Publicity is the public visibility or awareness for any product, service or company. It may refer to the movement of information from its source to the general public but not always via the media; the subjects of publicity include people and services, works of art or entertainment. Art critic John Berger explains,"Publicity is not an assembly of competing messages: it is a language in itself, always being used to make the same general proposal, it proposes to each of us that we transform ourselves, or our lives by buying..publicity is not paid for something more." A publicist is someone that carries out publicity, while public relations is the strategic management function that helps an organization communicate and maintaining communication with the public. This can be done internally, without the use of popular media. From a marketing perspective, publicity is one component of marketing; the other elements of the promotional mix are advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing and personal selling.
Publicity is referred to as the result of public relations, in terms of providing favourable information to media and any third party outlets. This is done to provide a message to consumers without having to pay for direct space; this in return achieves greater credibility. After the message has been distributed, the publicist in charge of the information will lose control of how the message is used and interpreted, in contrast to the way it works in advertising. According to Grunig, public relations is reduced to publicity, he states how publicity is a form of activity in which should be associated with the sales promotion effort of a company, in order to help aid advertising and personal salesmanship as well. Kent stated that the doing of publicity can help attract attention whilst supplying information regarding a specific organization or individual client and any event, activity or attribute associated with them; the use of publicity is known to be an important strategic element and promotional tool due to its effect of intentional exposure on a consumer.
This helps publicity gain a beneficial advantage over other marketing aspects such as Advertising alongside its high credibility. Favourable publicity is created through reputation management, in which organizations try strive to control via the web. Furthermore, despite the fact that publicity, both good or bad, can be beneficial for an organization, company or individual, much of it is paid for despite claims that publicity is free. Despite publicity being an influential benefit within the marketing sector, one disadvantage which affects publicity is the lack of ability in which publicity cannot be repeated, in comparison to paid advertising. A publicist is a person whose job is to generate and manage publicity for a company, public figure, or work such as a book, movie, or band. Though there are many aspects to a publicist's job, their main function is to persuade the press to report about their client in the most positive way possible. Publicists identify "newsworthy" aspects of products and personalities to offer to the press as possible reportage ideas.
They are responsible for shaping reportage about their clients in a timely manner that fits within a media outlet's news cycle. They attempt to present a newsworthy story in a way that influences editorial coverage in a certain positive, direction; this is what is referred to as "spin." A publicist serves as a bridge between a client and the public Although day-to-day duties vary depending on what each clients needs consist of, the main focal point for a publicist is promotion. With regard to a crisis situation, publicists attempt to use the situation as an opportunity to get their organization's or client's name into the media. Elizabeth L. Toth describes how press agents are willing to intrigue news outlets, mainstream media and web blogs with “bad news” in order to “sell” a story and help gain further coverage for their clients; this is supported by the press agentry/publicity model, used within the fashion and entertainment industries, following the presumption that bad news can be good publicity.
Publicists are most categorized under a marketing arm of a company. The phrase any press is good press was coined to describe situations where bad behaviour by people involved with an organization or brand have resulted in positive results, due to the fame and press coverage accrued by such events. For example, the Australian Tourism Board's "So where the bloody hell are you?" advertising campaign was banned in the UK, but the amount of publicity the ban generated resulted in the official website for the campaign being swamped with requests to see the banned ad. Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, upon visiting Australia, said "and here I am, in the Australian parliament building at what I think is something like four o'clock in the morning in the UK, and so I'm thinking, so where the bloody hell am I?"Publicity is known to contain high credibility, making it more influential in comparison to other market-driven communications. This in itself can affect consumers' thoughts by catching them'off-guard,’ applying differentiation between advertising.
The use of publicity may influence a consumer's attitude towards an advertisement or brand because of its high credibility value, in order to assess the trustworthiness of further informat
In science fiction and ufology, a Venusian or Venerian is a native inhabitant of the planet Venus. Many science fiction writers have imagined; the word Venusian – sometimes spelled Venutian – is a simple combination of the name of the planet Venus and the suffix -ian, formed by analogy to Martian and other similar demonyms. The classically derived demonym would be Venerean or Venerian, but these forms have been used by only a few authors. Scientists sometimes use the adjective Cytherean for things related to Venus, from the goddess' epithet Cytherea; the derived Venereal is not used due to its association with sexually transmitted infections as "venereal diseases". Venusians appearing in works of fiction are fanciful, rather than plausible inhabitants of the planet. Before the mid 20th century, little was known about the planet except that it was solid and comparable in size to Earth; this allowed writers to speculate that Venusians might be similar to humans or other Earth species, much as they did for fictional Martians.
As more was learned about Venus and the implausibility of humanoid or other life on it, Venusians became uncommon in science fiction. In early Captain Marvel stories, Venusians are giant frog-like amphibians which are ruled over by the evil mad scientist Doctor Sivana and his family, they are used to the tropical jungles of Venus and find Earth cold, are quite savage. Venus is inhabited by other savage creatures, some which resemble prehistoric beasts, such as the centaur-like Gorillalion; the Hydrads of Venus, who resemble huge animated sponges, appear in Planet Comics, in the Lost World section. If hurt, water can restore them to health. Though opposed to the Voltamen who have invaded Earth, they are enemies to Hunt Bowman. In the Superman story which had the first appearance of the Legion of Super-Villains, one of the members was Cosmic King, a scientist who worked on transmuting elements, but when he was struck by the ray he gained the power to send those beams from his eyes. However, he was exiled from Venus for these experiments.
In DC Comics' All-Star Comics # 13 the JSA rocketed to different planets. Wonder Woman is sent to Venus and finds it to be inhabited by fairies led by Queen Desira, who worship Aphrodite, claim to have been at peace for "a million years", she helps them in a war against large brutal males. In Showcase #23, Hal Jordan Green Lantern is sent by the Guardians, operating through the power battery to Venus where he meets blue-skinned primitive humanoids who are being attacked by pterosaur-like creatures, he seals the monsters in a cave, leaves the world, saying the cavemen will one day be a great civilization. In the British comic Dan Dare, Venus is inhabited by green-skinned Treens and Therons, who are separated by a fire wall running across Venus; the Mekon, the Super-intelligent Treen leader is a primary villain. Most Treens are emotionless; the Therons are more friendly to Earth. Minako Aino of Sailor Moon is the reincarnation of the Princess of Venus; the Sailor V Manga shows a diamond shaped structure, her castle.
In the "Venus series" of Edgar Rice Burroughs, Burroughs created a fictitious'Venusian' alphabet used by the Venusians. His artificial Amtor letters flow nicely together like cursive writing. In Olaf Stapledon's 1930 novel Last and First Men, when the Moon threatens to spiral down to crash into Earth, humans leave Earth and colonize Venus; the descendants of the invaders, Sixth to Eighth Men, can be considered Venerians themselves. In Charles R. Tanner's "Tumithak of the Corridors" and its sequels, Venus is the homeworld of the shelks, spider-like aliens who have conquered Earth and forced most of the few surviving humans underground. In William Lumley and H. P. Lovecraft's "The Diary of Alonzo Typer", part of the Cthulhu Mythos, there are mentions of the "Lords of Venus", conflicting indications that the Serpent People originated there; the story was followed by "In the Walls of Eryx," co-written by Lovecraft and Kenneth J. Sterling, in which a prospector is trapped in a maze on Venus constructed by lizardmen.
In C. S. Lewis' book Perelandra, Professor Elwin Ransom travels to Venus, a planet covered by water with floating islands on it, in order to fight a possessed Professor Weston and prevent the "Adam and Eve" of this young planet from bringing about the same fate that befell Earth. In the book, Lewis depicts a wide variety of flora and fauna, with some animals close to being sentient; the King and Queen of the planet are humanoid, but green, their commandment is for them not to sleep on the fixed land, a still island. When this happens, the Oyarsa of this world, a type of angel-like being who seems feminine like the classical goddess, tells Ransom that this will be the start of a new age. Before Eden, by Arthur C. Clarke, is about a manned expedition to Venus. However, after the humans leave, the creature eats their abandoned garbage and other things left behind and this contamination wipes out all native life on the planet; the Space Merchants is a science fiction novel, written by Frederik Pohl and Cyril M. Kornbluth in 1952, about the campaign b
The Odyssey of Flight 33
"The Odyssey of Flight 33" is episode 54 of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. An unlikely break of the time barrier finds a commercial airliner sent back into the prehistoric age and to New York City of 1939; the tale is a modern telling of the Flying Dutchman myth. It aired on February 24, 1961 on CBS; the episode takes place on Global Airlines Flight 33, en route from London to New York City. About 50 minutes from Idlewild Airport, Captain Farver and his crew notice that the ground speed of their Boeing 707 is increasing beyond all reason, their true air speed remains constant, so there is no risk of the plane breaking up. They can no longer contact anyone by radio. One of the passengers seems to sense the increase in speed. A flash of light is seen, accompanied by severe turbulence, although the captain thinks it might be something else. There is no apparent damage to the aircraft. Still unable to contact anyone on the ground, at the risk of potential collision with other aircraft, Farver decides to descend below the clouds: the crew is able to identify the coastline of Manhattan Island and other geographic landmarks, but there is no city.
The crew realizes that they have traveled far back in time when they look out the window and see grazing dinosaurs. With dwindling fuel supply, their only hope of returning to the present day is to repeat the previous maneuver; the plane increases altitude in an attempt to catch the same "freak jet stream" and to return to 1961. At first, it appears to work. However, the air traffic controller on the radio does not understand references to Idlewild or to current aircraft technology such as VOR, ILS and jet aircraft; the controller clears the aircraft to land at La Guardia, but orders the captain to report to the Civil Aeronautics Administration office afterward. The copilot spots the buildings and structures from the 1939 New York World's Fair below: they have come forward in time, just not far enough; because LaGuardia's runway is too short to handle a Boeing 707, the captain decides not to attempt the landing, instead to make another attempt to return "home" to 1961 before the plane runs out of fuel altogether.
He addresses the passengers. "All I ask is that you remain calm", he tells the passengers over the P. A. system, "...and pray". John Anderson as Captain "Skipper" Farver Paul Comi as First Officer Craig Sandy Kenyon as Navigator "Magellan" Hatch Harp McGuire as Flight Engineer Purcell Beverly Brown as Janie Wayne Heffley as 2nd Officer Wyatt Betty Garde as Passenger Jay Overholts as Passenger Nancy Rennick as Paula Lester Fletcher as RAF Man Robert McCord as Passenger The Brontosaurus model and miniature jungle set from the 1960 film Dinosaurus! were used for the stop motion animation. This episode was one of several Twilight Zone stories adapted as a graphic novel; the adaptation expands upon the television episode, including a subplot involving several passengers and flight crew, as well as updating the story to occurring in 1973. It adds a time jump to the future. Serling developed the idea for the show when he learned that American Airlines had a mockup of a 707 interior used for flight attendant training, that they would make available to TV or film production companies.
Serling's brother, aviation writer Robert J. Serling, helped Serling with the cockpit dialogue for the show by discussing the show's premise with a Trans World Airlines captain. There was one anachronism: LaGuardia Airport, although it had opened in October 1939, was not named after Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia until 1947. List of The Twilight Zone episodes The Langoliers Manifest Twilight Zone literature § Comics "The Odyssey of Flight 33" on IMDb "The Odyssey of Flight 33" at TV.com
A bookmaker, bookie, or turf accountant is an organization or a person that accepts and pays off bets on sporting and other events at agreed-upon odds. The first bookmaker, stood at Newmarket in 1795. Bookmakers in many countries focus on accepting bets on professional sports horse racing and association football. However, a wider range of bets, including on political elections, awards ceremonies such as the Oscars, novelty bets are accepted by bookmakers in more and more countries. By "adjusting the odds" in their favour or by having a point spread, bookmakers aim to guarantee a profit by achieving a'balanced book', either by getting an equal number of bets for each possible outcome or by getting the amounts wagered on each outcome to reflect the odds; when a large bet comes in, a bookmaker may try to lay off the risk by buying bets from other bookmakers. Bookmakers do not attempt to make money from the bets themselves but rather by acting as market makers and profiting from the event regardless of the outcome.
Their working methods are similar to those of an actuary, who does a similar balancing of financial outcomes of events for the assurance and insurance industries. Depending on the country, bookmaking may be legal or illegal and is regulated. In the United Kingdom, since 1 May 1961, bookmaking has been legal and has been a small contributor to the British economy, with a recent explosion of interest with regard to the international gaming sector industry. However, gambling debts were unenforceable under English law until the Gambling Act 2005. Many bookmakers are members of an industry organisation used to settle disputes. Bookmaking is illegal in the United States, with Nevada being an exception due to the influence of Las Vegas. In May 2018, a United States Supreme Court ruling struck down the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992, which prevented individual states from legalizing bookmaking. In some countries, such as Singapore, Sweden and Japan, the only legal bookmaker is owned and operated by the state.
In Canada, this is known as Sport Select. The first bookmaker in the United Kingdom is considered to be Harry Ogden, who opened a business in the 1790s, although similar activities had existed in other forms earlier in the eighteenth century. Following the Gaming Act 1845, the only gambling allowed in the United Kingdom was at race tracks; the introduction of special excursion trains meant that all classes of society could attend the new racecourses opening across the country. Cash concentrated towards the bookmakers who employed bodyguards against protection gangs operating within the vast crowds. Illegal betting shops were fined, but some, like Bella Thomasson, ran betting businesses that the police appeared to turn a blind eye to. In 1961, Harold Macmillan's Conservative government legalised betting shops, with tough measures enacted to ensure that bookmakers remained honest. A large industry has grown since. At one time, there were over 15,000 betting shops. Now, through consolidation, they have been reduced to between 9,100 and 9,200 in 2013.
The group of the largest bookmakers in the country, known as the "Big Three", comprises William Hill and Coral. Improved TV coverage and the modernisation of the law have allowed betting in shops and casinos in most countries. In the UK, on-track bookies still mark up the odds on boards beside the race course and use tic-tac or mobile telephones to communicate the odds between their staff and to other bookies, with the modernisation of United Kingdom bookmaking laws and high street gambling are at an all-time high. A so-called super-casino had been planned for construction in Manchester, but the government announced that this plan had been scrapped on 26 February 2008. Although online gambling first started in 1994 when the licensing authority of Antigua and Barbuda passed the Free Trade & Processes Act, bookmakers did not get involved until 2001, they were forced to act when research at the time found there were eight million online players worldwide. With the arrival of the World Wide Web, many bookmakers have an online brand, but independently owned bookmakers still maintain a "bricks and mortar" only operation as the software and hardware required to operate a successful online betting operation are complex and their costs are quite prohibitive.
The main websites require bets to be from countries where Internet gambling is allowed and from people over 18 years old. Some small bookmakers and startups purchase software from specialised white label solution providers. Since gambling products have a high conversion rate from one niche to another, most online betting websites feature other gambling products such as poker, live dealer casino games, bingo and other casino games. Controversially, the explosion in Internet gambling is being linked to a rise in gambling addiction, according to the UK's help and advice organisations for addicts, GamCare and Gamblers Anonymous. Online bettors are turning to the use of betting exchanges such as Betfair and BETDAQ, which automatically match back and lay bets between different bettors, thus cutting out the bookmaker's traditional profit margin called an overround; these online exchange markets operate a market index of prices near but not at 100% competitiveness, as exchanges take commissions on winnings.
True wholesale odds are odds. Betting exchanges compete with the traditional bookmaker. The
Time Enough at Last
"Time Enough at Last" is the eighth episode of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. The episode was adapted from a short story written by Lynn Venable; the short story appeared in the January 1953 edition of the science fiction magazine If: Worlds of Science Fiction about seven years before the television episode first aired. "Time Enough at Last" became one of the most famous episodes of the original Twilight Zone and has been parodied since. It is "the story of a man who seeks salvation in the rubble of a ruined world" and tells of Henry Bemis, played by Burgess Meredith, who loves books, yet is surrounded by those who would prevent him from reading them; the episode follows Bemis through the post-apocalyptic world, touching on such social issues as anti-intellectualism, the dangers of reliance upon technology, the difference between aloneness and loneliness. Witness Mr. Henry Bemis, a charter member in the fraternity of dreamers. A bookish little man whose passion is the printed page, but, conspired against by a bank president and a wife and a world full of tongue-cluckers and the unrelenting hands of a clock.
But in just a moment, Mr. Bemis will enter a world without bank presidents or wives or clocks or anything else. He'll have a world all to himself... without anyone. Henpecked, far sighted bank teller and avid bookworm Henry Bemis works at his window in a bank, while reading David Copperfield, which causes him to shortchange an annoyed customer. Bemis's angry boss, his nagging wife, both complain to him that he wastes far too much time reading "doggerel"; as a cruel joke, his wife asks him to read poetry from one of his books to her. Seconds she destroys the book by ripping the pages from it, much to Henry's dismay; the next day, as usual, Henry takes his lunch break in the bank's vault, where his reading will not be disturbed. Moments after he sees a newspaper headline, which reads "H-Bomb Capable of Total Destruction", an enormous explosion outside the bank violently shakes the vault, knocking Bemis unconscious. After regaining consciousness and recovering the thick glasses required for him to see, Bemis emerges from the vault to find the bank demolished and everyone in it dead.
Leaving the bank, he sees that the entire city has been destroyed, realizes that a nuclear war has devastated Earth, but that his being in the vault has saved him. Seconds, hours, they crawl by on hands and knees for Mr. Henry Bemis, who looks for a spark in the ashes of a dead world. A telephone connected to nothingness. A neighborhood bar, a movie, a baseball diamond, a hardware store, the mailbox of what was once his house and is now a rubble, they lie at his feet as battered monuments to what is no more. Mr. Henry Bemis on an eight-hour tour of a graveyard. Finding himself alone in a shattered world with canned food to last him a lifetime and no means of leaving to look for other survivors, Bemis succumbs to despair; as he prepares to commit suicide using a revolver he has found, Bemis sees the ruins of the public library in the distance. Investigating, he finds that the books are still legible, his despair gone, Bemis contentedly sorts the books he looks forward to reading for years to come, with no obligations to get in the way.
Just as he bends down to pick up the first book, he stumbles, his glasses fall off and shatter. In shock, he picks up the broken remains of the glasses he is blind without, says, "That's not fair. That's not fair at all. There was time now. There was—was all the time I needed…! It's not fair! It's not fair!" and bursts into tears, surrounded by books he now can never read. The best laid plans of mice and men... and Henry Bemis... the small man in the glasses who wanted nothing but time. Henry Bemis, now just a part of a smashed landscape, just a piece of the rubble, just a fragment of what man has deeded to himself. Mr. Henry Bemis... in the Twilight Zone. "Time Enough at Last" was one of the first episodes written for The Twilight Zone. It introduced Burgess Meredith to the series, he narrated for the 1983 film Twilight Zone: The Movie, which made reference to "Time Enough at Last" during its opening sequence, with the characters discussing the episode in detail. Footage of the exterior steps of the library was filmed several months after production had been completed.
These steps can be seen on the exterior of an Eloi public building in MGM's 1960 version of The Time Machine. John Brahm was nominated for a Directors Guild award for his work on the episode; the book that Bemis was reading in the vault and that flips open when the bomb explodes is A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus by Washington Irving. Although the overriding message may seem to "be careful what you wish for, you just might get it", there are other themes throughout the episode as well. Paramount among these is the question of solitude versus loneliness, as embodied by Bemis' moment of near-suicide. Additionally, the portrayal of societal attitudes towards books speaks to the contemporary decline of traditional literature and how, given enough time, reading may become a relic of the past. At the same time, the ending "punishes Bemis for his antisocial behavior, his greatest desire is thwarted". Rod Serl
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
A Martian is a native inhabitant of the planet Mars. Although the search for evidence of life on Mars continues, many science fiction writers have imagined what extraterrestrial life on Mars might be like; some writers use the word Martian to describe a human colonist on Mars. The earliest known instances of the word "Martian", used as a noun instead of an adjective, were printed in late 1877, they appeared nearly in England and the United States, in magazine articles detailing Asaph Hall's discovery of the moons of Mars in August of that year. The next event to inspire the use of the noun Martian in print was the International Exposition of Electricity, hosted in Paris in the year 1881. During the four months of the exhibition, many people visited to witness such technological marvels as the incandescent light bulb and the telephone. One visitor came away wondering what kind of world such innovations might engender in the next 200 years. Writing anonymously, s/he assembled some speculations in an essay titled "The Year of Grace 2081", which enjoyed wide circulation.
The Martians enter the story late in the narrative. During a rest from international conflict on Earth, humans begin telecommunicating with Martians. "After a brief period passed in the exchange of polite messages", says the essayist, humans will decide to war with the Martians on some pretence of honor. The war that results is cataclysmic: will unite all their energies for the fabrication of mammoth engines which will discharge oceans of water and fire right into the face of Mars. In return, the Martians will pelt them with aeroliths weighing three thousand tons, which will chip whole mountains off the Himalayas and make a big hole where Mont Blanc now exists. W. S. Lach-Szyrma's novel Aleriel, or A Voyage to Other Worlds was reputed to be the first published work to apply the word Martian as a noun; the usage is incidental. Aleriel buries the car in snow "so that it might not be disturbed by any Martian who might come across it." Fifteen years after Aleriel, H. G. Wells' landmark novel The War of the Worlds was published by William Heinemann, Ltd. a new publishing house.
The novel was revised numerous times, has since been translated into many languages. In the story, the Martians are a technologically advanced race of octopus-like extraterrestrials who invade Earth because Mars is becoming too cold to sustain them; the Martians' undoing is a fatal vulnerability to Earth bacteria. In his book Mars and Its Canals and businessman Percival Lowell conjectured that an extinct Martian race had once constructed a vast network of aqueducts to channel water to their settlements from Mars' polar ice caps, Planum Australe and Planum Boreum. Lowell did not invent this Martian canal hypothesis; the belief that Mars had canals was based on observations Giovanni Schiaparelli made through his reflecting telescope. Although the telescope's image was fuzzy, Schiaparelli thought he saw long, straight lines on the Martian surface; this idea inspired Lowell, who returned to the subject in Mars As the Abode of Life, in which he wrote a fanciful description of what this Martian society may have been like.
Although his description was based on no evidence, Lowell's words evoked vivid pictures in his readers' imaginations. One of the people Lowell inspired was Edgar Rice Burroughs, who began writing his own story about Mars in the summer of 1911; the story is a planetary romance in which an American Civil War veteran named John Carter is transported to Mars when he walks inside a cave on Earth. He finds that Mars is populated by two species of warring humanoids, he becomes embroiled in their conflict. In February 1912, an American pulp magazine called The All-Story published Burroughs' story as the first installment of a serial novel, which the editor titled Under the Moons of Mars; the book was the first in Burroughs' Barsoom series. Although the noun Martian can describe any organism from Mars and works imagine Martians as a humanoid monoculture. Martian, in this sense, is more like the word human than the word Earthling. In science fiction, Martians are stereotypically imagined in one or more of the following ways: as alien invaders.
H. G. Wells' novel The War of the Worlds and its various adaptations have been an extraordinary influence on science fiction writers for more than 100 years. Wells' Martians are a technologically advanced species with an ancient civilization, they somewhat resemble cephalopods, with large, bulky brown bodies and sixteen snake-like tentacles, in two groups of eight, around a quivering V-shaped mouth. They invade Earth because Mars is dying, they need a warmer planet to live, they attack cities in southern England, including London, with a deadly heat-ray they fire from a camera-like device on an articulated arm attached to their tripods. Mankind is saved by Earth bacteria, which