Pharrell Lanscilo Williams is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer and fashion designer. Williams and Chad Hugo comprise the record production duo The Neptunes, producing hip hop and R&B music, he is the lead vocalist of the band N*E*R*D, that he formed with Hugo and childhood friend, Shay Haley. He released his first solo single, "Frontin'", in 2003 and followed up with his debut solo album, In My Mind, in 2006, his second album, was released in March 2014 and included the commercially successful single, "Happy". As part of the Neptunes, Williams has produced numerous singles for various recording artists. Williams has earned ten Grammy Awards including two with the Neptunes, he is a two-time Academy Award nominee, receiving a 2014 Best Original Song nomination for "Happy" and a 2017 Best Picture nomination as one of the producers of Hidden Figures. Williams owns I Am Other, a multimedia creative collective that serves as an umbrella for all of Pharrell Williams' endeavors, including Billionaire Boys Club.
Williams was born on April 5, 1973, in Virginia Beach, the oldest of three sons of Pharaoh Williams, a handyman, his wife Carolyn, a teacher. His roots extend for generations in Virginia and North Carolina, one of his ancestors journeyed to West Africa in 1831, prompting other relatives to emigrate from America to Liberia in 1832, he met Chad Hugo in a seventh-grade summer band camp where Williams played the keyboards and drums and Hugo played tenor saxophone. They were both members of a marching band. Williams and Hugo attended Princess Anne High School. Hugo attended Kempsville High School. In the MTV show When I Was 17, Pharrell stated that he was a nerd and did things that made him stand out from most of his peers. Williams attended Northwestern University for two years before dropping out. In the early 1990s, Hugo and Williams formed a four-piece "R&B-type" group, the Neptunes, with friends Shay Haley and Mike Etheridge, they entered a high school talent show where they were discovered by Teddy Riley, whose studio was next to Princess Anne High School.
After graduating from high school, the group signed with Riley. Through working with Riley, Williams went on to write a verse and help produce for Wreckx-N-Effect's 1992 hit "Rump Shaker"; that same year, he performed a small rap solo on SWV's second hit, "Right Here". Williams and Hugo met rap duo Clipse in Virginia Beach in 1993, where they were signed to Arista Records through Williams' Star Trak Entertainment imprint. In 1994, Hugo and Williams had established themselves as a production duo under their old name "The Neptunes", assistant-produced "Tonight's The Night" from Blackstreet's self-titled album. Over the next three years they continued to produce and some of the results had little resemblance to the Neptunes' sound later. However, some like Mase's 1997 song "Lookin' at Me" from his album Harlem World, the most definite beginning of the distinctive "Neptunes sound", came with N. O. R. E's "Superthug" in 1998, reaching number 36 on the Billboard Hot 100, gaining them widespread attention for the first time.
In 1999, a mutual friend introduced Williams to Kelis, their resulting collaboration produced her first album Kaleidoscope. At this point the Neptunes were gaining a wide audience. In 2000, they produced the song I Just Wanna Love U for Jay Z's album The Dynasty: Roc La Familia, which released as the album's first single; the song's sound and success sparked the interest of maturing pop artist Britney Spears. Britney wanted to work with the Neptunes for her upcoming album, saying "for this album I was inspired by Jay-Z and The Neptunes, those were the two people I listened to."In 2001, Britney Spears released her album Britney featuring the lead single "I'm a Slave 4 U", produced by The Neptunes. The song was a defining hit in both of their careers, it was The Neptunes' first time having helped create an album that debuted number one in the Billboard 200; the same year, N*E*R*D, consisting of Williams and Haley, released their first album, In Search of... in Europe, where the first Kelis album was better received.
The album sounded much like their previous production work. In 2002 their re-produced album was released worldwide, the Neptunes reached number one in the U. S. with Nelly's single, "Hot in Herre". In August of the same year, the Neptunes were named "Producers of the Year" at both the Source Awards and the Billboard Music Awards. Clipse released their commercial debut album Lord Willin' in August 2002; the album started at number one on the Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart and number four on the Billboard 200, fueled by its first two singles, "Grindin'" and "When the Last Time", which peaked at number 34 and number 19 on the Billboard Hot 100. The Neptunes released a self-credited album called The Neptunes Present... Clones in 2003, with songs and remixes from various artists; this topped the U. S. Billboard 200 Albums Chart; the Neptunes and Williams were kept in public eye due to ties with Jay Z, producing several hit singles for him and two tracks on his The Black Album. The track "Frontin'" was a big hit.
A survey in August 2003 found the Neptunes produced 20 percent of songs played on British radio at the time, a survey in the US had them at 43
The Neptunes are an American production duo, composed of Pharrell Williams and Chad Hugo. The Neptunes' sound is a distinctive brand of off-kilter, stripped-down electronic funk with sounds from Middle Eastern and Asian music including percussion and woodwind. Pharrell provides additional vocals and raps on records as well as appears in music videos, unlike Hugo, who tends to stay behind the scenes. Before gaining success and forming The Neptunes and Hugo along with local producer Timbaland and rapper Magoo formed a group "Surrounded by Idiots" in the early'90s, but disbanded before recording together. Timbaland & Magoo emerged as a hip hop duo collaborating with The Neptunes; the Neptunes are estimated to have a net worth of $160 million and are considered one of the most successful producers in music history, noted by twenty-four Billboard Hot 100 top 10 hits during the late 1990s and 2000s. In 2009, Billboard ranked The Neptunes number one on their list of the top 10 producers of the decade.
Pharrell and Chad met at a summer camp for the school of The Gifted and Talented in Virginia Beach, where Williams was a drummer and Hugo played tenor saxophone. They were both members of a marching band. In 1990 Chad and Pharrell formed a 4-piece "R&B type" group along with friends Shay and Mike Etheridge, which they named The Neptunes. Upon entering a local talent contest, they were discovered by Teddy Riley, whose studio was close to Pharrell's school. After graduating from high school, they signed with Riley as a group. Through working with Riley, Pharrell went on to write a verse for Wreckx-N-Effect's 1992 #2 Billboard Hot 100 hit "Rump Shaker". In 1994, Hugo and Williams had established themselves formally as a production duo under the used name "The Neptunes", assistant-produced "Tonight's The Night" from Teddy Riley's group BLACKstreet's self-titled debut. Over the next three years they continued to produce occasionally; some of the production, such as for SWV and Total, had little resemblance to what would become their distinctive sound, while other songs such as Mase's 1998 No.8 Billboard Hot 100 hit "Lookin' at Me" showed clear signs the Neptunes sound was developing.
Their first major production hit, the most clear beginning of the distinctive Neptunes sound, came with N. O. R. E.'s "Superthug" in 1998, reaching #36 on the Billboard Hot 100, gaining them widespread attention for the first time. The duo went on to work with Kelis, producing her first album Kaleidoscope, the duo's first full album production and Ol' Dirty Bastard's record "Got Your Money", on which Kelis is featured, they achieved huge commercial success with tracks like Jay-Z's "I Just Wanna Love U", Mystikal's "Shake Ya Ass", then-newly renamed Diddy's single "D. I. D. D. Y". Other notable hits during their commercial rise were Busta Rhymes' "Pass the Courvoisier, Part II”, Usher's "U Don't Have to Call" and Foxy Brown’s “Candy”. Kelis was one of several artists whose careers Williams have helped launch, they have helped re-launch the careers of Snoop Dogg, Robin Thicke and Mystikal. In 2001, The Neptunes gained their first worldwide hit with Britney Spears' single, "I'm A Slave 4 U", which reached #1 in several countries in Europe and South America.
The following year they reached #1 in the U. S. with Nelly's single, "Hot in Herre". In August of the same year, The Neptunes were named "Producers of the Year" at both The Source Awards and the Billboard Music Awards. In 2003, they released a self-credited album called The Neptunes Present... Clones, featuring songs and remixes from various Star Trak artists; this album topped the US Billboard 200 Albums Chart. The Neptunes went home with two Grammy Awards in 2004, one for "Producer of the Year, Non-Classical", another for "Best Pop Vocal Album" for their work on Justin Timberlake's No.2 Billboard hit Justified. They gained their first UK #1, again with Nelly, Flap Your Wings. Their'sound' is synthesizer riffs, sampling keyboard and modules; the Neptunes sound was first heard on Noreaga's 1998 track "Superthug". Although not their first production, the song became known as an example for the "Neptunes Sound". Another example of the Neptunes Sound is their remix of the Daft Punk song "Harder, Faster, Stronger".
The song was released on Daft Punk's remix album, Daft Club, released internationally on December 3, 2003 and in the U. S. on January 27, 2004. A Neptunes production is characterized by flat, punchy drum machine sounds and the use of module presets. "Grindin'" was a drum track that paid tribute to Eric B. & Rakim's song of the same nature, "My Melody". Justin Timberlake's "Like I Love You" paid tribute to the drums of the funk era, where the loop consisted of various snare sounds. On Busta Rhymes' "Light Yo Ass On Fire" they used a heavy chorus effect on the rhythm track suggesting an industrial or robotic theme, they have used the popular Roland TR-808 drum sound on such songs as LL Cool J's and Jamie Foxx's collaboration "Best Dress" but production work introduced'live' drum sounds similar to the ones they would use under their N*E*R*D guise. Both The Neptunes and Pharrell as a solo producer are well known for their extensive use of percussion other than drums. Examples of Pharrell's use of percussion are in Robin Thicke's 2013 hit "Blurred Lines" on which he featured with rapper T.
I. and Get Like Me by Nelly, which featured Nicki Minaj and himself. The Neptunes' engineer, in an interview with Sound on Sound magazine, revealed many o
Outkast was an American hip hop duo formed in 1992 in East Point, composed of Atlanta-based rappers André "André 3000" Benjamin and Antwan "Big Boi" Patton. The duo achieved both critical acclaim and commercial success from the mid-1990s to the early 2000s, helping to popularize Southern hip hop while experimenting with diverse genres such as funk, psychedelia and techno. Benjamin and Patton formed the group as high school students in 1992. Outkast released their debut album Southernplayalisticadillacmuzik in 1994, which gained popularity after the single "Player's Ball" reached number one on the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks chart. With successive releases including ATLiens and Aquemini, the duo further developed their sound, experimenting with a variety of styles and achieving commercial success. In 2000, Outkast released the critically acclaimed Stankonia, which included the singles "Ms. Jackson" and "B. O. B." In September 2003, the duo released the double album Speakerboxxx/The Love Below, which featured the number one singles "Hey Ya!" and "The Way You Move."
The album would win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year and was certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America. Outkast next released the soundtrack for the 2006 musical film Idlewild, which they starred in. In 2007, the duo went on hiatus and both members have since pursued solo careers. In 2014, Outkast reunited to celebrate their 20th anniversary by performing at more than 40 festivals worldwide, beginning at the Coachella Festival in April; the duo is one of the most successful hip-hop groups of all time. Between six studio albums and a greatest hits release, Outkast has sold over 25 million records. Meanwhile, they have garnered widespread critical acclaim, with publications such as Rolling Stone and Pitchfork Media listing albums such as Aquemini and Stankonia among the best of their era. Benjamin and Patton met in 1992 at the Lenox Square shopping mall when they were both sixteen years old; the two attended Tri-Cities High School. During school and Patton participated in rap battles in the cafeteria.
Benjamin's parents were divorced and he was living with his father. Meanwhile, Patton had to move with six sisters from Savannah to Atlanta. Benjamin and Patton teamed up and were pursued by Organized Noize, a group of local producers who would make hits for TLC; the duo wanted to be called "2 Shades Deep" or "The Misfits", but because those names were taken they decided to use "OutKast" based on finding "outcast" as synonym for "misfit" in a dictionary. OutKast, Organized Noize, schoolmates Goodie Mob formed the nucleus of the Dungeon Family organization. OutKast signed to L. A, and Babyface imprint prior to graduation which would become LaFace Records in 1992, becoming the label's first hip hop act and making their first appearance on the remix of labelmate TLC's "What About Your Friends". During the holiday season of 1993, they released their first single, "Player's Ball"; the song's funky style, much of it accomplished with live instrumentation, was a hit with audiences. "Player's Ball" hit number-one on the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks chart.'Player's Ball' topped the R&B charts for six weeks.
Their debut album, Southernplayalisticadillacmuzik, was issued on April 26, 1994. This initial effort is credited with laying the foundation for southern hip hop and is considered a classic by many; every track on Southernplayalisticadillacmuzik was produced by Organized Noize and featured other members of the Dungeon Family. Follow-up singles included the title track and "Git Up Git Out", a politically charged collaboration with Goodie Mob, sampled by Macy Gray for her 1999 hit "Do Something." On this early material, both André and Big Boi contrast lyrical content reflecting the lifestyles of pimps and gangsters with politically conscious material commenting on the status of African Americans in the South. OutKast won Best New Rap Group at the Source Awards in 1995. Within the mess, the East Coast - West Coast feud, André came up on stage followed by boos from the crowd and said, "But it's like this though, I'm tired of them closed minded folks, it's like we gotta demo tape but don't nobody want to hear it.
But it's like this: the South got something to say, that's all I got to say." As eloquently stated by rapper T. I. "Outkast, period. Outkast. That's; that was the first time when people began to take Southern rap seriously." In the same year, the group contributed "Benz or a Beamer" to the popular New Jersey Drive soundtrack. After Southernplayalisticadillacmuzik was certified platinum, LaFace Records gave OutKast more creative control and advanced money for their follow-up album, which they recorded from 1995 to 1996; the duo took the opportunity to recreate their image. On a trip to Jamaica with producer Mr. DJ, the two decided to abandon their cornrow hairstyles in favor of a more natural aesthetic, vowing to stop combing their hair. Dungeon Family member Big Rube observed an increase in the duo's confidence after returning from their first tour, remarking, "They started understanding the power they had in their music, they started showing a swagger that certain artists have—the ones that are stars."
The two became more accustomed to playing live Big Boi, André 3000 changed his lifestyle, as he adopted a more eccentric fashion sense, became a vegetarian, stopped smoking marijuana. The members underwent changes in their personal lives.
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
Encino, Los Angeles
Encino is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. In 1769, the Spanish Portola expedition, first Europeans to see inland areas of California, traveled north through Sepulveda pass into the San Fernando Valley on August 5 and stayed two nights at a native village near what is now Los Encinos State Historic Park. Fray Juan Crespi, a Franciscan missionary travelling with the expedition, named the valley "El Valle de Santa Catalina de Bononia de Los Encinos". All of Crespi's name was dropped except "Encino". Rancho Los Encinos was established in 1845 when a large parcel of former Mission San Fernando land was granted to three Mission Indians by governor Pio Pico. Many ranchos were created after the secularization of the California missions, which began in 1834. Encino derives its name from the rancho; the 2000 U. S. census counted 41,905 residents in the 9.5-square-mile Encino neighborhood — 4,411 inhabitants per square mile, among the lowest population densities for the city but average for the county.
In 2008, the city estimated that the resident population had increased to 44,581. In 2000 the median age for residents was 42, considered old for county neighborhoods; the neighborhood was considered "not diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles, with a high percentage of white residents. The breakdown was whites, 80.1%. Iran and Russia were the most common places of birth for the 32.8% of the residents who were born abroad—an average percentage for Los Angeles. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $78,529, considered high for the city; the percentage of households that earned $125,000 and up was high for Los Angeles County. The average household size of 2.3 people was low when compared to the rest of the city and the county. Renters occupied 38.4% of the housing stock and house- or apartment-owners held 61.6%. The percentages of divorced residents and of widowed men and women were among the county's highest. In 2000 military veterans amounted to 10.6 % of a high rate for the county.
Encino is situated in the central portion of the southern San Fernando Valley and on the north slope of the Santa Monica Mountains. It is flanked on the north by Reseda and the Sepulveda Basin, on the east by Sherman Oaks, on the southeast by Bel-Air, on the south by Brentwood and on the west by Tarzana; the local economy provides jobs in health care, social services, professional services sectors. There are 3,800 businesses employing about 27,000 people at an annual payroll of $1.4 billion. Encino is in Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors district 3 and Los Angeles City Council District 5, it is represented within the city of Los Angeles by the Encino Neighborhood Council, an advisory body under the auspices of the city Department of Neighborhood Empowerment. The United States Postal Service operates the Encino Post Office at 5805 White Oak Avenue and the Balboa Van Nuys Post Office at 4930 Balboa Boulevard. Forty-six percent of Encino residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, a high percentage for both the city and the county.
The percentage of those residents with a master's degree or higher was high for the county. Schools within the Encino boundaries are: Encino is served by the Los Angeles Unified School District. Hesby Oaks Leadership Charter School, LAUSD, 15530 Hesby Street Encino Charter Elementary School, LAUSD, 16941 Addison Street Emelita Street Elementary School, LAUSD, 17931 Hatteras Street Fred E. Lull Special Education Center, LAUSD, 17551 Miranda Street Lanai Road Elementary School, LAUSD, 4241 Lanai RoadAs of 2009, there are no public high schools in Encino. Public high schools serving portions of Encino are Birmingham High School in Lake Balboa, Reseda High School in Reseda. In 1982 the board considered closing Rhoda Street Elementary School in Encino. In April 1983 an advisory committee of the LAUSD recommended closing eight LAUSD schools, including Rhoda Street School. In August 1983 the board publicly considered closing Rhoda. In 1984 the board voted to close the Rhoda Street School. Sage Academy, elementary, 5901 Lindley Avenue Westmark School, 5461 Louise Avenue Holy Martyrs Armenian High School/Ferrahian, 5300 White Oak Avenue Crespi Carmelite High School, 5031 Alonzo Avenue Our Lady of Grace School, elementary, 17720 Ventura Boulevard Los Encinos School, elementary, 17114 Ventura Boulevard Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, elementary, 4650 Haskell Avenue Valley Beth Shalom Day School, 15739 Ventura Boulevard International School of Los Angeles, 5933 Lindley Avenue California State Parks operates the 5-acre Los Encinos State Historic Park in Encino.
The park includes the original nine room de la Ossa Adobe, the Garnier Building, a blacksmith shop, a pond, a natural spring. The Sepulveda Dam Recreation Area, located in Encino, includes the Woodley Worel/Magnus Cricket Complex with the four best grass cricket pitches in the United States. Host to many famous stars and games reflecting cricket's origins in Los Angeles from 1888. Included in the basin is the Encino Golf Course and the Balboa Golf Course, having a total of 36 golf holes; the Balboa Municipal Golf Course, a short-length golf course, was lengthened by Steve Timm in 2008. The Balboa course has a banquet room, back nine play, cart rental, club rental, classes, a lighted driving range, a loun
North Hollywood, Los Angeles
North Hollywood is a neighborhood located in the east San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles. It is home to the NoHo Arts District and the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, it has seven public and eight private schools. There is a recreation center; the neighborhood is an important transportation center. North Hollywood was established by the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company in 1887, it was first named Toluca before being renamed Lankershim in 1896 and North Hollywood in 1927. The 2000 U. S. census counted 77,848 residents in the 5.87-square-mile North Hollywood neighborhood—or 13,264 people per square mile, about an average population density for the city but among the highest for the county. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 87,241. In 2000 the median age for residents was 30, considered an average age for city and county neighborhoods; the neighborhood was considered "moderately diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles. The breakdown was Latinos, 57.7%.
Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 46.4% of the residents who were born abroad—a high percentage for Los Angeles. The percentages of never-married men and never-married women were among the county's highest; the median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $42,791, considered average for the city but low for the county. The percentages of households that earned $40,000 or less were high for the county. Renters occupied 75.4% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 24.6%. North Hollywood is bordered on the north on the northeast and east by Burbank. Toluca Lake borders North Hollywood on the southeast and south, Studio City abuts it on the southwest, it is flanked by Valley Glen on the west. It is not contiguous with Hollywood, being separated by other parts of the San Fernando Valley and the Hollywood Hills. North Hollywood displays a hot summer Mediterranean Climate North Hollywood was once part of the vast landholdings of the Mission San Fernando Rey de España, confiscated by the government during the Mexican period of rule.
A group of investors assembled as the San Fernando Farm Homestead Association purchased the southern half of the Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando. The leading investor was Isaac Lankershim, a Northern California stockman and grain farmer, impressed by the Valley's wild oats and proposed to raise sheep on the property. In 1873, Isaac Lankershim's son and future son-in-law, James Boon Lankershim and Isaac Newton Van Nuys, moved to the San Ferndando Valley and took over management of the property. Van Nuys thought the property could profitably grow wheat using the dryland farming technique developed on the Great Plains and leased land from the Association to test his theories. In time, the Lankershim property, under its third name, the Los Angeles Farming and Milling Company, would become the world's largest wheat-growing empire. In October 1887, J. B. Lankershim and eight other developers organized the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company, purchasing 12,000 acres north of the Cahuenga Pass from the Lankershim Farming and Milling Company.
Lankershim established a townsite which the residents named Toluca along the old road from Cahuenga Pass to San Fernando. On April 1, 1888, they offered ready-made small farms for sale planted with deep-rooted deciduous fruit and nut trees—mostly peaches, pears and walnuts—that could survive the rainless summers of the Valley by relying on the high water table along the Tujunga Wash rather than surface irrigation; the land boom of the 1880s went bust by the 1890s, but despite another brutal drought cycle in the late 1890s, the fruit and nut farmers remained solvent. The Toluca Fruit Growers Association was formed in 1894; the next year the Southern Pacific opened a branch line slanting northwest across the Valley to Chatsworth. The Chatsworth Limited made one freight stop a day at Toluca, though the depot bore the new name of Lankershim. With the post office across the street being called Toluca, controversy over the town's name continued, the local ranchers used to quip, "Ship the merchandise to Lankershim, but bill it to Toluca."
In 1896, under pressure from Lankershim, the post office at Toluca was renamed "Lankershim" after his father, although the new name of the town would not be recognized until 1905. By 1903, the area was known as "The Home of the Peach". In 1912, the area's major employer, the Bonner Fruit Company, was canning over a million tons of peaches and other fruits; when the Los Angeles Aqueduct opened in 1913, Valley farmers offered to buy the surplus water, but the federal legislation that enabled the construction of the aqueduct prohibited Los Angeles from selling the water outside of the city limits. At first, resistance to the real-estate development and downtown business interests of Los Angeles remained strong enough to keep the small farmers unified in opposition to annexation. However, the fruit packing company interests were taken over by the Los Angeles interests; the two conspired to decrease prices and mitigate the farmers' profit margins, making their continued existence tenuous. When droughts hit the valley again, rather than face foreclosure, the most vulnerable farmers agreed to mortgage their holdings to the fruit packing company and banks in Los Angeles for the immediate future and vote on annexation.
West Lankershim agreed to be annexed to the City of Los Angeles in 1919, Lankershim proper in 1923. Much of the promised water delivery was withheld, many of the ranchers one
Hip hop production
Hip hop production is the creation of hip hop music in a recording studio. While the term encompasses all aspects of hip hop music creation, including recording the rapping of an MC, a turntablist or DJ providing a beat, playing samples and "scratching" using record players and the creation of a rhythmic backing track, using a drum machine or sequencer, it is most used to refer to recording the instrumental, non-lyrical and non-vocal aspects of hip hop. Hip Hop Producers credited as the record producer and songwriter, are composers of a musical composition and creative directors involved in guiding and supervision of recording sessions; this can range from a single song to a full-length album or EP. A hip hop instrumental is colloquially referred to as a beat or musical composition and its composer is referred to as a programmer, songwriter or beat maker. In the studio, a hip hop producer functions as a traditional record producer, being the person, responsible for the final sound of a recording, for guiding the artists and performers and giving advice to the audio engineer on the selection of microphones and effects processors and on how to mix the levels of the vocals and instrumentals.
Since Hip hop producers co-write the original music such as the beat, they are known as Record Producer / Songwriters, that's wearing two hats. They receive production and songwriting credits for both acting roles esp Pharrell Williams, J. R. Rotem, Tricky Stewart, Teddy Riley, Bryan-Michael Cox, Rodney Jerkins, Dr. Dre, Scott Storch, Timbaland etc. Modern producers use producer tags known as audio tags, musical tags or tags, they function as a watermark for beatmakers to make sure that they are given credit. These can range from producers reciting the producer's name or stage name to a phrase unique to them. An example of the former is when Drake starts his song "In My Feelings" with the lyric "Trap, TrapMoneyBenny", shouting out one of the song's co-producers. An example of the latter is Metro Boomin's " Metro Boomin want some more, nigga!" which comes from a sample of Young Thug on his track "Some More" in which he shouts out Boomin, who co-produced the song along with Sonny Digital and TM88.
Producers and beatmakers times utilize a number of tags in order to personalize the track. A prime example is producer CAB's variation between "CAB you're crazy for this", "CAB!", "Yo, it's Charlot". These originate from hip-hop record producers shouting their name over a track before it started, vocal processing became involved, resulting in tags that sound like part of the song, in artists shouting the producer's name rather than producers doing so themselves; the Roland TR-808 drum machine was introduced in 1980, consisted on an analog machine with step programming method. The 808 was used by Afrika Bambaataa, who released "Planet Rock" in 1982, in addition to the electro hip hip groundbreaking classic "Nunk" by Warp 9, produced by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, giving rise to the fledgling Electro genre. An notable artist is the genre's own pioneer Juan Atkins who released what is accepted as the first American techno record, "Clear" in 1984; these early electro records laid down the foundations that Detroit techno artists such as Derrick May built upon.
In 1983, Run-DMC recorded "It's Like That" and "Sucker MC's," two songs which relied on synthetic sounds, in this case via an Oberheim DMX drum machine, ignoring samples entirely. This approach was much like early songs by the Furious Five. Kurtis Blow was the first hip hop artist to use a digital sampler, when he used the Fairlight CMI for their 1984 album "Ego Trip", specially on the track "AJ Scratch"; the E-mu SP-12 came out in 1985. The E-mu SP-1200 promptly followed with an expanded recording time of 10 seconds, divided on 4 banks. One of the earliest songs to contain a drum loop or break was "Rhymin and Stealin" by the Beastie Boys, produced by Rick Rubin. Marley Marl popularized a style of restructuring drum loops by sampling individual drums, in the mid 1980s, a technique, popularized by the MC Shan's 1986 single "The Bridge" which used chops of "Impeach the President" on two Korg Delay/sampling triggered by a Roland TR-808; the Akai MPC60 came out in 1988. The Beastie Boys released Paul's Boutique in 1989, an entire album created from an eclectic mix of samples, produced by the Dust Brothers using an Emax sampler.
De La Soul released 3 Feet High and Rising that year. Public Enemy's Bomb Squad revolutionized the sound of hip-hop with dense production styles, combining tens of samples per song combining percussion breaks with a drum machine, their beats were much more structured than repetitive beats. The MPC3000 was released in 1994, the AKAI MPC2000 in 1997, followed by the MPC2000XL in 1999 and the MPC2500 in 2006; these machines combined a sampling drum machine with an onboard MIDI sequencer and became the centerpiece of many hip hop producers' studios. The Wu Tang Clan's producer RZA is credited for getting hip hop attention away from Dr. Dre's more polished sound in 1993. RZA's more gritty sound with low rumbling bass, sharp snare drum sounds and unique sampling style based on Ensoniq sampler. With the 1994 release of The Notorious B. I. G.'s Ready to Die, Sean Combs and his assistant producers ushered in a new style where entire sections of records were sampled, instead of short snippets. Records like "Warning", "One More Chance" epitomized this aesthetic.
In the e