A soap bubble is an thin film of soapy water enclosing air that forms a hollow sphere with an iridescent surface. Soap bubbles last for only a few seconds before bursting, either on their own or on contact with another object, they are used for children's enjoyment, but they are used in artistic performances. Assembling several bubbles results in foam; when light shines onto a bubble it appears to change colour. Unlike those seen in a rainbow, which arise from differential refraction, the colours seen in a soap bubble arise from interference of light reflecting off the front and back surfaces of the thin soap film. Depending on the thickness of the film, different colours interfere constructively and destructively. Soap bubbles are physical examples of the complex mathematical problem of minimal surface, they will assume the shape of least surface area possible containing a given volume. A true minimal surface is more properly illustrated by a soap film, which has equal pressure on inside as outside, hence is a surface with zero mean curvature.
A soap bubble is a closed soap film: due to the difference in outside and inside pressure, it is a surface of constant mean curvature. While it has been known since 1884 that a spherical soap bubble is the least-area way of enclosing a given volume of air, it was not until 2000 that it was proven that two merged soap bubbles provide the optimum way of enclosing two given volumes of air of different size with the least surface area; this has been dubbed the double bubble conjecture. Because of these qualities, soap bubbles films have been used with practical problem solving application. Structural engineer Frei Otto used soap bubble films to determine the geometry of a sheet of least surface area that spreads between several points, translated this geometry into revolutionary tensile roof structures. A famous example is his West German Pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal; when two bubbles merge, they adopt a shape which makes the sum of their surface areas as small as possible, compatible with the volume of air each bubble encloses.
If the bubbles are of equal size, their common wall is flat. If they aren't the same size, their common wall bulges into the larger bubble, since the smaller one has a higher internal pressure than the larger one, as predicted by the Young–Laplace equation. At a point where three or more bubbles meet, they sort themselves out so that only three bubble walls meet along a line. Since the surface tension is the same in each of the three surfaces, the three angles between them must be equal to 120°. Only four bubble walls can meet at a point, with the lines where triplets of bubble walls meet separated by cos−1 ≈ 109.47°. All these rules, known as Plateau's laws, determine; the longevity of a soap bubble is limited by the ease of rupture of the thin layer of water which constitutes its surface, namely a micrometer-thick soap film. It is thus sensitive to: Drainage within the soap film: water falls down due to gravity; this can be slowed down for instance by adding glycerol. Still, there is an ultimate height limit, the capillary length high for soap bubbles: around 13 feet.
In principle, there is no limit in the length. Evaporation: This can be slowed down by blowing bubbles in a wet atmosphere, or by adding some sugar to the water. Dirt and fat: When the bubble touches the ground, a wall, or our skin, it ruptures the soap film; this can be prevented by wetting these surfaces with water. When a soap bubble is in contact with a solid or a liquid surface wetting is observed. On a solid surface, the contact angle of the bubble depends on the surface energy of the solid. A soap bubble has a larger contact angle on a solid surface displaying ultrahydrophobicity than on a hydrophilic surface – see Wetting. On a liquid surface, the contact angle of the soap bubble depends on its size - smaller bubbles have lower contact angles; the composition of soap bubbles' liquid has many recipes with different ingredients. The most common one contains: 2/3 cup of dishwashing soap 1 gallon of water 2/3 tablespoon of glycerineBecause of the presence of dishwasher soap, it's not uncommon for children to contract dermatitis on face, hands with consequences as rashes, swelling of the eyes and dizziness.
See Unconventional computing. The structures that soap films make can not just be enclosed as spheres, but any shape, for example in wire frames. Therefore, many different minimal surfaces can be designed, it is sometimes easier to physically make them than to compute them by mathematical modelling. This is why the soap films can be considered as analog computers which can outperform conventional computers, depending on the complexity of the system. Bubbles can be used to teach and explore a wide variety of concepts to young children. Flexibility, colour formation, reflective or mirrored surfaces and convex surfaces, transparency, a variety of shapes, elastic properties, comparative sizing, as well as the more esoteric properties of bubbles listed on this page. Bubbles are useful in teaching concepts starting from 2 years old and into college years. A Swiss university professor, Dr. Natalie Hartzell, has theorized that usage of artificial bubbles for entertainment purposes of young children has shown a positive effect in the region of the child's brain that controls motor skills and is responsible for coordination with children exposed to bubbles at a young age showing measurably better motion skills than those who were not.
Soap bubbles have been used as entertainment for at least 400 years
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o
Lilo & Stitch
Lilo & Stitch is a 2002 American animated science fiction comedy-drama film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Disney's 42nd animated feature film, it was written and directed by Dean DeBlois and Chris Sanders, features the voices of Daveigh Chase, Tia Carrere, David Ogden Stiers, Kevin McDonald, Ving Rhames, Jason Scott Lee, Kevin Michael Richardson, it was the second of three Disney animated features produced at the Florida animation studio located at Disney's Hollywood Studios in Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. It was released on June 21, 2002, to positive reviews and was nominated for the 2002 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature; that Academy Award was won by Studio Ghibli's 2001 film Spirited Away, distributed in the United States by Walt Disney Pictures, starred Chase and Stiers in the English version. The film's story revolves around two eccentric and mischievous individuals: a Hawaiian girl named Lilo Pelekai, raised by her sister Nani after their parents died in a car accident, a blue extraterrestrial creature named Experiment 626 that gets adopted by Lilo as her "dog" and is given the name "Stitch".
The creature, genetically engineered by his scientist creator to cause chaos and destruction uses her family to avoid being captured by an intergalactic federation, but the two individuals develop a close bond through the Hawaiian concept of ʻohana, or extended family. This bond causes him to reconsider, defy, his intended destructive purpose in order to keep his family together; the success of the film started a whole Lilo & Stitch franchise. A direct-to-video sequel called Stitch! The Movie was released on August 26, 2003; this was followed by a television series, Lilo & Stitch: The Series, which ran from September 20, 2003, to July 29, 2006. A second direct-to-video sequel, Lilo & Stitch 2: Stitch Has a Glitch, was released on August 30, 2005. A third sequel, a television film titled Leroy & Stitch was released on June 23, 2006, as the conclusion to the TV series. An anime series that succeeded the original television series called Stitch! Ran in Japan from October 8, 2008, to June 19, 2011, with TV specials broadcast in 2012 and 2015.
A Chinese animated series succeeding the Stitch! anime, Stitch & Ai, ran from March 27 to April 6, 2017. Other animation studios produced the sequel films and series: Stitch! The Movie, Lilo & Stitch: The Series, Leroy & Stitch were all produced by Walt Disney Television Animation. Doctor Jumba Jookiba, a mad scientist, is on trial by the Galactic Federation for illegal genetic experimentation, evidenced by his creation "Experiment 626", a small blue sentient creature with unparalleled intelligence and strength, but a propensity to cause chaos. Jumba is imprisoned. "626" manages to escape on a red police spaceship, activates the hyperdrive, causing its guidance systems to malfunction and randomly set a course for Earth. 626 crash-lands on Kauaʻi, Hawaii only to be knocked unconscious by three passing trucks and taken to an animal shelter. The Grand Councilwoman dispatches Jumba and Agent Pleakley, the Council's expert on Earth, to the planet to have 626 captured discreetly, because Earth is the habitat for the "endangered" mosquito and humans are described as being unable to handle an alien encounter.
On Kauaʻi, a young woman named Nani has been struggling with caring for her rambunctious and lonely younger sister, following the death of their parents. A social worker named Cobra Bubbles expresses increasing concern whether Nani is able to take adequate care of her sister; because Lilo has been ostracized by her friends, Nani decides to let her adopt a dog. At the shelter, Lilo takes a keen interest in 626, impersonating a dog. In spite of Nani's doubts, Lilo gives 626 the name "Stitch", shows him around the island; that evening, at the restaurant where Nani works, the aliens Jumba and Pleakley try, but fail, to capture Stitch. The resulting chaos is blamed on Stitch; the next day, Cobra warns her that if she does not find another job, he will have to place Lilo with a foster family. However, Stitch's antics, including evading the two alien agents, ruin Nani's chances of finding work. Nani's friend David invites her and Stitch to take a break and enjoy a day of surfing. While Nani and Stitch ride a huge wave, Jumba makes one final effort to capture Stitch from underwater, Stitch unintentionally pulls Lilo underwater.
Although everyone survives, Cobra witnesses this event and tells Nani that, although she means well, Lilo will have to be taken away. Seeing how much trouble he has caused, Stitch runs off; the next morning, the Councilwoman fires Jumba and Pleakley from their assignment and gives it to the galaxy's oversized militant captain, Captain Gantu. Meanwhile, David informs Nani of a job opportunity. Stitch, hiding in the nearby woods, encounters Jumba. A fight ensues; as Nani and Cobra argue, Lilo runs away into the jungle and finds Stitch, who reveals his alien identity before Gantu captures both of them. Stitch manages to escape from Gant
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit. Lending activities can be performed either indirectly through capital markets. Due to their importance in the financial stability of a country, banks are regulated in most countries. Most nations have institutionalized a system known as fractional reserve banking under which banks hold liquid assets equal to only a portion of their current liabilities. In addition to other regulations intended to ensure liquidity, banks are subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. Banking in its modern sense evolved in the 14th century in the prosperous cities of Renaissance Italy but in many ways was a continuation of ideas and concepts of credit and lending that had their roots in the ancient world. In the history of banking, a number of banking dynasties – notably, the Medicis, the Fuggers, the Welsers, the Berenbergs, the Rothschilds – have played a central role over many centuries.
The oldest existing retail bank is Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, while the oldest existing merchant bank is Berenberg Bank. The concept of banking may have begun in ancient Assyria and Babylonia, with merchants offering loans of grain as collateral within a barter system. Lenders in ancient Greece and during the Roman Empire added two important innovations: they accepted deposits and changed money. Archaeology from this period in ancient China and India shows evidence of money lending. More modern banking can be traced to medieval and early Renaissance Italy, to the rich cities in the centre and north like Florence, Siena and Genoa; the Bardi and Peruzzi families dominated banking in 14th-century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe. One of the most famous Italian banks was the Medici Bank, set up by Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici in 1397; the earliest known state deposit bank, Banco di San Giorgio, was founded in 1407 at Italy. Modern banking practices, including fractional reserve banking and the issue of banknotes, emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Merchants started to store their gold with the goldsmiths of London, who possessed private vaults, charged a fee for that service. In exchange for each deposit of precious metal, the goldsmiths issued receipts certifying the quantity and purity of the metal they held as a bailee; the goldsmiths began to lend the money out on behalf of the depositor, which led to the development of modern banking practices. The goldsmith paid interest on these deposits. Since the promissory notes were payable on demand, the advances to the goldsmith's customers were repayable over a longer time period, this was an early form of fractional reserve banking; the promissory notes developed into an assignable instrument which could circulate as a safe and convenient form of money backed by the goldsmith's promise to pay, allowing goldsmiths to advance loans with little risk of default. Thus, the goldsmiths of London became the forerunners of banking by creating new money based on credit; the Bank of England was the first to begin the permanent issue of banknotes, in 1695.
The Royal Bank of Scotland established the first overdraft facility in 1728. By the beginning of the 19th century a bankers' clearing house was established in London to allow multiple banks to clear transactions; the Rothschilds pioneered international finance on a large scale, financing the purchase of the Suez canal for the British government. The word bank was taken Middle English from Middle French banque, from Old Italian banco, meaning "table", from Old High German banc, bank "bench, counter". Benches were used as makeshift desks or exchange counters during the Renaissance by Jewish Florentine bankers, who used to make their transactions atop desks covered by green tablecloths; the definition of a bank varies from country to country. See the relevant country pages under for more information. Under English common law, a banker is defined as a person who carries on the business of banking by conducting current accounts for his customers, paying cheques drawn on him/her and collecting cheques for his/her customers.
In most common law jurisdictions there is a Bills of Exchange Act that codifies the law in relation to negotiable instruments, including cheques, this Act contains a statutory definition of the term banker: banker includes a body of persons, whether incorporated or not, who carry on the business of banking'. Although this definition seems circular, it is functional, because it ensures that the legal basis for bank transactions such as cheques does not depend on how the bank is structured or regulated; the business of banking is in many English common law countries not defined by statute but by common law, the definition above. In other English common law jurisdictions there are statutory definitions of the business of banking or banking business; when looking at these definitions it is important to keep in mind that they are defining the business of banking for the purposes of the legislation, not in general. In particular, most of the definitions are from legislation that has the purpose of regulating and supervising banks rather than regulating the actual business of banking.
However, in many cases the statutory definition mirrors the common law one. Examples of statutory definitions: "banking business" means the business of receiving money on current or deposit account and collecting cheques drawn by or paid in by customers, the making
Tootsietoy is a manufacturer of die cast toy cars and other toy vehicles, based in Chicago, United States. Though the Tootsietoy name has been used since the 1920s, the company's origins date from about 1890. An enduring marque, toys with the Tootsietoy name were popular from the 1930s through the 1990s. Tootsietoy had its beginnings in the two diecasting companies of the Dowst and the Shure Brothers who were established near the same time in the 1890s; the Dowst brothers established a trade paper called the National Laundry Journal and purchased a linotype machine to cast metal buttons and cuff links related to the laundry business. Meanwhile, the Tootsietoy brand had origins in a range of miniature cars in the form of charms, cuff links and the like, introduced circa 1901 by the Chicago based Cosmo Company owned by the Shure Bros. which bought Dowst in 1926. The name, remained Dowst Manufacturing Co.. The first actual model car from the company was produced between 1909 and 1911. One was a closed limousine, followed by a 1915 Ford Model T open tourer.
By the early 1920s the name'tootsie' was being used as a brand name and "Tootsietoy" was registered as a trade mark in 1924. The'Tootsie' moniker came from one of the Dowst Brothers' granddaughters, whose name was "Toots". Tootsietoy made metal prizes for Cracker Jack boxes, this success in the 1930s may have led to Dowst providing cast pieces for the game Monopoly; the company produced a large assortment of die-cast dollhouse furniture. In the 1920s trains, trucks, military vehicles, pistols and a variety of other toys were manufactured by Dowst. Vehicles had white rubber tires which over time become brittle and have not survived play-wear and time. One of the unique offerings were a set of 1932 Graham diecast cars - Tootsietoy offered a Graham sedan, town car, roadster, dual cowl convertible, delivery panel truck and tow truck. A marque not seen in miniature since, Graham was a household name at Tootsietoy; the Tootsietoy Grahams were available in boxes with "Graham" on the sides - indicating that they may have been used as promotional models for the Graham company.
If so, these would have been just about the earliest promotional automobile toys seen anywhere. One car, a promotional model was the 1935 Lasalle made for General Motors that came in sedan and coupe versions packaged in a special smallish blue and dark rose box. Another interesting model was the 1936 Lincoln Zephyr, available in a gift set with a'Roamer' camper trailer. World War II work had the Dowst Co. making detonators for grenades and mines as well as belt and parachute buckles. As would be expected, little toy production was seen during wartime production, though some paper toys were made. Whether small or large, metal or plastic, Tootsietoys were simply made - with only seven parts: a single diecast metal body, two axles, four wheels. Arms protruding from the underside of the body were pinched around the axles after the wheels were added, which held wheels and axles in place. Many Tootsietoy cars are still made in this basic manner, though in the 1970s and 1980s, plastic interiors and other parts were added.
One exception to this simplistic construction was the 1955 Pontiac Safari two-door station wagon, diecast in about 1:28 scale, larger than much of the Tootsietoy fare. On this model, the diecast body was not as simple as on most of the companies offerings but had diecast seats, an shaped dashboard and a plastic steering wheel; the rear tailgate opened and the car had a heavy separately diecast chassis. The usual fare in the 1960s were American offerings like a 1959 Oldsmobile convertible, a 1959 Ford Wagon, or a 1960 Chrysler convertible. Vehicles were made in many sizes but 5", 3.5" and smaller were all produced. As time passed the larger sizes faded, but in the 1970s the 1 dollar, 10 car "JamPac" of tiny, simple diecast cars about 2 inches long became known as the worlds best child "shutter-upper". A couple of these smaller cars are still in demand, like a replica of the Chevy Corvette powered Cheetah; this car, though simple and tiny, was not seen in miniature elsewhere. In 1961, Strombeck-Becker abbreviated to'Strombecker' was a hobby company purchased by Dowst / Tootsietoy.
Strombecker had made popular plastic models for slot-car racing — and continued to do so, but by the end of the 1960s the slot-car niche had run its course. Plastic as well as die-cast toys were identified with both names as "Tootsietoy-Strombecker"; the name Tootsietoy was applied to larger, but realistic plastic cars and trucks through the 1990s, but some die-cast were still made like the Hardbody series in Matchbox size and larger than 1:43 scale. By the late 1960s, Tootsietoys were made in Hong Kong. Though most Tootsie toys are produced in Asia today, they were traditionally produced in Chicago, were made in a few other American factories such as Rockford, Illinois. Tootsietoy, should not be confused with the similar brand Midgetoy, based in Rockford. Tootsietoy, now owned by J. Lloyd International, Inc. is still based in Chicago and makes about 40 million cars per year. Richardson and Sue. 1998. Wheels: Christie's Presents the Magical World of Autom
BioShock is a first-person shooter video game developed by 2K Boston and 2K Australia, published by 2K Games. The first game in the Bioshock series, it was released for Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360 platforms in August 2007. A scaled down mobile version was developed by IG Fun, which contained the first few levels of the game; the game's concept was developed by Irrational's creative lead, Ken Levine, incorporates ideas by 20th century dystopian and utopian thinkers such as Ayn Rand, George Orwell, Aldous Huxley, as well as historical figures such as John D. Rockefeller and Walt Disney; the game is considered a spiritual successor to the System Shock series, on which many of Irrational's team including Levine had worked previously. BioShock is set in 1960; the player guides the protagonist, after his airplane crashes in the ocean near the bathysphere terminus that leads to the underwater city of Rapture. Built by the business magnate Andrew Ryan, the city was intended to be an isolated utopia, but the discovery of ADAM, a genetic material which can be used to grant superhuman powers, initiated the city's turbulent decline.
Jack tries to find a way to escape, fighting through hordes of ADAM-obsessed enemies, the iconic, deadly Big Daddies, while engaging with the few sane humans that remain and learning of Rapture's past. The player, as Jack, is able to defeat foes in a number of ways by using weapons, utilizing plasmids that give unique powers, by turning Rapture's own defenses against them. BioShock includes elements of role-playing games, giving the player different approaches in engaging enemies such as by stealth, as well as moral choices of saving or killing characters. BioShock received critical acclaim and was praised by critics for its morality-based storyline, immersive environments, its unique setting, is considered to be one of the greatest video games of all time and a demonstration of video game as an art form, it received several Game of the Year awards from different media outlets, including from BAFTA, Game Informer, Spike TV, X-Play. Since its release a direct sequel has been released, BioShock 2 by 2K Marin, as well as a third game titled BioShock Infinite by Irrational Games.
A remastered version of the original game was released on Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One on September 13, 2016, as part of BioShock: The Collection, along with BioShock 2 and Infinite. A standalone version of BioShock Remastered was released for macOS by Feral Interactive on August 22, 2017. BioShock is set in 1960 in the underwater city of Rapture. Rapture was planned and constructed in the 1940s by Objectivist business magnate Andrew Ryan who wanted to create a utopia for society's elite to flourish outside of government control and "petty morality". Scientific progress expanded, including the discovery of the genetic material "ADAM" created by sea slugs on the ocean floor. ADAM allows its users to alter their DNA to grant them super-human powers like telekinesis and pyrokinesis. To protect Rapture, Ryan imposed a law. Despite the apparent utopia, class distinctions grew, former gangster and businessman Frank Fontaine used his influence over the lower class to plan a coup over Rapture.
Fontaine profited by creating black market routes with the surface world, together with Dr. Brigid Tenenbaum, created a cheap plasmid industry by mass-producing ADAM through the implantation of the slugs in the stomachs of orphaned girls, nicknamed "Little Sisters". Fontaine used his plasmid-enhanced army to attack Ryan, but was killed in the battle. Ryan took the opportunity to seize his assets including the plasmid factories. In the months that followed, a second figure named Atlas rose to speak for the lower class, creating further strife. Atlas led attacks on the factories housing the Little Sisters, Ryan countered by creating "Big Daddies", plasmid-enhanced humans surgically grafted into giant lumbering diving suits who were psychologically compelled to protect the Little Sisters at all costs. Ryan created his own army of plasmid-enhanced soldiers, named "Splicers", which he controlled using pheromones distributed through Rapture's air system. Tension came to a head on New Year's Eve of 1958.
The battle left many dead, the few sane survivors barricaded themselves away. What once was a beautiful utopia had fallen into a crumbling dystopia; some of the events described above are revisited and expanded upon in the downloadable expansion BioShock Infinite: Burial at Sea, which takes place in Rapture during the latter months of 1958 and leads up to Atlas' assault on Ryan's forces. In 1960, at the start of the game, the protagonist, Jack, is a passenger on a plane that goes down in the Atlantic Ocean; as the only survivor, Jack makes his way to a nearby lighthouse that houses a bathysphere terminal that takes him to Rapture. Jack is contacted by Atlas via radio, is guided to safety from the Splicers and the perils of the run down city. Atlas requests Jack's help in stopping Ryan, directing him to a docked bathysphere where he claims Ryan has trapped his family; when Jack encounters a wandering Little Sister and its fallen Big Daddy, Atlas urges Jack to kill the Little Sister to harvest her ADAM for himself.
A toy is an item, used in play one designed for such use. Playing with toys can be an enjoyable means of training young children for life in society. Different materials like wood, clay and plastic are used to make toys. Many items are designed to serve as toys, but goods produced for other purposes can be used. For instance, a small child may fold an ordinary piece of paper into an airplane shape and "fly it". Newer forms of toys include interactive digital entertainment; some toys are produced as collectors' items and are intended for display only. The origin of toys is prehistoric; the origin of the word "toy" is unknown, but it is believed that it was first used in the 14th century. Toys are made for children; the oldest known doll toy is thought to be 4,000 years old. Playing with toys is considered to be important when it comes to growing up and learning about the world around us. Younger children use toys to discover their identity, help their bodies grow strong, learn cause and effect, explore relationships, practice skills they will need as adults.
Adults on occasion use toys to form and strengthen social bonds, help in therapy, to remember and reinforce lessons from their youth. Most children have been said to play such as sticks and rocks. Toys and games have been unearthed from the sites of ancient civilizations, they have been written about in some of the oldest literature. Toys excavated from the Indus valley civilization include small carts, whistles shaped like birds, toy monkeys which could slide down a string; the earliest toys are made from materials found in nature, such as rocks and clay. Thousands of years ago, Egyptian children played with dolls that had wigs and movable limbs which were made from stone and wood. In Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, children played with dolls made of wax or terracotta, sticks and arrows, yo-yos; when Greek children girls, came of age it was customary for them to sacrifice the toys of their childhood to the gods. On the eve of their wedding, young girls around fourteen would offer their dolls in a temple as a rite of passage into adulthood.
The oldest known mechanical puzzle comes from Greece and appeared in the 3rd century BCE. The game consisted of a square divided into 14 parts, the aim was to create different shapes from these pieces. In Iran "puzzle-locks" were made as early as the 17th century. Toys became more widespread with the changing attitudes towards children engendered by the Enlightenment. Children began to be seen as people in and of themselves, as opposed to extensions of their household and that they had a right to flourish and enjoy their childhood; the variety and number of toys that were manufactured during the 18th century rose. He created puzzles on eight themes – the World, Asia, America and Wales, Ireland and Scotland; the rocking horse was developed at the same time in England with the wealthy as it was thought to develop children's balance for riding real horses. Blowing bubbles from leftover washing up soap became a popular pastime, as shown in the painting The Soap Bubble by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin.
Other popular toys included hoops, toy wagons, spinning wheels and puppets. The first board games were produced by John Jefferys in the 1750s, including A Journey Through Europe; the game was similar to modern board games. In the nineteenth century, the emphasis was put on toys that had an educational purpose to them, such as puzzles, books and board games. Religiously themed toys were popular, including a model Noah's Ark with miniature animals and objects from other Bible scenes. With growing prosperity among the middle class, children had more leisure time on their hands, which led to the application of industrial methods to the manufacture of toys. More complex mechanical and optics-based toys were invented. Carpenter and Westley began to mass-produce the kaleidoscope, invented by Sir David Brewster in 1817, had sold over 200,000 items within three months in London and Paris; the company was able to mass-produce magic lanterns for use in phantasmagoria and galanty shows, by developing a method of mass production using a copper plate printing process.
Popular imagery on the lanterns included royalty and fauna, geographical/man-made structures from around the world. The modern zoetrope was invented in 1833 by British mathematician William George Horner and was popularized in the 1860s. Wood and porcelain dolls in miniature doll houses were popular with middle class girls, while boys played with marbles and toy trains; the golden age of toy development was at the turn of the 20th century. Real wages were rising in the Western world, allowing working-class families to afford toys for their children, industrial techniques of precision engineering and mass production was able to provide the supply to meet this rising demand. Intellectual emphasis was increasingly being placed on the importance of a wholesome and happy childhood for the future development of children. William Harbutt, an English painter, invented plasticine in 1897, in 1900 commercial production of the material as a children's toy began. Frank Hornby was a visionary in toy development and manufacture and was responsible for the invention and production of