A crumpet is a small griddle cake made from an unsweetened batter of water or milk and yeast, eaten in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, some areas of the Commonwealth. Crumpets are regionally known as pikelets, a name applied to a thinner, more pancake-like griddle cake: a type of the latter is referred to as a crumpet in Scotland. Crumpets have been variously described as originating in Wales or as part of the Anglo-Saxon diet, based on proposed etymologies of the word. In either case breads were commonly cooked on a griddle whererever bread ovens were not available; the bara-planc, or griddle bread, baked on an iron plate over a fire, was part of the everyday diet in Wales until the 19th century. Small, oval cakes baked in this manner were called picklets, a name used for the first recognisable crumpet-type recipe, published in 1769 by Elizabeth Raffald in The Experienced English Housekeeper; this name was derived from the Welsh bara pyglyd or "pitchy bread" shortened to pyglyd.
The early 17th century lexicographer Randle Cotgrave referred to "popelins, soft cakes of fine flour, &c. fashioned like our Welsh barrapycleds". The word spread to the West Midlands of England, where it became anglicised as pikelet, subsequently to Cheshire, Lancashire and other areas of the north; the word crumpet itself, of unclear origin, first appears in modern times. Alternatively, crumpet may be related to a type of pancake. An etymology from the French language term crompâte, meaning "a paste of fine flour baked" has been suggested. However, a correspondent to Manchester Notes and Queries, writing in 1883, claimed that the crampet, as it was locally known took its name from the metal ring or "cramp" used to retain the batter during cooking; the early crumpets were hard pancakes cooked on a griddle, rather than the soft and spongy crumpets of the Victorian era, which were made with yeast. From the 19th century a little bicarbonate of soda was usually added to the batter. In modern times, the mass production of crumpets by large commercial bakeries has eroded some regional differences.
As late as the 1950s Dorothy Hartley noted a wide degree of regional variation, identifying the small, spongy type of crumpet with the Midlands. Crumpets are distinguished from similar sized muffins by being made from a batter, rather than a dough. English crumpets are circular 8 centimetres in diameter and 2 centimetres thick, their shape comes from being restrained in the pan/griddle by a shallow ring. They have a characteristic flat top with many small pores and a spongy texture which allows the butter or other spread to permeate it. Crumpets may be cooked until ready to eat warm from the pan, but are left undercooked and toasted. While premade commercial versions are available in most supermarkets, freshly home-made crumpets are less heavy and doughy in texture, they are eaten with a spread of butter, or with other sweet or savoury toppings. While in some areas of the country the word pikelet is synonymous with the crumpet, in others it refers to a differing recipe. If differentiated from the crumpet, a pikelet is defined as containing no yeast as a raising agent and as being cooked without a ring, making it rather flatter or thinner than a crumpet, a thinner batter was used.
In Stoke-on-Trent, pikelets were once sold in the town's many oatcake shops. A 1932 recipe for Staffordshire pikelets specifies that they were made with flour and buttermilk, with bicarbonate of soda as a raising agent, suggests cooking them using bacon fat; the term pikelet is used in Australian and New Zealand cuisine for a flat cake, of the type that, in Scotland and North America, would be called a pancake and, in England, a Scotch pancake, girdle or griddle cake, or drop scone. A Scottish crumpet is broadly similar to the pikelet of parts of northern England, it is made from the same ingredients as a Scotch pancake, is about 180 millimetres diameter and 8 millimetres thick. It is available plain, or as a fruit crumpet with raisins baked in fried in a pan and served with a fried breakfast, it is sometimes served with butter and jam. The ingredients include a leavening agent baking powder, different proportions of eggs and milk which create a thin batter. Unlike a pancake, it is cooked to brown on one side only, resulting in a smooth darker side where it has been heated by the griddle lightly cooked on the other side which has holes where bubbles have risen to the surface during cooking.
This is the normal kind of crumpet in Scottish bakers' shops, tea rooms, cafés, though the English type of crumpet is always obtainable in supermarkets in addition to the Scottish kind. The South African version of the crumpet, a popular dessert and breakfast treat, is identical to the Scottish recipe. Description and recipe on history.uk at the Wayback Machine
Bannock is a variety of flat quick bread or any large, round article baked or cooked from grain. A bannock is cut into sections before serving; the word "bannock" comes from Scots English dialects. The Oxford English Dictionary states the term stems from panicium, a Latin word for "baked dough", or from panis, meaning bread, it was first referred to as "bannuc" in early glosses to the 8th century author Aldhelm, its first cited definition in 1562. Its historic use was in Ireland and Northern England; the Scottish poet Robert Burns mentions bannock in his Epistle to James Tennant of Glenconner, in reference to Alexander Tennant. The original bannocks were heavy, flat cakes of unleavened barley or oatmeal dough formed into a round or oval shape cooked on a griddle. In Scotland, before the 19th century, bannocks were cooked on a bannock stane, a large, rounded piece of sandstone, placed directly onto a fire, used as a cooking surface. Most modern bannocks are made with baking powder or baking soda as a leavening agent, giving them a light and airy texture.
There is a suggestion that bannock cakes played a pivotal role in the deciding of a person for human sacrifice during the late Iron Age in the discovery of Lindow Man. Bannock varieties can be named or differentiated according to various characteristics: the flour or meal from which they are made, whether they are leavened or not, whether they have certain special ingredients, how they are baked or cooked, the names of rituals or festivals in which they are used. Specially made bannocks were used in rituals marking the changing of the Gaelic seasons: St Bride's bannock for spring, Bealtaine bannock for summer, Lughnasadh or Lammas bannock for autumn harvests, Samhain bannock for winter. Other special bannocks include beremeal bannock, bride's bannock, cod liver bannock, cryin' bannock, fallaid bannock, fife bannock, Hogmanay bannock, Marymas bannock, mashlum bannock, Michaelmas bannock, pease bannock, Pitcaithly bannock, salt bannock, sautie bannock, Silverweed bannock, St Columba's bannock, teethin' bannock, Yetholm bannock, Yule bannock.
Manx bonnag comes from the same root form as bannock and is made using similar ingredients. In the north of England, bannocks are made using pastry rather than a bread dough. Selkirk bannock from Scotland is well-known and named after the town in the Scottish borders where it is traditionally made, it is a spongy, buttery variety, sometimes compared to a fruitcake, made from wheat flour and containing a large quantity of raisins. The first known maker of this variety was a baker named Robbie Douglas, who opened his shop in Selkirk in 1859; when Queen Victoria visited Sir Walter Scott's granddaughter at Abbotsford she is reputed to have taken her tea with a slice of Selkirk bannock, thus ensuring that its reputation was enshrined forever. Today, Selkirk bannocks are popular throughout Great Britain, can be found at most large supermarkets. Bannock, skaan, or Indian bread, is found throughout North American Native cuisine, including that of the Inuit of Canada and Alaska, other Alaska Natives, the First Nations of the rest of Canada, the Native Americans in the United States, the Métis.
A type of bannock, using available resources, such as flour made from maize, tree sap and leavening agents, may have been produced by indigenous North Americans prior to contact with outsiders, similar to modern cornbread. Some sources indicate that bannock was unknown in North America until the 1860s when it was created by the Navajo who were incarcerated at Fort Sumner, while others indicate that it came from a Scottish source. Evidence for the pre-contact history of bannock comes from the fact that most indigenous North American languages have a distinct word for bannock, such as Inuvialuk: muqpauraq rather than a borrowing or calque of the English or French words. Other languages do offer hints of European influence, for example Navajo: bááh dah díníilghaazhh "bread that bubbles", where "bááh" is a borrowing from Spanish: pan for flour and yeast bread, as opposed to the older Navajo: łeesʼáán which refers to maize bread cooked in hot ashes Likewise, Yup'ik alatiq comes from Russian: ола́дьи "pancakes, fritters".
As made by Indigenous North Americans, bannock is prepared with white or whole wheat flour, baking powder, sugar and water or milk, which are combined and kneaded fried in rendered fat, vegetable oil, or shortening, baked in an oven or cooked on a stick. Bannock is the most universal of dishes in the indigenous Canadian repertoire, is used in the Arctic, Sub-arctic, Pacific cultural areas. However, the modern recipes for bannock are influenced by the government rations that were distributed on Indian reserves in the late 19th century when access to country foods were restricted by the arrival of non-indigenous settlers; such rations included the staples of the European Canadian diet at that time: wheat flour, sugar and butter. These new ingredients helped indigenous people to survive the loss of access to country foods, are now thought of by some as a part of indigenous identity, as "Indian soul food". However, for others they are a reminder of the negative impacts of colonialism, are regarded as an imposition.
Balep korkun is a Tibetan bannock cooked on a frying pan. Damper Frybr
Quaker Oats Company
The Quaker Oats Company, known as Quaker, is an American food conglomerate based in Chicago. It has been owned by PepsiCo since 2001. Quaker Oats was founded in 1901 by the merger of four oat mills: The Quaker Mill Company of Ravenna, which held the trademark on the Quaker name and was acquired in 1901 by Henry Parsons Crowell, who bought the bankrupt Quaker Oat Mill Company in Ravenna, he held the key positions of general manager and chairman of the company from 1888 until late 1943. He was called the cereal tycoon, he donated more than 70% of his wealth to the Crowell Trust. A cereal mill in Cedar Rapids, Iowa owned by John Stuart, his son Robert Stuart, their partner George Douglas. American Oats and Barley Oatmeal Corporation. Formally known as "Good For Breakfast" instant oatmeal mix; the company expanded into numerous areas, including other breakfast cereals and other food and drink products, into unrelated fields such as toys. Quaker Oats in Cedar Rapids, was photographed during the 1930s by Theodor Horydczak, who documented the building and factory workers at the plant.
During World War II, the company, through its subsidiary the Q. O. Ordnance Company, operated the Cornhusker Ordnance Plant, which manufactured millions of pieces of various artillery munitions. In 1968, a plant was built in Illinois; this plant makes Aunt Jemima pancake mixes, Oat Squares, Life Cereals Quaker Oh's, Quisp, King Vitamin Natural Granola Cereals, Chewy granola bars, as well as Puffed Rice for use as an ingredient for other products in other plants. In 1969, Quaker acquired Fisher-Price, a toy company and spun it off in 1991. In the 1970s, the company financed the making of the film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory, obtaining in return a license to use a number of the product names mentioned in the movie for candy bars. In 1982 Quaker Oats purchased US Games, a company that created games for the Atari 2600, it went out of business after one year. That same year, Quaker Oats acquired Florida-based orange juice plant Ardmore Farms, which it would own until selling it to Country Pure Foods in 1998.
In 1983, Quaker bought Inc. makers of Van Camp's and Gatorade. Quaker sold it to Triarc in 1997 for $300 million. Triarc sold it to Cadbury Schweppes for $1.45 billion in September 2000. It was spun off in May 2008 to Dr Pepper Snapple Group. In 1996, Quaker spun off its frozen food business. In August 2001, Quaker was bought out by Pepsico; the major Canadian production facility for Quaker Oats is located in Ontario. The factory was first established as the American Cereal Company in 1902 on the shores of the Otonabee River during that city's period of industrialization. At the time, the city was known as "The Electric City" due to its hydropower resources, attracting many companies to the site to take advantage of this source; the Trent–Severn Waterway promised to provide an alternate shipping route from inland areas around the city, although it appears this was never used in practice. On 11 December 1916, the factory all but burned to the ground; when the smoke had settled, 23 people had died and Quaker was left with $2,000,000 in damages.
Quaker went on to rebuild the facility incorporating the few areas of the structure that were not destroyed by fire. When PepsiCo purchased Quaker Oats in 2001, many brands were consolidated from facilities around Canada to the Peterborough location—which assumed the new QTG moniker. Local production includes Quaker Oatmeal, Quaker Chewy bars, Cap'n Crunch cereal, Aunt Jemima instant pancake mixes and pancake syrups, Quaker Oat Bran and Corn Bran cereals, Gatorade sports drinks and the Propel fitness water sub-brand, Tropicana juices, various Frito-Lay snack products. Products are identified by the manufactured by address on the packaging; the Peterborough facility exports to the majority of Canada and limited portions of the United States. The Quaker plant sells cereal production byproducts to companies that use them to create fire logs and janks. Starting in 1902, the company's oatmeal boxes came with a coupon redeemable for the legal deed to a tiny lot in Milford, Connecticut; the lots, sometimes as small as 10 feet by 10 feet, were carved out of a 15-acre, never-built subdivision called "Liberty Park".
A small number of children residents living near Milford, redeemed their coupons for the free deeds and started paying the small property taxes on the "oatmeal lots". The developer of the prospective subdivision hoped the landowners would hire him to build homes on the lots, although several tracts would need to be combined before building could start; the legal deeds created a large amount of paperwork for town tax collectors, who couldn't find the property owners and received no tax revenue from them. In the mid-1970s, the town put an end to the oatmeal lots with a "general foreclosure" condemning nearly all of the property, now part of a BiC Corporation plant. In 1955, Quaker Oats again gave away land as part of a promotion, this one tied to the Sergeant Preston of the Yukon television show in the United States; the company offered in its Puffed Wheat and Puffed Rice cereal boxes genuine deeds to land in the Klondike. The Quaker Oats logo starting in 1877 had a figure of a Quaker man depicted full-length, sometimes holding a scroll with the word "Pure" written across it, resembl
Armour and Company
Armour & Company was an American company and was one of the five leading firms in the meat packing industry. It was founded in 1867, by the Armour brothers led by Philip Danforth Armour. By 1880, the company had become Chicago's most important business and had helped make Chicago and its Union Stock Yards the center of America's meatpacking industry. During the same period, its facility in Omaha, boomed, as well, making the city's meatpacking industry the largest in the nation by 1959. In connection with its meatpacking operations, the company ventured into pharmaceuticals and soap manufacturing, introducing Dial soap in 1948. Presently, the Armour food brands are split between refrigerated meat and canned shelf-stable meat products; the Armour pharmaceutical brand is owned by Forest Laboratories. Dial soap is now owned by Henkel. Armour and Company had its roots in Milwaukee, where in 1863 Philip D. Armour joined with John Plankinton, the founder of the Layton and Plankinton Packing Company in 1852 to establish Plankinton and Company.
Together, the partners expanded Plankinton's Milwaukee meat packing operation and established branches in Chicago and Kansas City and an exporting house in New York City. Armour and Plankinton dissolved their partnership in 1884 with the Milwaukee operation becoming the Cudahy Packing Company. In its early years, Armour sold every kind of consumer product made from animals: not only meats but glue, fertilizer, buttons and drugs made from slaughterhouse byproducts. Armour operated in an environment without labor unions, health inspections, or government regulation. Accidents were commonplace. Armour was notorious for the low pay, it fought unionization by banning known union activists and by breaking strikes in 1904 and 1921, employing African Americans and new immigrants as strikebreakers. The company did not become unionized until the late 1930s when the Meatpacking Union succeeded in creating an interracial industrial union as part of the Congress of Industrial Organizations. During the Spanish–American War, Armour sold 500,000 pounds of beef to the US Army.
An army inspector tested the meat two months and found that 751 cases contained rotten meat. This resulted in the food poisoning of thousands of soldiers. In the first decade of the 20th century, the young Dale Carnegie, representing the South Omaha sales region, became the company's highest-selling salesman, an experience he drew on in his best-selling book, How to Win Friends and Influence People. In the early 1920s, Armour encountered financial troubles and the Armour family sold its majority interest to financier Frederick H. Prince; the firm retained its position as one of the largest American firms through the Great Depression and the sharp increase in demand during World War II. During this period, it expanded its operations across the United States. In 1948, which had made soap for years as a byproduct of the meatpacking process, developed a deodorant soap by adding the germicidal agent AT-7 to soap; this limited body odor by reducing bacteria on the skin. The new soap was named Dial because of its 24-hour protection against the odor-causing bacteria.
Armour introduced the soap with a full-page advertisement using scented ink in the Chicago Tribune. During the 1950s, Dial became the best-selling deodorant soap in the US; the company adopted the slogan "Aren't you glad you use Dial? Don't you wish everybody did?" in 1953. In the 1960s, the Dial brand was expanded to include shaving creams; because of the popularity and strong sales of Dial brand, fueled by magazine and television advertising, Armour's consumer-products business was incorporated as Armour-Dial, Inc. by 1967. In 1958, William Wood-Prince, a cousin of Frederick H. Prince, became president of Armour and Company. In 1970, Armour and Company was acquired by Chicago-based bus company Greyhound Corporation after a hostile takeover attempt by General Host Corporation a year before. In 1971, Greyhound relocated Armour's headquarters from Chicago to Phoenix, Arizona, to a newly built $83-million building. Rock icon Stevie Nicks' father, Jess Nicks, a Greyhound executive, became president of Armour.
In 1978, Greyhound sold Armour Pharmaceuticals to Revlon. Revlon sold its drug unit in 1985 to Rorer. Forest Laboratories acquired the rights to the Armour Thyroid product from Rhone-Poulenc Rorer in 1991; the remaining assets of Armour Pharmaceuticals are now part of CSL Behring. Armour's Factor VIII product "Factorate" was reported as infecting thousands of hemophiliacs worldwide with HIV during the 1980s, there have been allegations that the firm suppressed evidence showing the product was defective; as a result, there have been lawsuits and criminal charges. Greyhound's rapid diversification and frequent unit restructurings led to erratic profitability. In 1981, John W. Teets was appointed chairman of Greyhound and he began selling unprofitable subsidiaries. After meatpackers struck at the Armour meat-packing plants in the early-1980s, Teets shut 29 plants and sold Armour Food Company to ConAgra in 1983 but kept the Armour Star canned meat business. Armour-Dial continued to manufacture the canned meat products using the Armour Star trademark under license from ConAgra.
In 1985, Greyhound acquired the household products business of Purex Industries, Inc. in 1985 and was combined with Armour-Dial to form The Dial Corporation. In late 1995, parent company Greyhound announced its intention to split the company and spin off the
Chalbori-ppang is a Korean confection, consisting of two small pancakes made with glutinous barley flour wrapped around a filling of red bean paste. The round, mildly sweet confection has a texture similar to that of a glutinous sponge cake. Chalbori-ppang, first made and sold in 2003 at a bakery named Danseokga in Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang Province, is now a local specialty, it utilizes the glutinous barley harvested in fields under Danseoksan, pesticide-free as barley grows in cold winter months during which pests and weeds cannot flourish. Hwangnam-ppang
Bindae-tteok, or mung bean pancake, is a type of buchimgae that originated in the Pyongan Province. It is made by grinding soaked mung beans, adding vegetables and meat and pan-frying it into a round, flat shape. Bindae-tteok first appears under the name binja in the Guidebook of Homemade Food and Drinks, a 1670 cookbook written by Jang Gye-hyang; the word appears to be derived from bingjya, the Middle Korean transcription of the Chinese word 餠, whose first character is pronounced bǐng in Chinese and means "round and flat pancake-like food". The pronunciation and the meaning of the second letter are unknown. Tteok means a boiled, or pan-fried cake. During the Joseon era, richer households would dispense bindae-tteok to poorer people gathered outside the South Great Gate of Seoul during times of hardship. Bindae-tteok is made with the mung bean batter with a filling made of bracken, mung bean sprouts, baechu-kimchi. To make the filling for bindae-tteok, soaked bracken is cut into short pieces, mixed with ground pork, seasoned with soy sauce, chopped scallions, minced garlic, ground black pepper, sesame oil.
Mung bean sprouts are washed, cut into short pieces and seasoned with salt and sesame oil. Kimchi is unstuffed and squeezed to remove its fillings and excess juice cut into small pieces; the ingredients are mixed. Washed and husked mung beans are ground with water and seasoned with salt to make the batter; the mung bean batter is ladled on a hot frying pan greased with a considerable amount of cooking oil, topped with the filling, followed by another layer of the batter poured over the top of the filling. The bindae-tteok is topped with pieces of diagonally sliced green and red chili pepper; the pancakes are pan-fried on both sides, served with a dipping sauce consisting of soy sauce, vinegar and ground pine nuts. Pesarattu
A blini or, blin, is a Russian and Ukrainian pancake traditionally made from wheat or buckwheat flour and served with smetana, butter and other garnishes. Its roots trace back to ancient Slavic rituals, they are known as blintzes, crepes or palatschinke. Some English dictionaries record usage of the forms blin as singular and blini or bliny as plural, which correspond to the Russian forms, but other dictionaries consider this usage so rare in English that they do not mention blin at all and only record the widespread modern regular usage of blini for the singular and blinis for the plural; some cookbooks and restaurants use blintchick as in Russian to refer to crêpes. Blintzes are an offshoot of blini, they are thin pancakes made of wheat flour, folded to form a casing and sautéed or baked. Blini are among the most most-eaten dishes in Russia; the Old Slavic term for the Russian pancakes was mlinъ, which transformed in Old Russian into mlinŭ, blinŭ. While the Russian word блины́ bliný refers in modern Russian to the introduced outlandish pancakes in general, meanwhile the term Ру́сские блины́ Rússkiye bliný is emphasized in Russia for differentiation.
Blini are so involved in Russian culture that the word blin is used as a linguistic signal in communications. It is used when a person talks to others and is searching for the right words, or to express his dissatisfaction. Blini were considered by early East Slavic people in pre-Christian times to be a symbol of the sun, due to their round form, they were traditionally prepared at the end of winter to honor the rebirth of the new sun. This tradition is carried on to the present day. Drochena, a kind of blini, was served at wakes to commemorate the deceased. Traditional Russian blini are made with yeasted batter, left to rise and diluted with milk, soured milk, cold or boiling water; when diluted with boiling water, they are referred to as zavarniye bliny. A lighter and thinner form made from unyeasted batter, is common in Russia. Traditionally, blini are baked in a Russian oven; the process of preparing blini is still referred to as baking in Russian though they are nowadays pan-fried, like pancakes.
All kinds of flour may be used, from wheat and buckwheat to oatmeal and millet, although wheat is the most popular. Blini were popularized in the United States by Eastern European Jewish immigrants who used them in Jewish cuisine. While not part of any specific religious rite in Judaism, blini stuffed with a cheese filling and fried in oil are served on holidays such as Chanukah and Shavuot. Blini and blinchiki are ordinarily stuffed before being fried a second time, wrapped around stuffing and eaten without refrying, or folded and eaten with a dip. Fillings include chocolate, meat, mashed potatoes and cheese. Blini or as they are known in are a popular dish around the entirety of the country, the simplicity of making the thin pancakes as well as the basic ingredients yet favourable taste have led to the popularity of the dish. Mlyntsi have been eaten in Ukraine since pre-Christian times. Mlyntsi tend to be served in Ukraine with sour cream as well as with caviar, they can be served as a sweet dish by serving them alongside a fruit preserve or a sweet cream.
The thin pancakes can be stuffed with cottage cheese, chopped boiled eggs, mixed green onions, stewed cabbage, minced meat, mashed beans, mushrooms and berries and raisins. However upon being stuffed the dish acquires a new title, a fundamental dish of Ukrainian cuisine, served all around the country with a number of regional varieties, for example the Chernihiv style nalysnyky are marked by their mushroom and cabbage filling; the most popular form of nalysnyky served in Ukraine is those stuffed with cottage cheese and served with sour cream. Nalysnyky as well as mlyntsi are served for special occasions such as Masnytsya, a pagan Ukranian/Slavic festival that celebrates the end of winter and the arrival of spring, the pancakes play a prominent role in the festivities with the round yellow pancake most symbolising the sun. Nalysnyky can be formed out of mylntsi in a number of different shapes including; some recipes call for the stuffed mlyntsi to be cooked in an oven. Some ways that blini are prepared and served include the following: Blini made from batter containing various additions such as grated potato or apple and raisins.
Such blini are quite common in Eastern Europe and are more solidly filled than the spongy pancakes eaten in North America. Blini covered with sour cream, varenie or jam, honey or caviar, they may be folded or rolled into a tube with sweet or salty fillings such as varenye, berry, mashed potatoes, cooked ground meat, cooked chicken, chopped boiled eggs with green onions or chopped mushrooms. Blini made by pourin