Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Helen Dallimore is an Australian actress, known for originating the role of Glinda in the West End production of Wicked. Dallimore grew up in Oxford and Sydney, Australia, she trained at the National Institute of Dramatic Art in Sydney, graduating in 1995. She was awarded a Mike Walsh Fellowship in 2002. Dallimore's parents are academics and she has one brother. Dallimore's credits with the Sydney Theatre Company include: David Edgar's Pentecost, The Unlikely Prospect of Happiness, Andrew Upton and Gale Edwards' The Hanging Man, "Miss Adelaide" in Guys and Dolls, she created the role of "Simone" in Up for Grabs played by Madonna in the West End. She made her West End debut as Glinda in the original London cast of the musical Wicked. Previews began on 7 September 2006 with an opening night of 27 September, she starred alongside Idina Menzel and Kerry Ellis as Elphaba. She was replaced by Dianne Pilkington, she declined. She appeared in the comedy Boeing Boeing in Australia and filled in for a sick cast member in the Sydney 2008 Wharf Revue.
In July/August 2009 she starred in the ill-fated Ernest Hemingway musical Too Close to the Sun at the West End's Comedy Theatre. She went on to appear in the 2009 Wharf Revue in Sydney, followed by the Australian production of Spring Awakening with the Sydney Theatre Company in February/March 2010. Dallimore played Cinderella in the London Open Air Theatre production of Into the Woods, which ran from 6 August – 11 September 2010. In 2012, she originated the role of Paulette Bonafonte in the Australian premiere of Legally Blonde The Musical. For this role, she won the 2013 Helpmann Award for Best Female Actor in a Supporting Role in a Musical. Dallimore starred as Mrs Johnstone in the Australian revival of Blood Brothers in Sydney and Melbourne, was nominated for a Helpmann Award for her performance, she would go on to win a Colleen Clifford Memorial Award for Best Actor in a Music Theatre at the 2015 Glug Awards. Dallimore's film and television work includes Mr. Accident, Mumbo Jumbo, Kangaroo Jack, The Day of the Roses and The Extra.
She featured alongside Glenn Close and Harry Connick, Jr. in the 2001 television remake of the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, South Pacific. She appeared in an episode of the UK television crime drama Midsomer Murders entitled Last Year's Model. Dallimore worked for children's television and provided the voice of Panda in the popular children's TV series Magic Mountain for ABC TV, she appears in the 2009 sketch comedy television series Double Take. She has appeared in a series of TV commercials for All-Bran cereal featuring fellow actress and comedian Julia Morris. In the summer of 2010, Helen appeared in Home and Away as Mitzi, a friend of Marilyn Chambers, a psychic who arrived in Summer Bay, reminding Marilyn of her "end date". Mitzy revealed to Marilyn that she was dying of lung cancer. A second tumour travelled to her brain and she died of a stroke brought on by an argument with Marilyn. Helen Dallimore on IMDb
Animal Logic is an Australian animation and visual effects digital studio based at Fox Studios in Sydney, Vancouver in Canada, Rideback Ranch in Los Angeles, California. Established in 1991, Animal Logic has produced visual effects and animation for feature films such as the Academy Award-winning Happy Feet, Legend of the Guardians: The Owls of Ga'Hoole, Walking with Dinosaurs 3D, The Lego Movie and Peter Rabbit; the company was recognized for its work as lead visual effects vendor on Baz Luhrmann’s The Great Gatsby, which won Outstanding Achievement in Visual Effects at the 3rd AACTA Awards ceremony. In 2018, Peter Rabbit was presented with a range of accolades, including the AACTA Award for Best Visual Effects or Animation, Australian Production Design Guild Awards in Visual Effects Design and Drawing, Concept Illustration & Concept Models for Screen. Most the company has produced work for the Warner Animation Group's The Lego Movie 2: The Second Part and Marvel Studios' Captain Marvel. Animal Logic's core business was the design and production of high-end visual effects for commercials and television programs, early success within these fields provided a platform for expansion into feature film work.
Animal Logic went on to produce visual effects for many large budget feature film projects, including Babe, Babe: Pig in the City, The Matrix, Moulin Rouge!, House of Flying Daggers, Planet of the Apes, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, World Trade Center, Fool's Gold, 300, Australia, Sucker Punch, The Great Gatsby, more. In 1991, Zareh Nalbandian and Chris Godfrey formed and founded a digital studio in Crows Nest, Australia; the company was born out of the now defunct Video Paint Brush Company. Animal Logic moved to Fox Studios Australia in Moore Park, Sydney, in 1998. In 2002, Animal Logic began work on its first computer-animated feature film, the Academy Award-winning Happy Feet, for director George Miller. Released in the United States on 17 November 2006, the project saw the company expand recruiting up to 300 artists and technicians from Australia and around the world. Happy Feet, the first computer animated feature film produced in Australia, went on to win the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature as well as the inaugural BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film.
Their full-length feature animation, Legend of the Guardians: The Owls of Ga'Hoole, was released on 24 September 2010 and was Australia's first animated feature to be released in 3D stereoscopic. From 2004 to 2007, the company produced bumpers for Cartoon Network. In 2011, the company produced and animated LEGO Star Wars: The Padawan Menace, a 30-minute TV special. Produced for Lucasfilm and Cartoon Network, the special premiered in the United States on cartoon Network and was followed by a worldwide DVD and Blu-ray release. In 2012, Animal Logic acquired the assets of fellow Australian visual effects studio Fuel VFX, known for their work on feature films such as Iron Man 3, The Avengers, Mission: Impossible: Ghost Protocol, Cowboys & Aliens, Captain America: The First Avenger and Thor. Fuel VFX was nominated for a Visual Effects Society Award and a BAFTA Award for Best Special Visual Effects for their work on Prometheus. 2012 saw the release of the Animal Logic-animated "Polar Bowl" campaign, consisting of a 60-second and two 30-second commercials that aired at halftime at the Super Bowl XLVI.
The campaign aimed to re-launch the iconic Coca-Cola polar bear characters to a new generation. Following the success of the 3 spots, which were viewed by over 160 million people globally, the company went on to animate a 6-minute short film directed by John Stevenson to headline Coca-Cola's 2013 global campaign; the film was first released through YouTube in December 2012, followed by a worldwide international cinema release. In 2013, the company led animation and visual effects work on BBC Earth and Evergreen Films' 3D live action feature Walking with Dinosaurs 3D, In 2014, Animal Logic provided animation services for the 2014 film The Lego Movie, produced by the Warner Animation Group and directed by Phil Lord and Christopher Miller. After the film's huge success, the company was split into three subsidiaries operating under the Animal Logic's group: Animal Logic Animation, Animal Logic VFX, Animal Logic Entertainment, a Los Angeles-based arm tasked with developing animated, VFX and hybrid feature films for the company.
The following year, the company opened a 45,000 square feet facility in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The new studio produced work for The Lego Movie 2: The Second Part, the first in a three-film deal with Warner Bros. all of which will be developed in Canada. Official website Animal Logic on IMDb
United Artists Corporation doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American film and television entertainment studio. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, the studio was premised on allowing actors to control their own interests, rather than being dependent upon commercial studios. UA was bought and restructured over the ensuing century; the current United Artists company exists as a successor to the original. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer acquired the studio in 1981 for a reported $350 million. On September 22, 2014, MGM acquired a controlling interest in Mark Burnett and Roma Downey's entertainment companies One Three Media and Lightworkers Media merged them to revive United Artists' TV production unit as United Artists Media Group. However, on December 14 of the following year, MGM wholly acquired UAMG and folded it into MGM Television. UA was revived yet again in 2018 as United Artists Digital Studios. Mirror, the joint distribution venture between MGM and Annapurna Pictures was renamed as United Artists Releasing in early February 2019 just in time for UA's 100th anniversary.
Pickford, Chaplin and Griffith incorporated UA as a joint venture on February 5, 1919. Each held a 25 percent stake in the preferred shares and a 20 percent stake in the common shares of the joint venture, with the remaining 20 percent of common shares held by lawyer and advisor William Gibbs McAdoo; the idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier. Hollywood veterans, the four stars talked of forming their own company to better control their own work, they were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over actor salaries and creative decisions, a process that evolved into the studio system. With the addition of Griffith, planning began; when he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures said, "The inmates are taking over the asylum." The four partners, with advice from McAdoo, formed their distribution company. Hiram Abrams was its first managing director, the company established its headquarters at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.
The original terms called for each star to produce five pictures a year. By the time the company was operational in 1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and polished, running times had settled at around ninety minutes; the original goal was thus abandoned. UA's first film, His Majesty, the American, written by and starring Fairbanks, was a success. Funding for movies was limited. Without selling stock to the public like other studios, all United had for finance was weekly prepayment installments from theater owners for upcoming movies; as a result, production was slow, the company distributed an average of only five films a year in its first five years. By 1924, Griffith had dropped out, the company was facing a crisis. Veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president, he had produced pictures for a decade, brought commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton. Contracts were signed with independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes.
In 1933, Schenck organized a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, called Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year, forming half of UA's schedule. Schenck formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name, they began international operations, first in Canada, in Mexico. By the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries; when he was denied an ownership share in 1935, Schenck resigned. He set up 20th Century Pictures' merger with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century Fox. Al Lichtman succeeded Schenck as company president. Other independent producers distributed through United Artists in the 1930s including Walt Disney Productions, Alexander Korda, Hal Roach, David O. Selznick, Walter Wanger; as the years passed, the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away. Samuel Goldwyn Productions and Disney went to Wanger to Universal Pictures. In the late 1930s, UA turned a profit.
Goldwyn was providing most of the output for distribution. He sued United several times for disputed compensation leading him to leave. MGM's 1939 hit Gone with the Wind was supposed to be a UA release except that Selznick wanted Clark Gable, under contract to MGM, to play Rhett Butler; that year, Fairbanks died. UA became embroiled in lawsuits with Selznick over his distribution of some films through RKO. Selznick considered UA's operation sloppy, left to start his own distribution arm. In the 1940s, United Artists was losing money because of poorly received pictures. Cinema attendance continued to decline; the company sold its Mexican releasing division to Crédito Cinematográfico Mexicano, a local company. In 1941, Chaplin, Orson Welles, Selznick, Alexander Korda, Wanger—many of whom were members of United Artists--formed the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers. Members included Hunt Stromberg, William Cagney, Sol L
Cinema of Australia
The Australian film industry has its beginnings with the 1906 production of The Story of the Kelly Gang, the earliest feature film made. Since many films have been produced in Australia, a number of which have received international recognition. Many actors and filmmakers started their careers in Australian films, a large number of whom have acquired international reputations, a number of whom have found greater financial benefits in careers in larger film producing centres, such as in the United States; the first public screenings of films in Australia were in October 1896, within a year of the world's first screening in Paris by Lumière brothers. The first Australian exhibition took place at the Athenaeum Hall in Collins Street, Melbourne, to provide alternative entertainment for the dance hall patrons; the venue would continue screenings, but these were all Commercially successful Australian films have included: Crocodile Dundee, Baz Luhrmann's Moulin Rouge!, Chris Noonan's Babe. Other award-winning productions include Picnic at Hanging Rock, The Tracker and Ten Canoes.
Australian actors of renown include Errol Flynn, Peter Finch, Rod Taylor, Paul Hogan, Jack Thompson, Bryan Brown, Judy Davis, Jacki Weaver, Geoffrey Rush, Mel Gibson, Hugo Weaving, Russell Crowe, Nicole Kidman, Eric Bana, Guy Pearce, Naomi Watts, Hugh Jackman, Cate Blanchett, Ben Mendelsohn, Toni Collette, Sam Worthington, Heath Ledger, Abbie Cornish, Chris Hemsworth, Ruby Rose, Mia Wasikowska and Margot Robbie. The Australian film history has been characterized as one of'boom and bust' due to the unstable and cyclical nature of its industry; the Athanaeum Hall in Collins Street, was a dance hall from the 1880s, which from time to time would provide alternative entertainment to patrons. In October 1896, it exhibited the first movie shown in Australia, within a year of the first public screening of a film in Paris on 28 December 1895 by the French Lumière brothers; the Athanaeum would continue screenings. The earliest feature length narrative film in the world was the Australian produced The Story of the Kelly Gang shown at the Athenaeum.
The film included several of his family. The film was exhibited in the United Kingdom, was commercially successful. Melbourne was home of one of the world's first film studios, the Limelight Department, operated by The Salvation Army between 1897 and 1910; the Limelight Department produced evangelical material for use by the Salvation Army, as well as private and government contracts. In its 19 years of operation, the Limelight Department produced about 300 films of various lengths, making it the largest film producer of its time; the major innovation of the Limelight Department came in 1899 when Herbert Booth and Joseph Perry began work on Soldiers of the Cross, described by some as the first feature-length film produced. Soldiers of the Cross fortified the Limelight Department as a major player in the early film industry; the Limelight Department was commissioned to film the Federation of Australia. The 1910s was a "boom" period in Australian cinema, it began in the 1900s, 1910 saw 4 narrative films released 51 in 1911, 30 in 1912, 17 in 1913, back to 4 in 1914, when the beginning of World War I brought an end to film making.
While these numbers may seem small, Australia was one of the most prolific film-producing countries at the time. In all, between 1906 and 1928, 150 narrative feature films were made, of which 90 were made between 1910 and 1912. There was a general consolidation in the early 1910s in the production and exhibition of films in Australia which saw by 1912 the merger of numerous independent producers into Australasian Films and Union Theaters which established control over film distributors and cinemas and required smaller producers to deal with the cartel; some view the arrangement as opening the way for American distributors in the 1920s to sign exclusive deals with Australian cinemas to exhibit only their products, thereby shutting out the local product and crippling the local film industry. There are various other explanations for the decline of the industry in the 1920s; some historians point to falling audience numbers, a lack of interest in Australian product and narratives, Australia's participation in the war.
There was an official ban on bushranger films in 1912. With the suspension of local film production, Australian cinema chains sought alternative products in the United States and realised that Australian-produced films were much more expensive than the imported product, which were priced cheaply as production expenses had been recouped in the home market. To redress this imbalance, the federal government imposed a tax on imported film in 1914, but this was removed by 1918. Whatever the explanation, by 1923, American films dominated the Australian market with 94% of all exhibited films coming from that country. In 1930, F. W. Thring established the Efftee Studios based in Melbourne to make talking films using optical sound equipment imported from the USA; the first sound films produced were in 1931, when the company produced Diggers, A Co-respondent's Course, The Haunted Barn and The Sentimental Bloke. During the five years of its existence, Efftee produced nine features, over 80 shorts and several stage productions.
Notable collaborators included George Wallace and Frank Harvey. Film production continued only until 1934, when it ceased as a protest over the refusal of the Australian government to set Australian film quotas, followed soon by
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, California. MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis B. Mayer Pictures. In 1971, it was announced that MGM was to merge with 20th Century Fox, but the plan never came to fruition. Over the next 39 years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the executives of Spyglass Entertainment, Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum, became co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as of 2017, MGM co-produces, co-finances, co-distributes a majority of its films with Sony Pictures, Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros.
MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "MGM", was created in 1973 as a division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The company was spun out in 1979, with the studio's owner Kirk Kerkorian maintaining a large share, but it ended all affiliation with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1986. MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood. Always slow to respond to the changing legal and demographic nature of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 1960s, although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios. Three years an unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio to produce low-budget fare, shut down theatrical distribution in 1973.
The studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise, it incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production. The studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself; the series of deals left MGM more in debt. MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio; the French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor took control of MGM. More in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, Australia's Seven Network in 1996.
The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGM's ability to survive as a separate motion picture studio. After a bidding war which included Time Warner and General Electric, MGM was acquired on September 23, 2004, by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation of America, Texas Pacific Group, Providence Equity Partners, other investors. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem, he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, 1924. Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production.
MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years. In 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. In 1925, MGM, Paramount Pictures and UFA formed a joint German distributor, Parufamet; when Samuel Goldwyn left he sued over the use of his name. Marcus Loew died in 1927, control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along, the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two men.
From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies and Thalberg began at once