abbreviation of Firefox, Mozilla prefers Fx or fx, though it is abbreviated as FF; the Firefox project went through many versions before version 1.0 was released on November 9, 2004. In 2016, Mozilla announced a project known as Quantum, which sought to improve Firefox's Gecko engine and other components to improve Firefox's performance, modernize its architecture, transition the browser to a multi-process model; these improvements came in the wake of decreasing market share to Google Chrome, as well as concerns that its performance was lapsing in comparison. Despite its improvements, these changes required existing add-ons for Firefox to be made incompatible with newer versions, in favor of a new extension system, designed to be similar to Chrome and other recent browsers. Firefox 57, released in November 2017, was the first version to contain enhancements from Quantum, has thus been named Firefox Quantum.
Firefox supported add-ons using the XUL and XPCOM APIs, which allowed them to directly access and manipulate much of the browser's internal functionality. As they are not compatible with its m
SeaMonkey is a free and open-source Internet suite. It is the continuation of the former Mozilla Application Suite, based on the same source code, which itself grew out of Netscape Communicator and formed the base of Netscape 6 and Netscape 7. SeaMonkey was created in 2005 after the Mozilla Foundation decided to focus on standalone projects such as Firefox and Thunderbird; the development of SeaMonkey is community-driven, in contrast to the Mozilla Application Suite, which until its last released version was governed by the Mozilla Foundation. The new project-leading group is called the SeaMonkey Council. Compared to Firefox, the SeaMonkey web browser keeps the more traditional-looking interface of Netscape and the Mozilla Suite. Many XUL-based Firefox and Thunderbird add-ons can be modified for compatibility with SeaMonkey, although add-ons built with the WebExtensions architecture used by newer Firefox versions are not yet compatible. SeaMonkey consists of a web browser, a descendant of the Netscape family, an e-mail and news client program, an HTML editor ).
The software suite supports skins. It comes with two skins in the default installation and Classic. Recent versions do not include the IRC client. SeaMonkey Mail is a traditional e-mail client that includes support for multiple accounts, junk mail detection, message filters, HTML message support, address books, among other features, it shares code with Mozilla Thunderbird. SeaMonkey Composer is a WYSIWYG HTML editor, its main user interface features four tabs: Normal, HTML tags, HTML code, browser preview. The generated code is HTML 4.01 Transitional. SeaMonkey Composer is no longer maintained, but the underlying editor code is shared with the Mail component; the SeaMonkey project releases official builds for Linux, macOS, Windows. It releases “unofficial” x86-64 builds for Linux. To avoid confusing organizations that still want to use the original Mozilla Suite, the new product needed a new name. After initial speculation by members of the community, a July 2, 2005 announcement confirmed that SeaMonkey would become the name of the Internet suite superseding the Mozilla Suite.
"Seamonkey" refers to brine shrimp and had been used by Netscape and the Mozilla Foundation as a code name for the never-released "Netscape Communicator 5" and the Mozilla Suite itself. The name "Seamonkey" was derived by Netscape management to replace "Buttmonkey", which their developers had chosen following an internal contest for the codename.. The SeaMonkey Council has now trademarked the name with help from the Mozilla Foundation; the project uses a separate numbering scheme, with the first release being called SeaMonkey 1.0. Despite having a different name and version number, SeaMonkey 1.0 is based on the same code as Mozilla Suite 1.7. For trademark and copyright reasons, Debian rebranded SeaMonkey and distributed it as Iceape until 2013. On March 10, 2005, the Mozilla Foundation announced that it would not release any official versions of Mozilla Application Suite beyond 1.7.x, since it had now focused on the standalone applications Firefox and Thunderbird. However, the Foundation emphasized that it would still provide infrastructure for community members who wished to continue development.
In effect, this meant that the suite would still continue to be developed, but now by the SeaMonkey Council instead of the Mozilla Foundation. SeaMonkey was first released on September 15, 2005. SeaMonkey 1 was released on January 30, 2006. Core Mozilla project source code was licensed under a disjunctive tri-license that gave the choice of one of the three following sets of licensing terms: Mozilla Public License, version 1.1 or GNU General Public License, version 2.0 or GNU Lesser General Public License, version 2.1 or later. The SeaMonkey Council, the team responsible for project and release management consists of Philip Chee, Karsten Düsterloh, Jens Hatlak, Robert Kaiser, Ian Neal, Neil Rashbrook and Justin Wood. Parts of this table are based on the roadmap and the meeting notes. Old release Current release Current test release The SeaMonkey Project SeaMonkey Wiki
Rebranding is a marketing strategy in which a new name, symbol, design, or combination thereof is created for an established brand with the intention of developing a new, differentiated identity in the minds of consumers, investors and other stakeholders. This involves radical changes to a brand's logo, legal names, marketing strategy, advertising themes; such changes aim to reposition the brand/company to distance itself from negative connotations of the previous branding, or to move the brand upmarket. Rebranding can be applied to new products, mature products, or products still in development; the process can occur intentionally through a deliberate change in strategy or occur unintentionally from unplanned, emergent situations, such as a "Chapter 11 corporate restructuring," "union busting," or "bankruptcy." Rebranding can refer to a change in a company/ corporate brand that may own several sub-brands for products or companies. Rebranding has become something of a fad at the turn of the millennium, with some companies rebranding several times.
The rebranding of Philip Morris to Altria was done to help the company shed its negative image. Other rebrandings, such as the British Post Office's attempt to rebrand itself as Consignia, have proved such a failure that millions more had to be spent going back to square one. In a study of 165 cases of rebranding and Lambkin found that, whether a rebranding follows from corporate strategy or constitutes the actual marketing strategy, it aims at enhancing, transferring, and/or recreating the corporate brand equity. According to Sinclair, business the world over acknowledges the value of brands. “Brands, it seems, alongside ownership of copyright and trademarks, computer software and specialist know-how, are now at the heart of the intangible value investors place on companies.” As such, companies in the 21st century may find it necessary to relook their brand in terms of its relevancy to consumers and the changing marketplace. Successful rebranding projects can yield a brand better off than before.
Due to the tremendous impact that renaming and rebranding a company can have, it is critical to take the client through the process with great sensitivity and care. The new company identity and brand should be launched in a subtle and methodical manner in order to avoid alienating old customers, while aiming to attract new business prospects. There is no magic formula. However, there is a methodical process that involves careful strategy, memorable visuals and personal interactions, all of which must speak in unison for a customer to place full trust and invest their emotions in what is on offer. Marketing develops the awareness and associations in consumer memory so that customers know which brands best serve their needs. Once in a lead position, it is marketing, consistent product or service quality, sensible pricing and effective distribution that will keep the brand ahead of the pack and provide value to its owners. Corporations rebrand in order to respond to external and/or internal issues.
Firms have rebranding cycles in order to stay current with the times or set themselves ahead of the competition. Companies utilize rebranding as an effective marketing tool to hide malpractices of the past, thereby shedding negative connotations that could affect profitability. Corporations such as Citigroup, AOL, American Express, Goldman Sachs all utilize third-party vendors that specialize in brand strategy and the development of corporate identity. Companies invest valuable resources into rebranding and third-party vendors because it is a way to protect them from being blackballed by customers in a competitive market. Dr. Roger Sinclair, a leading expert on brand valuation and brand equity practice worldwide stated, “A brand is a resource acquired by an enterprise that generates future economic benefits.” Once a brand has negative connotations associated with it, it can only lead to decreased profitability and complete corporate failure. Companies differentiate themselves from competitors by incorporating practices from changing their logo to going green.
Differentiation from competitors is important in order to attract more customers and an effective way to draw in more desirable employees. The need to differentiate is prevalent in saturated markets such as the financial services industry. Organisations may rebrand intentionally to shed negative images of the past. Research suggests that "concern over external perceptions of the organisation and its activities" can function as a major driver in rebranding exercises. In a corporate context, managers can utilize rebranding as an effective marketing strategy to hide malpractices and avoid or shed negative connotations and decreased profitability. Corporations such as Philip Morris USA, Blackwater and AIG rebranded in order to shed negative images. Philip Morris USA rebranded its name and logo to Altria on January 27, 2003 due to the negative connotations associated with tobacco products that could have had potential to affect the profitability of other Philip Morris brands such as Kraft Foods. In 2008, AIG's image became damaged due to its need for a Federal bailout during the financial crisis.
AIG was bailed out because the United States Treasury stated that AIG was too big to fail due to its size and complex relationships with financial counterparties. AIG itself is a huge international firm; as a result, AIG Financial Advisors and AIG
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
A web browser is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual web page and video is identified by a distinct Uniform Resource Locator, enabling browsers to retrieve these resources from a web server and display them on the user's device. A web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are confused. For a user, a search engine is just a website, such as google.com, that stores searchable data about other websites. But to connect to a website's server and display its web pages, a user needs to have a web browser installed on their device; the most popular browsers are Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer, Edge. The first web browser, called WorldWideWeb, was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, he recruited Nicola Pellow to write the Line Mode Browser, which displayed web pages on dumb terminals. 1993 was a landmark year with the release of Mosaic, credited as "the world's first popular browser". Its innovative graphical interface made the World Wide Web system easy to use and thus more accessible to the average person.
This, in turn, sparked the Internet boom of the 1990s when the Web grew at a rapid rate. Marc Andreessen, the leader of the Mosaic team, soon started his own company, which released the Mosaic-influenced Netscape Navigator in 1994. Navigator became the most popular browser. Microsoft debuted Internet Explorer in 1995. Microsoft was able to gain a dominant position for two reasons: it bundled Internet Explorer with its popular Microsoft Windows operating system and did so as freeware with no restrictions on usage; the market share of Internet Explorer peaked at over 95% in 2002. In 1998, desperate to remain competitive, Netscape launched what would become the Mozilla Foundation to create a new browser using the open source software model; this work evolved into Firefox, first released by Mozilla in 2004. Firefox reached a 28% market share in 2011. Apple released its Safari browser in 2003, it remains the dominant browser on Apple platforms. The last major entrant to the browser market was Google, its Chrome browser, which debuted in 2008, has been a huge success.
Once a web page has been retrieved, the browser's rendering engine displays it on the user's device. This includes video formats supported by the browser. Web pages contain hyperlinks to other pages and resources; each link contains a URL, when it is clicked, the browser navigates to the new resource. Thus the process of bringing content to the user begins again. To implement all of this, modern browsers are a combination of numerous software components. Web browsers can be configured with a built-in menu. Depending on the browser, the menu may be named Options, or Preferences; the menu has different types of settings. For example, users can change their home default search engine, they can change default web page colors and fonts. Various network connectivity and privacy settings are usually available. During the course of browsing, cookies received from various websites are stored by the browser; some of them contain login credentials or site preferences. However, others are used for tracking user behavior over long periods of time, so browsers provide settings for removing cookies when exiting the browser.
Finer-grained management of cookies requires a browser extension. The most popular browsers have a number of features in common, they allow users to browse in a private mode. They can be customized with extensions, some of them provide a sync service. Most browsers have these user interface features: Allow the user to open multiple pages at the same time, either in different browser windows or in different tabs of the same window. Back and forward buttons to go back to the previous page forward to the next one. A refresh or reload button to reload the current page. A stop button to cancel loading the page. A home button to return to the user's home page. An address bar to display it. A search bar to input terms into a search engine. There are niche browsers with distinct features. One example is text-only browsers that can benefit people with slow Internet connections or those with visual impairments. Mobile browser List of web browsers Comparison of web browsers Media related to Web browsers at Wikimedia Commons
In computing, a plug-in is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program. When a program supports plug-ins, it enables customization. Web browsers have allowed executables as plug-ins, though they are now deprecated. Two plug-in examples are the Adobe Flash Player for playing videos and a Java virtual machine for running applets. A theme or skin is a preset package containing additional or changed graphical appearance details, achieved by the use of a graphical user interface that can be applied to specific software and websites to suit the purpose, topic, or tastes of different users to customize the look and feel of a piece of computer software or an operating system front-end GUI. Applications support plug-ins for many reasons; some of the main reasons include: to enable third-party developers to create abilities which extend an application to support adding new features to reduce the size of an application to separate source code from an application because of incompatible software licenses.
Types of applications and why they use plug-ins: Audio editors use plug-ins to generate, process or analyze sound. Ardour and Audacity are examples of such editors. Digital audio workstations use plug-ins to process it. Examples include ProTools. Email clients use plug-ins to encrypt email. Pretty Good Privacy is an example of such plug-ins. Video game console emulators use plug-ins to modularize the separate subsystems of the devices they seek to emulate. For example, the PCSX2 emulator makes use of video, optical, etc. plug-ins for those respective components of the PlayStation 2. Graphics software use plug-ins to support file formats and process images. Media players use plug-ins to apply filters. Foobar2000, GStreamer, Quintessential, VST, Winamp, XMMS are examples of such media players. Packet sniffers use plug-ins to decode packet formats. OmniPeek is an example of such packet sniffers. Remote sensing applications use plug-ins to process data from different sensor types. Text editors and Integrated development environments use plug-ins to support programming languages or enhance development process e.g. Visual Studio, RAD Studio, IntelliJ IDEA, jEdit and MonoDevelop support plug-ins.
Visual Studio itself can be plugged into other applications via Visual Studio Tools for Office and Visual Studio Tools for Applications. Web browsers have used executables as plug-ins, though they are now deprecated. Examples include Java SE, QuickTime, Microsoft Silverlight and Unity; the host application provides services which the plug-in can use, including a way for plug-ins to register themselves with the host application and a protocol for the exchange of data with plug-ins. Plug-ins depend on the services provided by the host application and do not work by themselves. Conversely, the host application operates independently of the plug-ins, making it possible for end-users to add and update plug-ins dynamically without needing to make changes to the host application. Programmers implement plug-in functionality using shared libraries, which get dynamically loaded at run time, installed in a place prescribed by the host application. HyperCard supported a similar facility, but more included the plug-in code in the HyperCard documents themselves.
Thus the HyperCard stack became a self-contained application in its own right, distributable as a single entity that end-users could run without the need for additional installation-steps. Programs may implement plugins by loading a directory of simple script files written in a scripting language like Python or Lua. In Mozilla Foundation definitions, the words "add-on", "extension" and "plug-in" are not synonyms. "Add-on" can refer to anything. Extensions comprise a subtype, albeit the most powerful one. Mozilla applications come with integrated add-on managers that, similar to package managers, install and manage extensions; the term, "Plug-in", however refers to NPAPI-based web content renderers. Plug-ins are being deprecated. Plug-ins appeared as early as the mid 1970s, when the EDT text editor running on the Unisys VS/9 operating system using the UNIVAC Series 90 mainframe computers provided the ability to run a program from the editor and to allow such a program to access the editor buffer, thus allowing an external program to access an edit session in memory.
The plug-in program could make calls to the editor to have it perform text-editing services upon the buffer that the editor shared with the plug-in. The Waterloo Fortran compiler used this feature to allow interactive compilation of Fortran programs edited by EDT. Early PC software applications to incorporate plug-in functionality included HyperCard and QuarkXPress on the Macintosh, both released in 1987. In 1988, Silicon Beach Software included plug-in functionality in Digital Darkroom and SuperPaint, Ed Bomke coined the term plug-in. Applet Browser extension