Shiretoko National Park
Shiretoko National Park covers most of the Shiretoko Peninsula at the northeastern tip of the island of Hokkaidō, Japan. The word "Shiretoko" is derived from an Ainu word "sir etok", meaning "the place where the earth protrudes". One of the most remote regions in Japan, much of the peninsula is only accessible on foot or by boat. Shiretoko is best known as the home of Japan's largest brown bear population and for offering views of Kunashiri Island, ownership of which Japan and Russia dispute; the park has a hot springs waterfall called Kamuiwakka Falls. Kamui wakka means "water of the gods" in Ainu; the forests of the park are subalpine mixed forests. Beyond the forest limit there are impenetrable Siberian dwarf pine thickets. In 2005, UNESCO designated the area a World Heritage Site, advising to develop the property jointly with the Kuril Islands of Russia as a transboundary "World Heritage Peace Park". Shiretoko's listing as Natural Heritage was seen by the Indigenous Ainu as contradicting the long history of Ainu settlement in the park area..
The Shiretoko Park Nature Center is in Shari. It serves as the visitor center and includes a movie about the park, a restaurant, a gift shop. Mount Rausu List of national parks of Japan List of World Heritage Sites in Japan Tourism in Japan https://web.archive.org/web/20120716190831/http://www.biodic.go.jp/english/jpark/np/siretoko_e.html Shiretoko Park Nature Center Shiretoko National Park travel guide from Wikivoyage
Cultural Property (Japan)
A Cultural Property is administered by the Japanese government's Agency for Cultural Affairs, includes tangible properties. Buried properties and conservation techniques are protected. Together these cultural properties are to be preserved and utilized as the heritage of the Japanese people. To protect Japan's cultural heritage, the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties contains a "designation system" under which selected important items are designated as Cultural Properties, which imposes restrictions on the alteration and export of such designated objects. Designation can occur at a prefectural or municipal level; as of 1 February 2012, there were 16,000 nationally designated, 21,000 prefecturally designated, 86,000 municipally designated properties. Besides the designation system there exists a "registration system", which guarantees a lower level of protection and support; the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties 1950 classifies items designated as Cultural Properties in the following categories: Tangible Cultural Properties are cultural products of high historical or artistic value whether structures, works of art, craft works, calligraphic works, ancient documents, archaeological materials, historic materials and other such items.
All objects which are not structures are termed "works of fine arts and crafts". Items designated Tangible Cultural Properties can if they satisfy certain criteria, be designated Important Cultural Properties of Japan or National Treasures for valuable items. Any alteration to Important Cultural Properties and National Treasures requires governmental permission and exportation is forbidden, except when authorized; the National Treasury supports the conservation and restoration of these items, the Commissioner for Cultural Affairs provides technical assistance for their administration, public display and other activities. Conservation work is performed by an item's owner, with financial support available for large expenses; because many items are made of wood and other flammable materials, they are extremely susceptible to fires. Owners are therefore given subsidies to install other disaster prevention systems; as of 1 February 2012, there were 12,816 Important Cultural Properties, of which one fifth were structures.
By class, there were 1,974 paintings. There were 49,793 at municipal level. Intangible Cultural Properties are cultural products of high historical or artistic value such as drama and craft techniques. Items of particular importance can be designated as Important Intangible Cultural Properties. Recognition is given to the'holders' of the necessary techniques, to encourage their transmission. There are three types of recognition: individual recognition, collective recognition, group recognition. Special grants of two million yen a year are given to individual holders to help protect these properties; the government contributes part of the expenses incurred either by the holder of the Intangible Cultural Property during training of his successor, or by a recognized group for public performances. To promote understanding, therefore the transmission across generations, of these Cultural Properties, exhibitions concerning them are organized; the government through the Japan Arts Council holds training workshops and other activities to educate future generations of noh and kabuki personnel.
As of 1 February 2012, there were 115 Important Intangible Cultural Properties and a further 167 designations at prefectural and 522 at municipal level. Folk Cultural Properties are items indispensable to understand the role and influence of tradition in the daily life of the Japanese, such as manners and customs related to food, work, religion. Folk Cultural Properties can be classified as Tangible. Intangible Folk Cultural Properties are items such as manners and customs related to food and housing, occupation and annual events. Clothes and implements, houses and other objects used together with Intangible Folk Cultural Properties are classified as Tangible Folk Cultural Properties. Folk Cultural Properties can if they satisfy certain criteria, be designated Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties or Important Intangible Folk Cultural Properties; the government subsidizes projects for the restoration, preservation, disaster prevention, etc. of Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties.
In the case of Important Intangible Folk Cultural Properties, public subsidies help local
The Bonin Islands known as the Ogasawara Islands, or, Yslas del Arzobispo, are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some 1,000 kilometres directly south of Tokyo, Japan. The name "Bonin Islands" comes from the Japanese word bunin, meaning "no people" or "uninhabited"; the only inhabited islands of the group are Chichijima, the seat of the municipal government, Hahajima. Ogasawara Municipality and Ogasawara Subprefecture take their names from the Ogasawara Group. Ogasawara Archipelago is used as a wider collective term that includes other islands in Ogasawara Municipality, such as the Volcano Islands, along with three other remote islands. Geographically speaking, all of these islands are part of the Nanpō Islands. A total population of 2,440, 2,000 on Chichijima and 440 on Hahajima, lives in the Ogasawara Group, which has a total area of 84 square kilometres; because the Ogasawara Islands have never been connected to a continent, many of their animals and plants have undergone unique evolutionary processes.
This has led to the islands' nickname of "The Galápagos of the Orient", their nomination as a natural World Heritage Site on June 24, 2011. The giant squid was photographed off the Ogasawara Islands for the first time in the wild on 30 September 2004, was filmed alive in December 2006. A 25-meter-diameter radio telescope is located in Chichijima, one of the stations of the very-long-baseline interferometry Exploration of Radio Astrometry project, is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the Bonin Islands consist of three subgroups, which are listed below along with their main islands: Muko-jima Group – Parry Group: Muko-jima. Geographically, they are not traditionally considered part of the Bonin Islands, which are the Mukojima and Hahajima island clusters. In other words, the historical range of the Bonin Islands is not the precise equivalent of the Japanese governmental unit; the Bonin Islands is a geographical term excluding the other islands which are today associated within the boundaries of a collective term, Ogasawara Shotō.
Prehistoric tools and carved stones, discovered on North Iwo Jima at the end of the 20th century, as well as stone tools discovered on Chichi-jima, indicate the islands might have been populated in ancient times. The first recorded visit by Europeans to the islands happened on 2 October 1543, when the Spanish explorer Bernardo de la Torre on the San Juan sighted Haha-jima, which he charted as Forfana. At that time, the islands were not populated. Japanese discovery of the islands occurred in Kanbun 10 and was followed by a shogunate expedition in Enpō 3; the islands were referred to as Bunin jima "the uninhabited islands". Shimaya Ichizaemon, the explorer at the order of the shogunate, inventoried several species of trees and birds, but after his expedition, the shogunate abandoned any plans to develop the remote islands. In 1727, Ogasawara Sadatō, a rōnin, claimed that the islands were discovered by his ancestor Ogasawara Sadayori, in 1593, the territory was granted as a fief by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
However, investigation of the claim found that it was a fraud and the existence of Sadayori was doubtful. The first published description of the islands in the West was brought to Europe by Isaac Titsingh in 1796, his small library of Japanese books included Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu by Hayashi Shihei. This book, published in Japan in 1785 described the Ogasawara Islands; these groups were collectively called Islas del Arzobispo in Spanish sources of the 18th–19th century. This name is most due to an expedition organized by the Arzobispo Pedro Moya de Contreras, Viceroy of New Spain, to explore the northern Pacific and the islands of Japan, its main objective was to find the long sought and legendary islands of Rica de Oro, Rica de Plata and the Islas del Armenio. After several years of planning and frustrated attempts the expedition set sail on 12 July 1587 c
A hierarchy is an arrangement of items in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarchy is an important concept in a wide variety of fields, such as philosophy, computer science, organizational theory, systems theory, the social sciences. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, either vertically or diagonally; the only direct links in a hierarchy, insofar as they are hierarchical, are to one's immediate superior or to one of one's subordinates, although a system, hierarchical can incorporate alternative hierarchies. Hierarchical links can extend "vertically" upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path. All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another can be "horizontally" linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find a common direct or indirect superior, down again; this is akin to colleagues. Organizational forms exist that are both complementary to hierarchy.
Heterarchy is one such form. Hierarchies have their own special vocabulary; these terms are easiest to understand. In an organizational context, the following terms are used related to hierarchies: Object: one entity System: the entire set of objects that are being arranged hierarchically Dimension: another word for "system" from on-line analytical processing Member: an at any in a Terms about Positioning Rank: the relative value, complexity, importance, level etc. of an object Level or Tier: a set of objects with the same rank OR importance Ordering: the arrangement of the Hierarchy: the arrangement of a particular set of members into. Multiple hierarchies are possible per, in which selected levels of the dimension are omitted to flatten the structure Terms about Placement Hierarch, the apex of the hierarchy, consisting of one single orphan in the top level of a dimension; the root of an inverted-tree structure Member, a in any level of a hierarchy in a dimension to which members are attached Orphan, a member in any level of a dimension without a parent member.
The apex of a disconnected branch. Orphans can be grafted back into the hierarchy by creating a relationship with a parent in the superior level Leaf, a member in any level of a dimension without subordinates in the hierarchy Neighbour: a member adjacent to another member in the same. Always a peer. Superior: a higher level or an object ranked at a higher level Subordinate: a lower level or an object ranked at a lower level Collection: all of the objects at one level Peer: an object with the same rank Interaction: the relationship between an object and its direct superior or subordinate a direct interaction occurs when one object is on a level one higher or one lower than the other Distance: the minimum number of connections between two objects, i.e. one less than the number of objects that need to be "crossed" to trace a path from one object to another Span: a qualitative description of the width of a level when diagrammed, i.e. the number of subordinates an object has Terms about Nature Attribute: a heritable characteristic of in a level Attribute-value: the specific value of a heritable characteristic In a mathematical context, the general terminology used is different.
Most hierarchies use a more specific vocabulary pertaining to their subject, but the idea behind them is the same. For example, with data structures, objects are known as nodes, superiors are called parents and subordinates are called children. In a business setting, a superior is a supervisor/boss and a peer is a colleague. Degree of branching refers to the number of direct subordinates or children an object has a node has. Hierarchies can be categorized based on the "maximum degree", the highest degree present in the system as a whole. Categorization in this way yields two broad classes: branching. In a linear hierarchy, the maximum degree is 1. In other words, all of the objects can be visualized in a line-up, each object has one direct subordinate and one direct superior. Note that this is referring to the objects and not the levels. An example of a linear hierarchy is the hierarchy of life. In a branching hierarchy, one or more objects has a degree of 2 or more. For many people, the word "hierarchy" automatically evokes an image of a branching hierarchy.
Branching hierarchies are present within numerous systems, including organizations and classification schemes. The broad category of branching hierarchies can be furt
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement is a World Heritage Site consisting of a selection of 17 building projects by the Franco-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. These sites demonstrate how Modernism was applied to construction and show the global range of a style and an architect; the Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement / UNESCO Official Website Association des sites Le Corbusier The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier: An Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement at Fondation Le Corbusier website
Osaka Bay is a bay in western Japan. As an eastern part of the Inland Sea, it is separated from the Pacific Ocean by the Kii Channel and from the neighbor western part of the Inland Sea by the Akashi Strait, its western shore is formed by Awaji Island, its northern and eastern shores are part of the Kansai metropolitan area. Major ports on Osaka Bay include Osaka, Nishinomiya, Sakai and Hannan. A number of artificial islands have been created in Osaka Bay in past decades, including Kansai International Airport, Kobe Airport, Port Island, Rokkō Island. Several islands at the south end of Osaka Bay are part of the Seto Inland Sea National Park. Industries locate around Osaka Bay because there is a skilled and plentiful workforce, many port facilities, efficient linkages. There are good transport links, room for expansion, a large local market. In a recent economic change in Osaka Bay, older'heavy' industries such as Nippon Steel have declined, and'new tech' companies such as ICT have expanded. There has been a growth in the quaternary industries — research and information.
There has been a development in the science parks and the building of new motorways. The Tempozan Ferris Wheel and Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan are both located in the Tempozan Harbor Village area of Osaka. Port of Kobe Port of Osaka Kansai International Airport Kobe Airport