United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution; the U. S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general; the Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation. It was elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, was transformed by the Postal Reorganization Act in 1970 into the USPS as an independent agency; the USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world; the USPS is obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.
S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx. Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail. Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to prefund employee retirement health benefits, revenue dropped due to recession-influenced declining mail volume, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit. In the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service.
These early attempts were of small scale and involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, setting up a location in Boston where one could post a letter back home to England. Other attempts focused on a dedicated postal service between two of the larger colonies, such as Massachusetts and Virginia, but the available services remained limited in scope and disjointed for many years. For example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service. On February 17, 1691, a grant of letters patent from the joint sovereigns, William III and Mary II, empowered him: to erect and establish within the chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, to receive and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.
The patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later. Neale appointed Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster; the first postal service in America commenced in February 1692. Rates of postage were fixed and authorized, measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed postal laws, a imperfect post office system was established. Neale's patent expired in 1710; the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies. Most of the mail went forth to counting houses and government offices in London; the revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the information hub of the new nation. News, new laws, political intelligence, military orders circulated with a new urgency, a postal system was necessary.
Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at low cost, to exchange news from newspapers between the thirteen states. Overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774–1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, created a new postal system; the United States Post Office was created on July 26, 1775, by decree of the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin headed it briefly. Before the Revolution, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post; the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress "To establish post offices and post roads"; the 1792 law provided for a expanded postal network, served editors by charging newspapers an low rate.
The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, provided the entire country with low-cost access to information on public affairs, while establishing a right to personal privacy. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St. Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger. Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west o
National Postal Museum
The National Postal Museum, located opposite Union Station in Washington, D. C. United States, was established through joint agreement between the United States Postal Service and the Smithsonian Institution and opened in 1993; the museum is located across the street from Union Station, in the building that once served as the main post office of Washington, D. C. from 1914, when it was constructed, until 1986. The building was designed by the Graham and Burnham architectural firm, led by Ernest Graham following the death of Daniel Burnham in 1912; the building in which the museum is housed serves as the headquarters of the United States Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics, as well as a data center for the United States Senate. The museum stores the National Philatelic Collection and hosts many interactive displays about the history of the United States Postal Service and of mail service around the world; the museum houses a gift shop and a United States Postal Service philatelic sales window, along with exhibits on the Pony Express, the use of railroads with the mail, the preserved remains of Owney, an exhibit on direct marketing called, "What's in the Mail for You," that produces a souvenir envelope with a visitor's name printed on it and a coupon for the gift shop.
As a Smithsonian museum, admission is free. This museum houses a library. In 2005, the museum acquired John Lennon's childhood stamp collection. From June 2015 until December 2018 the museum displayed the 1856 British Guiana One-Cent Magenta, the world's most valuable stamp, which sold for nearly $10 million. In September 2009, the museum received an $8 million gift from investment firm founder William H. Gross to help finance an expansion project; the museum now hosts the William H. Gross Stamp Gallery named in his honor. Since 2002, the museum has presented the Smithsonian Philatelic Achievement Award every two years. List of philatelic libraries Owney U. S. Postal Museums Postal Museum National Postal Museum official website National Postal Museum Library Official website Smithsonian's National Postal Museum at Google Cultural Institute Arago: People, Postage & the Post
A selvage or selvedge is a "self-finished" edge of fabric, keeping it from unraveling and fraying. The term "self-finished" means that the edge does not require additional finishing work, such as hem or bias tape, to prevent fraying. In woven fabric, selvages are the edges that run parallel to the warp, are created by the weft thread looping back at the end of each row. In knitted fabrics, selvages are the unfinished yet structurally sound edges that were neither cast on nor bound off; the term selvage applied only to loom woven fabric, though now can be applied to flat-knitted fabric. The terms selvage and selvedge are a corruption of "self-edge", have been in use since the 16th century. In textile terminology, threads that run the length of the fabric are warp ends. Threads running laterally from edge to edge, from left side to right side of the fabric as it emerges from the loom, are weft picks. Selvages are formed during the weaving process; the weave used to construct the selvage may be the same or different from the weave of the body of the fabric cloth.
Most selvages are narrow. Descriptions woven into the selvage using special jacquards, colored or fancy threads may be incorporated for identification purposes. For many end-uses the selvage is discarded. Selvages are'finished' and will not fray because the weft threads double back on themselves and are looped under and over the warp. There is a slight difference between the selvages in handweaving and in industry, because while industrial looms very mimicked handweaving looms, modern industrial looms are different. A loom with a shuttle, such as most hand weaving looms, will produce a different selvage from a loom without a shuttle, like some of the modern industrial looms. In industry sometimes the selvage is made thicker with a binding thread. Selvages of fabrics formed on weaving machines with shuttles, such as hand looms, are formed by the weft turning at the end of each pick or every second pick. To prevent fraying, various selvage motions are used to bind the warp into the body of the cloth.
Selvages are created to protect the fabric during weaving and subsequent processing but ideally should not detract from the finished cloth via ripples, contractions or waviness. In handweaving the selvage is the same thickness as the rest of the cloth, the pattern may or may not continue all the way to the edge, thus the selvage may or may not be patterned. A plain weave selvage is the other option, where the last few threads on either side are woven in plain weave. In industry the selvage may be thicker than the rest of the fabric, is where the main weft threads are reinforced with a tight weft back binding to prevent fraying. More they "finish" the left and right-hand edges of fabric as it exits the loom for the ubiquitous "criss-cross" simple or tabby weave, referred to in industry as taffeta weave. Selvages on machine-woven fabric have little holes along their length, through the thick part, can have some fringe; the type or motion of selvage depends on the weaving loom used. A water- or air-jet loom creates a fringed selvage, the same weight as the rest of the cloth, as by the weft thread is drawn via a jet nozzle, which sends the weft threads through the shed with a pulse of water.
The selvage is created by a heat cutter which trims the thread at both ends close to the edge of the cloth, it is beaten into place. Thus it creates a firm selvage with the same thickness as the rest of the cloth. In the decorative embellishment of garments in decorative pleat or ruffles, a selvage used as a ruffle is "self-finished", that is, it does not require additional finishing work such as hem or bias tape to prevent fraying. Fabric near the selvage is unused and discarded, as it may have a different weave pattern, or may lack pile or prints that are present on the rest of the fabric, requiring that the selvage fabric be cut off or hidden in a hem. Since industrial loomed fabric has selvages that are thicker than the rest of the fabric, the selvage reacts differently, it may shrink or "pucker" during laundering and cause the rest of the object made with it to pucker also. Thicker selvages are more difficult to sew through. Quilters tend to cut off the selvage right after washing the fabric and right before cutting it out and sewing it together.
For garments, the selvage can be used as a structural component as there is no need to turn under that edge to prevent fraying if a selvage is used instead. Using the selvage eliminates unnecessary work, thus the garment article can be made faster, the finished garment is less bulky and can be stitched by machine; this is of major benefit for the mass-produced ready-to-wear clothing of modern society. However, it is less used in homemade clothes because of the tendency of the selvage to pucker. Applying the term selvage to a hand-knitted object is still new. Most books on fabric define a selvage as the edge of a woven cloth. However, the term is coming into usage for hand-knitted objects; the edges of machine-knitted fabric on the other hand are if referred to as selvages. Selvages in knitting can either bear a special pattern worked into the first and last stitches or be the edge of the fabric; the two most common selvage stitches are the chain-edge selvage and the slipped-garter edge, both of which produce a nice edge.
The chain-edge selvage is made by alternating rows of slipping th
Beverly Hills Post Office
Beverly Hills Post Office is the name given to a section of Los Angeles, that lies within the 90210 ZIP code, assigned to the Beverly Hills Post Office. Los Angeles mailing addresses with the ZIP code 90210 are written as "Beverly Hills, CA 90210", though the properties themselves lie outside of the Beverly Hills city limits; the identification of the section with Beverly Hills did not begin until the 1960s. "When Beverly Hills was incorporated in 1914, the northern border was a mile north of Sunset Boulevard, with the exception of Trousdale Estates. The remaining section stretching north to Mulholland Drive was left as part of the hills of Los Angeles, where it remained anonymous for decades." In 1963, the area was included within the 90210 ZIP Code, which covers the northern part of Beverly Hills. The ZIP Code 90210 is still handled by the Beverly Hills Main Post Office; the original Beverly Hills Main Post Office from 1934 to the 1990s still sits at 469 North Crescent Drive in the Beverly Hills Civic Center, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.
In 1990, 325 North Maple Street was rebuilt as the new Beverly Hills Main Post Office. Beverly Hills has other Post Offices in other ZIP Codes as well; as citizens of the city of Los Angeles, BHPO residents receive Los Angeles city services and vote in Los Angeles elections. This can cause problems with emergency response. For example, when actress Demi Moore needed an ambulance in January 2012, Beverly Hills and Los Angeles 9-1-1 operators used over two minutes to determine jurisdiction for her home. Public education is provided by the Los Angeles Unified School District as opposed to the Beverly Hills Unified School District, which serves students within Beverly Hills city limits; the western part of the Beverly Hills Post Office area is zoned to Warner Avenue Elementary School, while the eastern portion is zoned to West Hollywood Elementary School. All residents are zoned to University High School. 34°4′20.9″N 118°24′6.65″W
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th